The use of low-cost (<200 USD) soil moisture sensors in crop production systems has the potential to give inference on plant water status and therein drive irrigation events. However, commercially available sensors in this price range vary in sensing methodologies and limited information on sensor to sensor relationship is available. The objective of this research was to test the response of the Watermark 200SS and Decagon 10HS sensors to changes in water content of three dissimilar soils representing common soils in Arkansas row-crop production in nine plastic, 19 L containers under variable environmental conditions. Both sensors were influenced by changes in soil temperature but the magnitudes of the temperature responses were small relative to the moisture responses. Furthermore, the 10HS sensor did not indicate a significant impact of soil texture on estimated volumetric water contents (VWCs). The small sphere of influence on the tested soil moisture parameters coupled with the substantial evaporative demands and temperatures under which this experiment was conducted resulted in suspected non-uniform drying and wetting of the tested containers. Subsequently, non-linear relationships were noted between 10HS estimated VWCs and actual container VWCs and the 200SS predicted lower water potentials than calculated by converting container VWC to soil water potential. The failure of the sensors to accurately predict container VWC highlights the importance of understanding the relatively small quantity of soil on which these sensors rely as well as the potential variability in soil moisture within a very limited volume. The authors caution users of sensors that soil variability may be one of the most important considerations in sensor deployment.
At this stage, China society in conflict-prone period, the network group events developed rapidly. Network group events had a significant impact on society. The trend which the online group event evolved into the offline group incidents is becoming evident. In this paper, we used grounded theory to study the evolution and the development process of network group events under the micro-blog platform. We present an evolution mechanism model of network group event under micro-blog platform and find the formation mechanism of the network of public opinion, intrinsic motivation and the evolution of the network group events.
Group testing is a method of pooling a number of units together and performing a single test on the resulting group. It is an appealing option when few individual units are thought to be infected leading to reduced costs of testing as compared to individually testing the units. Group testing aims to identify the positive groups in all the groups tested or to estimate the proportion of positives (p) in a population. Interval estimation methods of the proportions in group testing for unequal group sizes adjusted for overdispersion have been examined. Lately improvement in statistical methods allows the construction of highly accurate confidence intervals (CIs). The aim here is to apply group testing for estimation and generate highly accurate Bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for the proportion of defective or positive units in particular. This study provided a comparison of several proven methods of constructing CIs for a binomial proportion after adjusting for overdispersion in group testing with groups of unequal sizes. Bootstrap resampling was applied on data simulated from binomial distribution, and confidence intervals with high coverage probabilities were produced. This data was assumed to be overdispersed and independent between groups but correlated within these groups. Interval estimation methods based on the Wald, the Logit and Complementary log-log (CLL) functions were considered. The criterion used in the comparisons is mainly the coverage probabilities attained by nominal 95% CIs, though interval width is also regarded. Bootstrapping produced CIs with high coverage probabilities for each of the three interval methods.
The research in the area of automated negotiation systems is going on in many universities. This research is mainly focused on making a practically feasible, faster and reliable E-negotiation system. The ongoing work in this area is happening in the laboratories of the universities mainly for training and research purpose. There are number of negotiation systems such as Henry, Kasbaah, Bazaar, Auction Bot, Inspire, and Magnet. Our research is based on making an agent software for E-negotiation which will give faster results and also is secure and flexible. The negotiation partners and contents between the service providers change frequently. The negotiation process can be transformed into rules and cases. Using these features, a new automated negotiation model for agent integrating rule based and case based reasoning can be derived. We propose an E-negotiation system, in which all product information and multiple agent details are stored on the cloud. An E-negotiation agent acts as a negotiator. Agent has user’s details and their requirements for a particular product. It will check rules based data whether any rule is matching with the user requirement. An agent will see case based data to check any similar negotiation case matching to the user requirement. If a case matches with user requirement, then agent will start the negotiation process using case based data. If any rule related requirement is found in the rule base data, then agent will start the negotiation process using rule based data. If both rules based data and cases based data are not matching with the user requirement, then agent will start the negotiation process using Bilateral Negotiation model. After completing negotiation process, agent gives feedback to the user about whether negotiation is successful or not. The product details, rule based data, and case based data will be stored on the cloud. So that system automatically becomes flexible. We also compare E-negotiation agent automated negotiation and behavior prediction system to prove that using rule based and case based approaches system should become fast.
In the railway application, in order to establish the communication between wagons, some technologies are proposed such as the ZigBee and HTN (Hybrid Networking Technology). However, these techniques have some limitations such as: the low data rate, non-secured transmission and interferences. The Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology presents a good alternative and a good candidate for this application. In recent years, UWB communication systems have received significant attention from both the industry and the academia. In February 2002, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) allocated 7500 MHz of spectrum (from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz) for use by UWB devices. This ruling has helped to create new standardization efforts, like IEEE 802.15.3a, which focus on developing high speed wireless communication systems. The application of the UWB radio technique in the transport is a more recent topic that is thoroughly researched considering several factors including the nature of the transport propagation environment; the use of adequate transmitting/receiving duty cycle (LDC); the number of devices using UWB technology, the types and levels of interferences. Regulation bodies have considered these railway applications. Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) systems have been studied for their inherent advantages of coexistence with narrowband systems with high data rate over short distances with sufficiently small amount of transmitted power. The UWB systems are highly susceptible to interference between the coexisting narrowband systems because of very low transmission power. This paper considers the use of the UWB radio technology for railway application. In this paper, we evaluate the communication performance in constrained environment for the railway application.
An efficient in vitro method for rapid vegetative propagation of Bienertia sinuspersici, one of four terrestrial species of family Chenopodiaceae capable of performing C4 photosynthesis within a single cell, was developed. Cuttings of B. sinuspersici were used to examine the effects of Murashige and Skoog (MS) media strength and auxins on adventitious root formation. Half-strength MS medium was determined to be ideal for adventitious root formation in Bienertia cuttings. Although cuttings cultured in medium containing 5.0 mg/L α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) promoted the highest number of adventitious roots, cuttings cultured in medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) produced the longest adventitious roots and had the highest survival rate upon transplanting to soil. Histological analysis revealed variations in the root anatomy generated by the various auxins which may affect adventitious root formation and subsequent establishment of cuttings in soil. Overall, the established procedure provides a simple and cost-effective means for the rapid propagation of the single-cell C4 species B. sinuspersici.
Objective: Use of an epidural self-blood patch (EBP) is the most effective form of therapy for patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia. However, even if the symptoms are resolved, other clinical aspects of this condition frequently prevent patients resuming social activity. In the present study, we investigated the clinical course of patients with CSF hypovolemia after treatment with an EBP to assess the factors affecting return to work or school, and considered the treatment of patients with progressive chronic subdural hematoma. Patients and Results: We investigated a group of 10 patients with CSF hypovolemia. After initial application of an EBP, 8 of these patients were completely relieved of postural headache and associated symptoms, and the other 2 recovered after a second application. However, 3 patients who had cervical spondylosis or psychosis were still unable to return to work or school. Two patients who were forced to retire have potential for rehabilitation after EBP. One patient has recovered from the illness, but could not return to school due to persistent medical history of psychosis. These patients had suffered symptoms for a long period before EBP (mean, 17.8 months; range 7 months to 3 years) relative to those who were able to resume social activity (mean, 2.0 months; range 7 days to 5 months) (P < 0.05). Three had progressive bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. One of these patients required emergency burr-hole drainage to resolve the neurological deterioration. Conclusions: Both physicians and patients need to be aware of CSF hypovolemia, and the fact that it requires appropriate treatment without delay. While application of an EBP is a fundamentally important therapy even for patients with hematoma, careful follow-up is required for patients showing marked neurological deterioration or an increasing hematoma volume with a brain midline shift, and burr-hole drainage must sometimes be considered in combination with EBP.