Colostrum contains substantially higher concentrations of immunoglobulins (Igs) when compared with serum or milk, which may improve the diagnostic sensitivity of an antibody ELISA when using colostrum. In this study, BVD was used as a model to identify the performance characteristics of colostrum and to assess the potential for increased ELISA sensitivity when compared with serum. Blood and colostrum samples were collected from cows within two dairy cattle herds: a previously infected and BVD-vaccinated Holstein-Friesian (positive herd) herd, and a bulk-tank milk antibody negative (negative herd) Jersey herd. All samples were tested using a commercial BVDV antibody ELISA. Median sample-to-positive (S/P) colostrum ratios were significantly higher than their respective serum counterparts, and positive herd S/P ratios were significantly higher than the respective negative herd values (P < 0.001). Using the manufacturer’s recommended serum dilution (1:5) and colostrum dilution (undiluted), and a cut-off threshold S/P ratio of 0.2, diagnostic sensitivity (DSe) and diagnostic specificity (DSp) for colostrum were 100% and 70%, respectively. These values increased to 100% DSe and 100% DSp with an increase in cut-off threshold S/P to 0.5. At a sample dilution of 1:100, the DSe of colostrum was 90% and significantly higher compared with serum (DSe 17%). Colostrum has the potential to improve identification of previously infected animals, either individually, or when using pooled samples.
Cite this paper
|||Beer, A., Billingham, R. and Head, J. (1974) The Immunologic Significance of the Mammary Gland. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 63, 65-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1523-1747.ep12678092|
|||Baumrucker, C.R., Burkett, A.M., Magliaro-Macrina, A.L. and Dechow, C.D. (2010) Colostrogenesis: Mass Transfer of Immunoglobulin G1 into Colostrum. Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 3031-3038.
|||Houe, H. (2003) Economic Impact of BVDV Infection in Dairies. Biologicals, 31, 137-143.
|||Gunn, G., Stott, A. and Humphry, R. (2004) Modelling and Costing BVD Outbreaks in Beef Herds. Veterinary Journal, 235, 1171-1179.|
|||McGowan, M. and Kirkland, P. (1995) Early Reproductive Loss Due to Bovine Pestivirus Infection. British Veterinary Journal, 151, 263-270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1935(95)80176-6|
|||Brownlie, J., Hooper, L., Thompson, I. and Collins, M. (1998) Maternal Recognition of Foetal Infection with Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)—The Bovine Pestivirus. Clinical Diagnostic Virology, 10, 141-150.
|||Beaudeau, F., Belloc, C. and Seegers, H. (2001) Evaluation of a Blocking ELISA for the Detection of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) Antibodies in Serum and Milk. Veterinary Microbiology, 80, 329-337.
|||Durham, P. and Hassard, L. (1990) An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Antibodies to Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus. Veterinary Microbiology, 22, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-1135(90)90118-F|
|||Gonzalez, A., Arnaiz, I. and Yus, E. (2014) Evaluation of Long-Term Antibody Responses to Two Inactivated Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) Vaccines. Veterinary Journal, 199, 424-428.
|||Lanyon, S.R., Anderson, M.L., Bergman, E. and Reichel, M.P. (2013) Validation and Evaluation of a Commercially Available ELISA for the Detection of Antibodies Specific to Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (Bovine Pestivirus). Australian Veterinary Journal, 91, 52-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.2012.01010.x|
|||Thobokwe, G., Heuer, C. and Hayes, D. (2004) Validation of a Bulk Milk Tank Milk Antibody ELISA to Detect Dairy Herds Likely Infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 52, 394- 400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2004.36457|
|||Humphry, R., Brulisauer, F., McKendrick, I., Nettleton, P.F. and Gunn, G.J. (2012) Prevalence of Antibodies to Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus in Bulk Tank Milk and Associated Risk Factors in Scottish Dairy Herds. Veterinary Record, 171, 445-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.100542|
|||Weir, A., Heuer, C., McDougall, S. and Voges, H. (2013) Use of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detecting Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Antibodies in Individual Cow Milk Samples. New Zealand Veterinary Journal, 61, 305-309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2012.757729|
|||Jenvey, C., Reichel, M. and Cockcroft, P.D. (2014) Investigation of the Comparative Sensitivity of Serum, Colostrum and Whey for Detection of Specific Antibodies in Sheep Vaccinated against Johne’s Disease. Small Ruminant Research, 123, 193-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2014.10.006|
|||Saah, A. and Hoover, D. (1997) “Sensitivity” and “Specificity” Reconsidered: The Meaning of These Terms in Analytical and Diagnostic Settings. Annals of Internal Medicine, 126, 91-94.
|||Lanyon, S., McCoy, R., Bergman, E. and Reichel, M. (2014) Milk as a Diagnostic Sample for a Commercially Available ELISA to Identify Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) Antibodies in Dairy Herds. Australian Veterinary Journal, 92, 269-273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/avj.12188|
|||Zervens, L., Nielsen, S. and Jungersen, G. (2013) Characterisation of an ELISA Detecting Immunoglobulin G to Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis in Bovine Colostrum. Veterinary Journal, 197, 889-891.