The Role of Antioxidant Vitamin C on Imminent Abortion through Interaction of Superoxide Dismutase, Interferon-γ, Interleukin-4, Vascular Cells Adhesion Molecule-1, and Decidual Spiral Arteries Blood Flow

Read  full  paper  at:http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=54064#.VOBb0izQrzE

Imminent abortion needs more serious attention since it remains a big problem in Indonesia considering its epidemiology, morbidity, mortality, and prognosis. In fact, some cases can still be prevented. The objective of this study was to determine pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis of imminent abortion through the role of antioxidant vitamin C in the interaction of superoxide dismutase (SOD), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), vascular cells adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and decidual spiral artery resistance index (DSA RI). This study took 10 months from March to December 2007 at Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Medical Faculty of Padjadjaran University/Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung. Sixty pregnant women who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into two groups with the random clinical trial method, double-blind with repeated measurements. Data were analyzed statistically using t test, Mann-Whitney, Rank Spearman, Wilcoxon, t paired, and diagnostic test. The results of this study showed that the incidence of abortion in vitamin C group was 9 cases (30%) and placebo group was 13 cases (43.3%). There was a significant difference in SOD, IFN-γ, IL-4 and VCAM-1 level between groups of women with and without abortion (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference of SOD level between women with abortion 655.8 (163.6) U/gHb and placebo group 824.5 (106.7) U/gHb after vitamin C administration (p = 0.008). The cutoff point of SOD was £992 U/gHbwhich showed quite high sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and significant difference (p < 0.001). The cutoff point abortion of DSA resistance index was ≥0.55 with 45% accuracy (p = 0.002). The highest change of IL-4 level was 60.7% in vitamin C group and VCAM-1 was -2.2% (p < 0.05) after vitamin C administration. There was a negative correlation in SOD changes toward IL-4 changes after vitamin C administration (r = -0.523) (p = 0.003), a positive correlation between SOD changes and IL-4 changes (0.597) (p < 0.001), a negative correlation between SOD changes and VCAM-1 changes (r = -0.737) (p < 0.001) and a negative correlation between SOD changes and DSA RI changes (r = -0.208) (p = 0.022). There were significant changes in the increment of IL-4 and SOD level (p < 0.001) and a decline in IFN-γ, VCAM-1 and DSA RI (p < 0.001) before and after vitamin C administration. In conclusion, there was a correlation between the increase of SOD level with the decrease of INF-γ level and the increase of IL-4 level in imminent abortion after vitamin C administration. There was a correlation between the increase of SOD level with the decrease of DSA RI and the decrease of VCAM-1 level in imminent abortion after vitamin C administration. In abortion, there was a decrease of SOD and IL-4 level, as well as an increase of IFN-γ, VCAM-1, and DSA RI level.

KEYWORDS

Imminent Abortion, SOD, VCAM-1, IFN-γ, IL-4, DSA RI

Cite this paper

Handono, B. , Wirakusumah, F. , Mose, J. and Achmad, T. (2015) The Role of Antioxidant Vitamin C on Imminent Abortion through Interaction of Superoxide Dismutase, Interferon-γ, Interleukin-4, Vascular Cells Adhesion Molecule-1, and Decidual Spiral Arteries Blood Flow. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5, 103-114. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2015.52014.

References

[1] Cunningham, F.G., Leveno, K.J., Bloom, S.L., Hauth, J.C., Gilstrap III, L.C. and Wenstrom, K.D. (2005) Williams Obstetrics. 22nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York.
[2] Jenkins, C., Wilson, R., Roberts, J., Miller, H., McKillop, J.H. and Walker, J.J. (2000) Antioxidants: Their Role in Pregnancy and Miscarriage. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 24, 623-628.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/15230860050192369
[3] Wilson, R. (2004) Antioxidants and Miscarriage. In: Wilson, W., Ed., Recurrent Abortus and Preeclampsia the Roles Played by the Immune System and Antioxidants, World Scientific, New Jersey, 83-101.
[4] Kupesic, S., Matijevic, R. and Kurjak, A. (2001) Early Pregnancy Loss. In: Kurjak, A.C. and Carrera, J.M., Eds., The Embryo as a Patient, The Parthenon Publishing Group, New York, 70-80.
[5] Wilson, R., Ling, H., MacLean, M.A., et al. (1999) Thyroid Antibody Titre and Avidity in Patients with Recurrent Miscarriage. Fertility and Sterility, 71, 558-561.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0015-0282(98)00509-3
[6] Vural, P, Akgul, C., Yildirim, A. and Canbaz, M. (2000) Antioxidant Defence in Recurrent Abortion. Clinica Chimica Acta, 295, 169-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-8981(99)00255-7
[7] Kurjak, A. and Kupesic, S. (1999) Blood Flow Studies in Early Pregnancy. In: Kurjak, A.K.S., Ed., Color Doppler in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility, Art-Studio Azinovic-Medison, Zagreb-Seoul, 87-108.
[8] Vives, A., Balasch, J., Yague, J., Quinto, L., Ordi, J. and Vanrell, J.A. (1999) Type-1 and Type-2 Cytokines and Human Decidual Tissue and Trophoblasts from Normal and Abnormal Pregnancies Detected by Reverse Trancriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 42, 361-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.1999.tb00113.x
[9] Jaffe, R. (1992) Color Doppler Imaging in Obstetrics and Gynecology. McGraw-Hill, New York.
[10] Narimoto, K., Noda, Y. and Shiotani, M. (1990) Immunohistochemical Assessment of Superoxide Dismutase Expression in the Human Endometrium throughout the Menstrual Cycle. Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica, 23, 487-498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1267/ahc.23.487
[11] Sugino, N., Nakamura, Y. and Takeda, O. (1995) Change in Activities of Superoxide Dismutase and Lipid Peroxide in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Rats. Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, 97, 347-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/jrf.0.0970347
[12] Sugino, N., Telleria, C.M. and Gibori, G. (1998) Differential Regulation of Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase and Manganese Superoxide Dismutase in the Rat Corpus Luteum: Induction of Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Messenger Ribonucleic Acid by Inflamatory Cytokines. Biology of Reproduction, 59, 208-215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod59.1.208
[13] Sugino, N., Shimamura, K. and Takiguchi, S. (1996) Changes in Activity of Superoxide Dismutase in the Human Endometrium throughout the Menstrual Cycle and in Early Pregnancy. Human Reproduction, 11, 1073-1078. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.humrep.a019299
[14] Wilson, R., Moore, J. and Jenkin, C. (2003) Abnormal IL-2 Receptor Levels in Non Pregnant Women with a History of Recurrent Miscarriage. Human Reproduction, 18, 1529-1530.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deg287                                   eww150215lx
Advertisements

One thought on “The Role of Antioxidant Vitamin C on Imminent Abortion through Interaction of Superoxide Dismutase, Interferon-γ, Interleukin-4, Vascular Cells Adhesion Molecule-1, and Decidual Spiral Arteries Blood Flow

  1. Robert/Nick: Many thanksfeedback. Outlined on our site be interested to check on regarding just about any benefits for your SEARCH ENGINE OPTIMIZATION campaigns once this is certainly integrated.

发表评论

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / 更改 )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / 更改 )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / 更改 )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / 更改 )

Connecting to %s