Cue Competition between Animacy and Word Order: Acquisition of Chinese Notional Passives by L2 Learners

Read  full  paper  at:http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=56060#.VUHNVdKqpBc

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Based on the Competition Model (Bates & MacWhinney, 1978; MacWhinney, 2005; MacWhinney, 2012), the present study investigates L2 cue strategies in the acquisition of Chinese notional passives by English-speaking and Japanese-speaking learners. Two experiments were conducted to examine both the comprehension and production of Chinese notional passives. The main findings included: 1) L2 learners’ acceptability of notional passive increased with improved Chinese proficiency but even advanced learners showed significant difference from Chinese native speakers; 2) L2 learners produced more notional passive sentences than bei-passive sentences and advanced learners showed no difference from Chinese native speakers; 3) Cross-linguistic influence seemed to affect L2 learners’ comprehension and production of Chinese notional passives. The results support the universality of animacy cue proposed by Gass (1987) but also suggest that word order and pragmatic factors may affect L2 learners’ cue strategies. The study also evidences the contribution of the input to the development of L2 cue strategies, which is in line with the predictions of the Competition Model.

Cite this paper

Wang, J. and Xu, C. (2015) Cue Competition between Animacy and Word Order: Acquisition of Chinese Notional Passives by L2 Learners. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 5, 213-224. doi: 10.4236/ojml.2015.52017.

References

[1] Bates, E., & MacWhinney, B. (1978). Competition, Variation and Language Learning. In B. MacWhinney (Ed.), Mechanisms of Language Acquisition (pp. 157-194). Hillsdale, NJ: Erbaum.
[2] Bates, E., & MacWhinney, B. (1981). Second Language Acquisition from a Functionalist Perspective: Pragmatic, Semantic, and Perceptual Strategies. In H. Winitz (Ed.), Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Conference on Native and Foreign Language Acquisition (pp. 190-214). New York: New York Academy Press.
[3] Bates, E. A., & MacWhinney, B. (1989). Functionalism and the Competition Model. In B. MacWhinney, & E. Bates (Eds.), The Cross Linguistic Study of Sentence Processing (pp. 3-76). New York: CUP.
[4] Chao, Y.-R. (1968). A Grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.
[5] Feng, J. (2011). Analysis of the Issue of Generalization in the Acquisition of Chinese Notional Passive by English Native Speakers. Journal of Language and Literature Studies, 4, 163-164.
[6] Gass, S. M. (1987). The Resolution of Conflicts among Competing Systems: A Bidirectional Perspective. Applied Psycholinguistics, 8, 329-350.
[7] Gibson, E. (1992). On the Adequacy of the Competition Model. Language, 68, 812-830.
[8] Harrington, M. (1987). Processing Transfer: Language-Specific Processing Strategies as a Source of Interlanguage Variation. Applied Psycholinguistics, 8, 351-377.
[9] Hernandez, A. E., Bates, E. A., & Avila, L. X. (1994). On-Line Sentence Interpretation in Spanish-English Bilinguals: What Does It Mean to Be “In Between”? Applied Psycholinguistics, 15, 417-446.
[10] Huang, C. T. J. (1999). Chinese Passives in Comparative Perspective. Tsinghua Journal of Chinese Studies, 29, 423-509.
[11] Huang, Y., Yang, S., Gao, L., & Cui, X. (2007). The L2 Acquisition of the Chinese Bèi-Construction. Chinese Teaching in the World, 80, 76-90.
[12] Li, D. (1996). Waiguoren xuehanyu yufa pianwu fenxi (Error Analysis of the Grammar of Foreigners Learning Chinese). Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.
[13] Liu, H., Bates, E., & Li, P. (1992). Sentence Interpretation in Bilingual Speakers of English and Chinese. Applied Psycholinguistics, 13, 451-484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400005762
[14] Lu, J. M. (2004). Some Issues of Passive Sentences of Mandarin Chinese. Chinese Linguistics, 8, 9-15.
[15] MacWhinney, B. (2005). Extending the Competition Model. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9, 69-84.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13670069050090010501
[16] MacWhinney, B. (2002). The Competition Model: The Input, the Context, and the Brain. Pittsburgh: Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Paper 219.
http://repository.cmu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1214&context=psychology
[17] MacWhinney, B. (2012). The Logic of the Unified Model. In Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 211-227). London: Routledge.
[18] MacWhinney, B. (2008). A Unified Model. In N. C. Ellis, & P. Robinson (Eds.), Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 341-372). New York: Erlbaum.
[19] MacWhinney, B., & Bates, E. (1994). The Competition Model and UG. Pittsburgh, PA: Department of Psychology, Research Showcase at Carnegie Mellon University.
[20] McDonald, J. L., & Heilenman, L. K. (1991). Determinants of Cue Strength in Adult First and Second Language Speakers of French. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 313-348.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400009255
[21] McLaughlin, B., & Harrington, M. (1989). Second-Language Acquisition. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 10, 122- 134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0267190500001240
[22] Morett, L. M., & MacWhinney, B. (2013). Syntactic Transfer in English-Speaking Spanish Learners. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 132-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1366728912000107
[23] Qu, C. X. (2006). Chinese Discourse Grammar. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.
[24] Sasaki, Y. (1991). English and Japanese Interlanguage Comprehension Strategies: An Analysis Based on the Competition Model. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 47-73.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0142716400009371
[25] Seino, T., & Tanaka, S. (2006). The “Passive” Voice in Japanese and German: Argument Reduction versus Argument Extension. Linguistics, 44, 319-342.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/LING.2006.012
[26] Song, W. H., Luo, Z. J., & Yu, J. C. (2007). A Quantitative Analysis of the Occurrence Ratio of Agent in Contemporary Chinese Passive Constructions. Studies of the Chinese Language, 02, 113-124.
[27] Su, I. R. (2001). Transfer of Sentence Processing Strategies: A Comparison of L2 Learners of Chinese and English. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 83-112.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0142716401001059
[28] Wu, M. J., & Zhou, X. B. (2005). The Comparison of Learning Difficulty on Chinese Bei-Sentence and Passive Sentence in Meaning. Chinese Language Learning, 01, 62-65.
[29] Xiao, R., McEnery, T., & Qian, Y. (2006). Passive Constructions in English and Chinese: A Corpus-Based Contrastive Study. Languages in Contrast, 6, 109-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/lic.6.1.05xia
[30] Wang, Z. L. (2006). Xiandai hanyu beidong biaoshu litihua yanjiu (A Comprehensive Study on Chinese Passive). Dalian: Liaoning Normal University Press.
Advertisements

发表评论

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / 更改 )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / 更改 )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / 更改 )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / 更改 )

Connecting to %s