Background: Perioperative exacerbation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance is associated with increased complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. We recently reported that glucose load during anesthesia with sevoflurane suppressed lipid catabolism in diabetic patients. In contrast to inhaled anesthetics, propofol solution contains triglycerides, which can be an energy source during surgery. However, the clinical relevance of glucose load under propofol-based anesthesia in diabetic patients is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of intraoperative glucose load on catabolism during propofol-based anesthesia in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Twenty-three patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing elective surgery with propofol-remifentanil-based anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive a glucose load (1.5 mg/kg/ min) or not. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cortisol, catecholamines, acetoacetic acid, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and 3-methylhistidine/creatinine, used as a marker for protein catabolism, were measured at the start of surgery and 3 h later. Results: Glucose and insulin levels were significantly higher in patients who received a glucose load than in those who did not. Nonetheless, the levels of cortisol and catecholamines were unchanged during surgery. Similarly, the difference in the levels of markers for lipid as well as protein catabolism was not significant between the groups at 3 h after the start of surgery. Conclusions: Changes in lipid as well as protein catabolism were not altered by glucose load in diabetic patients under propofol-based anesthesia with remifentanil. Our study suggested that continuous infusion of propofol at a clinical dose is sufficient to reduce the requirement for glucose infusion during surgery in patients with diabetes.