The purpose of this study was to assess usefulness of local binary patterns (LBP) and related texture features, namely completed local binary patterns (CLBP) and local ternary patterns (LTP), for the classification of emphysema subtypes on low-dose CT images. Fifty patients (34 men and 16 women; age, 67.5 ± 10.1 years) who underwent low-dose CT (60 mAs) were included. They were comprised of 17 never smokers, 13 smokers without COPD, and 20 smokers with COPD. By consensus reading of low-dose CT images from these patients, two radiologists selected 3681 nonoverlapping regions of interest (ROIs) and annotated them as one of the following three classes: normal tissue, centrilobular emphysema, and paraseptal emphysema. From these ROIs, histogram of CT densities, LBP, CLBP, and LTP were calculated, and the 3 types of texture histograms were concatenated with the CT density histogram. These 3 types of histograms (referred to as combined LBP, combined CLBP, and combined LTP) were used to classify ROI using linear support vector machine. For each type of the combined histogram, the accuracy of classification was determined by patient-based 10-fold cross validation. The best accuracy of combined LBP, combined CLBP, and combined LTP were 81.36%, 82.99%, and 83.29%, respectively. Compared to the classification accuracies obtained with combined LBP, those with combined LTP or combined CLBP were consistently improved. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that, on low-dose CT, LTP and CLBP were more useful for the classification of emphysema subtypes than LBP.