Under conditions of atmospheric blocking, the presence of a quasi-stationary anticyclone of large amplitude disrupts the normal eastward progression of the synoptic systems. These blockings correspond mainly to a positive anomaly of the air pressure. As a result, in the regions affected by the blocking occur several consecutive dry days and temperatures above average. This paper aims to discuss synoptically the atmospheric blocking phenomenon occurred in January and February 2014 in the South Atlantic Ocean, affecting especially the Southeastern Brazil and sectors that depend on the quantity of water for their activities in the region, such as agriculture and electricity generation. The significant population concentration makes this area emphatically vulnerable to long periods of drought, especially during the summer, affecting the water supply for the population. In order to achieve this goal, data of geopotential height at 850/500 hPa, streamlines in 850/500 hPa, pressure, temperature, humidity and wind at surface were evaluated through NCEP/ NCAR reanalysis (CFSRv2—Climate Forecast System Reanalysis Version 2) with 0.2&176 × 0.2° resolution. The analysis showed that the stationary anticyclone was configured dynamically favorable to blocking in the lower and middle levels of the atmosphere. Thus, atmospheric pressure at mean sea level presented values above normal combined with high average air temperature. By the climatological analysis, it was noted that there were emphatic negative precipitation anomalies over Southeastern Brazil. This atmospheric blocking was characterized as anomalous due to its long duration in a considered rainy season.