Objective: Use of an epidural self-blood patch (EBP) is the most effective form of therapy for patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia. However, even if the symptoms are resolved, other clinical aspects of this condition frequently prevent patients resuming social activity. In the present study, we investigated the clinical course of patients with CSF hypovolemia after treatment with an EBP to assess the factors affecting return to work or school, and considered the treatment of patients with progressive chronic subdural hematoma. Patients and Results: We investigated a group of 10 patients with CSF hypovolemia. After initial application of an EBP, 8 of these patients were completely relieved of postural headache and associated symptoms, and the other 2 recovered after a second application. However, 3 patients who had cervical spondylosis or psychosis were still unable to return to work or school. Two patients who were forced to retire have potential for rehabilitation after EBP. One patient has recovered from the illness, but could not return to school due to persistent medical history of psychosis. These patients had suffered symptoms for a long period before EBP (mean, 17.8 months; range 7 months to 3 years) relative to those who were able to resume social activity (mean, 2.0 months; range 7 days to 5 months) (P < 0.05). Three had progressive bilateral chronic subdural hematoma. One of these patients required emergency burr-hole drainage to resolve the neurological deterioration. Conclusions: Both physicians and patients need to be aware of CSF hypovolemia, and the fact that it requires appropriate treatment without delay. While application of an EBP is a fundamentally important therapy even for patients with hematoma, careful follow-up is required for patients showing marked neurological deterioration or an increasing hematoma volume with a brain midline shift, and burr-hole drainage must sometimes be considered in combination with EBP.
This work is an evaluation of the plant diversity of the white Wormwood formations (Artemisia herba-alba Asso.) in the steppes rangelands of the south-eastern zone of Saï (municipality of Maamora, Western Algeria). For this purpose, twenty-one phytoecological statements are carried out on three sample stations: an exclosure station where the white Wormwood is well developed and two other stations not protected where in one, the white Wormwood is moderately degraded and in the other one, it is strongly degraded. The factorial correspondences analysis (FCA) and the ascending hierarchical clustering (AHC) carried out on the floristic and edaphic parameters measured on these stations led to a hierarchy of the ecological factors determining the diversity of the studied plant formations with white Wormwood. The vegetation studied is marked by the dominance of the therophytes, particularly in the third station (very degraded station), while the exclosure station is essentially characterized by a high recovery rate and an important phytomass.
This study presents an evaluation of the relative efficiency of sixteen container ports in Sub-Sahara Africa using three DEA models namely CCR, BCC and Super-Efficiency over the year 2012. The CCR and BCC models are used to estimate the technical and scale efficiency while the super-efficiency technique provides a ranking of efficient ports. The efficiency results indicate that on average the inefficiency observed in the container ports under evaluation is due to scale rather than technical inefficiency. Further, by investigating the nature of the returns to scale, the study concludes that the majority of the container ports exhibit variable returns to scale while fewer experience constant returns to scale in their operations. In order to improve their overall efficiency, the ports showing increasing and decreasing returns to scale need to increase and decrease their size, respectively. Consequently, for container ports to survive in the competitive environment, port authorities should examine their operational scale to identify whether the production size is appropriate or not before making investment decision in terms of inputs resources enhancement or capacity expansion.
Solid state mixtures of two reactants, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 2-aminobenzonitrile, were melted at a temperature even lower than both the melting points. And dehydration condensation reaction occurred in the melt to give reaction product N-(2-cyanophenyl)-2-hydroxy-1-naphthadimine. Since the melting point of the product was higher than the reactants, self-crystallization of the product occurred. Usefulness of this one-pot synthesis and crystallization method for industrial application was described.
When considering emissions control problems associated with carbon dioxide (CO2), social planning over quite a long-term horizon is usually considered to be necessary because it takes much time for the full absorption of CO2 by oceans and forests. Sometimes the required time horizon even becomes infinite. Such a fact seems to impose patience beyond the limits of human cognition. However, this study proves that the first-best emissions scenario can be achieved only by local altruism, which is dubbed parentage. Parentage is defined as the action of applying zero social discount rate to its subsequent generation, and discounting the utility of generations thereafter infinitely. In this sense, the nearly first-best emissions scenario is feasible within the ordinal cognition and benevolence of human beings. This paper also examines the definition of egalitarian sustainability, in which the utility of every generation must be kept constant, and reveals that such a definition of sustainability possibly provokes the inefficient intergenerational allocation of CO2. This is because the vested interest of the predecessors is put much importance in the process of the planning. It is required more rigid sustainability concept, in which the utility of each generation is no less decreasing through time and at least strictly increasing locally, to achieve the efficient allocation of CO2. One will find that the intergenerational allocation by the local altruism satisfies this property.
Studying individuals and students’ attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of high school students in terms of some variables. The sample of the study consists of 330 participants of whom 145 are male and 185 are female having studied in a High School in Balikesir (in western Turkey). In the study, as a means of data collection, Environmental Attitude Scale (EAS) and the personal information form have been used. The EAS which consists of 35 items is composed of 4 sub-dimensions as “Environmental awareness”, “Attitude toward recovery”, “Attitude toward recycling” and “Environmental consciousness and behavior”. According to the findings, considering the analysis of the EAS, statistically a considerable difference was reached between the sub-dimensions of the EAS and the gender, grade and parent education level variables. However, a considerable difference was not found between the branch of students and some sub-dimensions of the EAS.
The luminescent functional crystal was produced by the organic guest molecules conformation control in the inorganic host crystal matrix. Inorganic host-organic guest crystals were successfully prepared and luminescence spectra were investigated. These crystals had a phosphorescent property in room temperature by 254 nm UV irradiation. In this system, the potassium sulfate host matrix was effectively inhibited the molecular vibration of organic guest molecules by interaction between K+ and π-electrons. In addition, control of the luminescence wavelength (both fluorescence and phosphorescence) was achieved by controlling the structure of organic molecules which were taken in anorganic compound-containing inorganic crystal. Specifically, theorganic compound-containing inorganic crystals with 2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid and 2-naptylamine-1-sulfonic acid as a guest had a phosphorescence band of 455 nm and 510 nm, respectively.