Studies of The Mechanism of Polyvinyl Alcohol Adsorption on The Calcite/Water Interface in The Presence of Sodium Oleate

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The adsorption behavior of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) on the CaCO3/solution interface under the influence of sodium oleate (SOl) interaction was investigated by the adsorbed amount, FTIR spectra, X-Ray diffraction and zeta potential. Effects of solid to liquid ratio and temperature was also examined. Observed increase of the PVA adsorption in presence of the sodium oleate resulted from a polymer-surfactant complex formation. The surfactant also influences on the structure of the adsorbed polymer layers. This effect was proved by adsorption measurements that allow calculation of the thickness of the adsorbed layer of the polymer on the surface of CaCO3 in the presence and the absence of sodium oleate. The interaction between oleate anions and PVA is a physical type (via hydrogen bonding).

Cite this paper

N. LABIDI and A. DJEBAILI, “Studies of The Mechanism of Polyvinyl Alcohol Adsorption on The Calcite/Water Interface in The Presence of Sodium Oleate,” Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 7 No. 2, 2008, pp. 147-161.

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Unburned Carbon from Fly Ash for Mercury Adsorption: II. Adsorption Isotherms and Mechanisms

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ABSTRACT

Adsorption behavior of unburned carbons from fly ash has been investigated in this study. Batch tests and column test were carried out for several unburned carbon samples from various ash sources and processing schemes. Adsorption isotherms have been obtained from these tests. Results show that the unburned carbons have equal or better adsorption capacity for elemental mercury comparing with some general purpose commercial activated carbons at low gas phase mercury concentration that is in the range of power plant emissions. Also it has been found that heat treatment of unburned carbon in the presence of air at 400℃ enhanced the adsorption capacity, and the adsorption capacity decreased with the increase of the adsorption temperature. The mechanism of mercury adsorption on the unburned carbon was explained by the physical and chemical interaction between mercury and primary sites on the carbon surface.

Cite this paper

Z. Li, X. Sun, J. Luo and J. Hwang, “Unburned Carbon from Fly Ash for Mercury Adsorption: II. Adsorption Isotherms and Mechanisms,” Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 1 No. 2, 2002, pp. 79-96.

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Removal of Methylene Blue, Rhodamine B and Ammonium Ion from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Sintering Porous Materials Prepared from Coconut Husk Waste

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ABSTRACT

The present work was done in order to develop and find out suitable conversion methods for coconut husk wastes into value-added products. It is well-known that coconuts husk waste is hydrophobic therefore ethanol with different doses was used as a surfactant to enhance the removal efficiency. Treated samples at different adsorbent amounts, sintering temperatures & sintering time, stirring time, pH, and solution temperatures for color removal of Methylene Blue (MB) & Rhodamine B (RhB) and ammonium concentration were evaluated by using UV-Visible Spectroscopy. At 300°C, results showed complete removal for MB and more than 75% for RhB, whereas removal of ammonium ion reached around 52% when sintering product from husk waste was used. Further investigation was carried out for ammonium ion to understand the desorption kinetic behaviors and isotherm models. Kinetics indicated that desorption of ammonium ion followed pseudo-first order equation. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS followed Van’t Hoff plot for adsorption and found to be negative which indicated that the adsorption process for ammonium onto coconut husk was physical, spontaneous and exothermic.

Cite this paper

Dabwan, A. , Yuki, N. , Asri, N. , Katsumata, H. , Suzuki, T. and Kaneco, S. (2015) Removal of Methylene Blue, Rhodamine B and Ammonium Ion from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Sintering Porous Materials Prepared from Coconut Husk Waste. Open Journal of Inorganic Non-metallic Materials, 5, 21-30. doi: 10.4236/ojinm.2015.52003.

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Cost Effective Adsorption of Aluminium and Iron from Synthetic and Real Wastewater by Rice Hull Activated Carbon (RHAC)

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ABSTRACT

The adsorption of aluminium(III) and iron(III) ions from their single and binary systems, by RHAC was investigated in a batch system. The activated carbon prepared from rice hulls was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transformation infrared techniques. Batch adsorption experiments were performed under different operating conditions including pH (2 – 5), adsorbent dosage (0.5 – 2.0 g/l), initial ion concentration (5 – 100 mg/l), and contact time (30 – 240 min). The equilibrium time for maximum ions removal was found to be 180 min in single and binary ions systems. The kinetics of adsorption was evaluated using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Elovich kinetic models. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin equilibrium models were applied to the adsorption experimental data. Real wastewater samples were collected from different locations to investigate the efficiency of rice hull activated carbon in treating real samples. The real wastewater samples were treated with the activated carbon prepared from rice hulls and a commercial activated carbon. The results showed that the activated carbon prepared in the present work was more efficient in the removal of aluminium and iron from real wastewater as compared to the commercial activated carbon which is more advantageous considering both economics and environmental parameters.

Cite this paper

Abdel-Ghani, N. , El-Chaghaby, G. and Zahran, E. (2015) Cost Effective Adsorption of Aluminium and Iron from Synthetic and Real Wastewater by Rice Hull Activated Carbon (RHAC). American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 71-83. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.61007.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.03.014                                                             eww150116lx

Production of Activated Carbon and Characterization from Snail Shell Waste (Helix pomatia)

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53252#.VLh-BcnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Snail shell waste (Helix pomatia) has been evaluated as raw material for the preparation of activated carbon using ZnCl2 and CaCl2 with the temperature ranging from 500°C to 800°C. The activated carbon prepared was characterized, showing effect of temperature on ash content, pore volume and porosity. The adsorption isotherm for methylene blue was carried out on the activated carbon in a batch study. The adsorbent exhibited excellent adsorption for methylene blue. The experimental data were used for both Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption coefficients of Langmuir isotherm were found to be 0.996 and 0.957 for CaCl2 and ZnCl2 while 0.969 and 0.962 were obtained for the Freundlich isotherm respectively. The value of RL was found to be 0.75 and 0.38 for samples CC and ZZ respectively, which is an indication that activated carbon impregnated with CaCl2 and ZnCl2 is favourable for adsorption of methylene blue under the conditions used in this study.

Cite this paper

Gumus, R. and Okpeku, I. (2015) Production of Activated Carbon and Characterization from Snail Shell Waste (Helix pomatia). Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 5, 51-61. doi: 10.4236/aces.2015.51006.

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Distinguishing Kaolinites and Smectite Clays from Central and Eastern Uganda Using Acidity, pH, Colour and Composition

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53207#.VLcnXsnQrzE

ABSTRACT

The Langmuir isotherms of 1-aminobutane in isohexane slurries showed increase in clay acidity with increase in concentration of mineral acid used to leach the clay as well as the temperature at which the clay was thermally activated prior to experimentation involving adsorption of 1-aminobutane. The values of acidity for Central Uganda were low ranging from 0.07 mol/g to 0.32 mol/g yet those for clays from Eastern Uganda were high ranging from 0.1 mol/g to 1.85 mol/g. Based on acidity, pH, elemental and mineral compositions, the clays from Central Uganda were found to be kaolinites or halloysites, yet Eastern Uganda clays were resolved to contain nontronite and kaolinite.

Cite this paper

Mukasa-Tebandeke, I. , Ssebuwufu, P. , Nyanzi, S. , Schumann, A. , Ntale, M. , Nyakairu, G. and Lugolobi, F. (2015) Distinguishing Kaolinites and Smectite Clays from Central and Eastern Uganda Using Acidity, pH, Colour and Composition. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 58-70. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.61006.

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Implication of Electrostatic Forces on the Adsorption Capacity of a Modified Brick for the Removal of Divalent Cations from Water

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ABSTRACT

Adsorption properties of brick for the removal of divalent cations increased significantly after this material were pre-activated by HCl and subsequently impregnated with ferrihydrite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrated that ferrihydrite was preferentially attached to clays (mainly to metakaolinite) and possessed Na atoms at levels higher than those observed in iron-poor aggregates. Sodium is bound to hydroxyl groups which have a function as reactive sites and give rise to surface charge. Zeta potential measurements were conducted to determine the isoelectric point (IEP) and salt-addition method was used to assess the point of zero charge (PZC) of this brick. Modified brick has a positive charge in water up to pH ≈ 3.2 and negative charge above this pH. Moreover, pH was found to be the most important factor affecting the adsorption process, suggesting the possible implication of electrostatic forces at the brick-water interface. The complexation model proposed by James and Healy was applied to our system: theoretical data on free-energy changes due to effects associated both with electrostatic attraction and solvation, were found to be in agreement with those determined from kinetic experiments. Column experiments permitted further to show that adsorption reactions were strongly inhibited by addition of an inert electrolyte (like NaNO3). Under this condition, ionic strength increased and most surface sites of the brick would be occupied by Na+ ions, leading to a charge neutralization and thereby a depletion of electrostatic forces.

Cite this paper

Allahdin, O. , Wartel, M. , Mabingui, J. and Boughriet, A. (2015) Implication of Electrostatic Forces on the Adsorption Capacity of a Modified Brick for the Removal of Divalent Cations from Water. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6, 11-25. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2015.61002.

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