Perspectives about Living and Aging for the Manager of a Familiar Company

Read  full  paper  at:http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53961#.VN2neSzQrzE

In this study, we seek to reveal the perspectives, motivations and challenges of the managers of familiar company regarding succession. The sample consisted of six participants chosen by convenience and divided into two groups: entrepreneur managers with successors and without successors. The data analysis is the analysis of the participants’ narratives. The results indicate that there are differences in the process of perceiving aging by the managers with and without successors. The entrance of the descendants in the management of the company transforms the activities of the patriarchs. The choice of getting away from the professional activities and passing the “baton” to the successor is related to becoming ill. Management problems interfere in the subject’s life that cannot see leisure possibilities. It was observed that living and aging to these subjects is associated to maintaining the quality in family ties.

Cite this paper

Mattjie, M. , Pasqualotti, A. & Amaro, F. (2015). Perspectives about Living and Aging for the Manager of a Familiar Company. Psychology, 6, 168-176. doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.62016.

References

[1] Freire, P. S., Soares, A. P., Nakayama, M. K., & Spanhol, F. J. (2010). Processo de sucessao em empresa familiar: Gestao do conhecimento contornando resistencias as mudancas organizacionais. Revista de Gestao da Tecnologia e Sistemas de Informacao, 7, 713-736.
[2] Machado, H. V. (2005). Reflexoes sobre concepcoes de família e empresas familiares. Psicologia em Estudo, 10, 317-323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-73722005000200019
[3] Martins, A., Maccari, E. A., Campanario, M. A., & Almeida, M. I. R. (2008). Empresa familiar e as dificuldades enfrentadas pelos membros da terceira geracao. Revista de Ciencias da Administracao, 10, 30-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8069.2008v10n22p30
[4] NVivo 10 (2010). Manual.
http://www.qsrinternational.com
[5] Oliveira, J. L., Albuquerque, A. L., & Pereira, R. D. (2012). Governanca, sucessao e profissionalizacao de uma empresa familiar: (Re)arranjando o lugar da família multigeracional. Revista Brasileira de Gestao e Negocios, 14, 176-192.
[6] Paulo, D. N. A (2009). Empresas Familiares em Portugal: “Sucessao Competente”. Ph.D. Thesis, Lisboa: Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa.
[7] Pinto, M. C. S., & Couto-de-Souza, C. L. (2009). Mudanca organizacional em uma empresa familiar brasileira. Revista de Administracao Pública, 43, 609-634.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-76122009000300005
[8] Schutz, A. (1979). Fenomenologia e relacoes sociais. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.
[9] Zache, H., Schmitt, A., & Gielnik, M. M. (2012). Stepping into My Shoes: Generativity as a Mediator of the Relationship between Business Owners’ Age and Family Succession. Aging & Society, 32, 673-696.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X11000547                         eww150213lx
Advertisements

Characterization of the A6060 Al Alloy Mainly by Using the Micro-Hardness Vickers Test in Order to Optimize the Industrial Solutionizing Conditions of the As-Cast Billets

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53405#.VMG13izQrzE

ABSTRACT

Heat treatable Al alloys of the 6xxx series are produced by the industry following a path that consolidates melting of raw materials, casting the melt in billets, solutionizing the billets following a suitable thermal cycle, pre-heating and extruding the material to profiles and finally aging the profiles. Although this procedure is known for pure materials from the scientific point of view, the introduction of scrap to the raw materials for melting modifies to an extent the fabrication conditions that follow casting. This fact affects the production cost. In this article we propose a research way based mainly on micro-Vickers tests that lead to an optimization of the treatment conditions for solutionizing the billets.

Cite this paper

Triantafyllidis, G. , Kiligaridis, I. , Zagkliveris, D. , Orfanou, I. , Spyridopoulou, S. , Mitoudi-Vagourdi, E. and Semertzidou, S. (2015) Characterization of the A6060 Al Alloy Mainly by Using the Micro-Hardness Vickers Test in Order to Optimize the Industrial Solutionizing Conditions of the As-Cast Billets. Materials Sciences and Applications, 6, 86-94. doi: 10.4236/msa.2015.61011.

References

[1] Hatch, E.J. (1999) Aluminum: Properties and Physical Metallurgy. 9th Printing, American Society for Metals.
[2] Bahrami, A. (2010) Modeling of Precipitation Sequence and Aging Kinetics in Al-Mg-Si Alloy. Sharif University of Technology, Tehran.
[3] Fjeldbo, S.K., Li, Y.J., Marthinsen, K. and Furu, T. (2012) Through-Process Sensitivity Analysis on the Effect of Process Variables on Strength in Extruded Al-Mg-Si Alloys. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 212, 171-180.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2011.08.020
[4] Andersen, S.J., Marioara, C.D., Vissers, R., Froeseth, A. and Zandbergen, H.W. (2007) The Structural Relation between Precipitates in Al-Mg-Si Alloys, the Al-Matrix and Diamond Silicon, with Emphasis on the Trigonal Phase U1-MgAl2Si2. Materials Science and Engineering, A444, 157-169.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2006.08.084
[5] Sheppard, T. (1999) Extrusion of Aluminum Alloys. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-3001-2
[6] ASM Specialty Handbook (2002) Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys, Fabrication and Finishing of Aluminum Alloys. 5th Printing, ASM International, Russell Township.                                                          eww150123lx

Challenges in Cancer Care of Elderly

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53346#.VL3NKSzQrzE

ABSTRACT

As a result of vast global improvement of health care and living conditions, the world population is aging. In developed countries, more than half of the cancers occur in patients aged 70 and older. In booming Asian nations, such as India, the aging trend is particularly striking, and therefore geriatric oncology is rapidly coming at the foreground of oncology practice. As these patients have special needs and a different approach to treatment, there is a strong need for the emergence of geriatric oncology as a sub specialty in oncology. Scientific data show that a geriatric assessment identifies many problems in older people with cancer, adds prognostic information, and might improve the outcomes of these patients. There is a genuine unmet requirement to design and implement the following: development of individually tailored geriatric assessment tools for different oncology centers; cooperation of aging and cancer research in the understanding of cancer biology, aging and physiology; improved clinical study designs; development of geriatric oncology programs; and screening tools for geriatric patients made accessible to family physicians.

Cite this paper

Suhag, V. , Sunita, B. , Sarin, A. and Singh, A. (2015) Challenges in Cancer Care of Elderly. International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology, 4, 25-31. doi: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2015.41004.

References

[1] Sarkar, A. and Shahi, U.P. (2013) Assessment of Cancer Care in Indian Elderly Cancer Patients: A Single Center Study. South Asian Journal of Cancer, 2, 202-208. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2278-330X.119904
[2] Steer, C.B., Marx, G.M. and Singhal, N. (2009) Cancer in Older People: A Tale of Two Disciplines. Internal Medicine Journal, 39, 771-775. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1445-5994.2009.02056.x
[3] Berger, N.A., Savvides, P. and Koroukian, S.M. (2006) Cancer in the Elderly. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 117, 147-156.
[4] Monfardini, S. (2004) Elderly Oncology: A New Subspecialty? Journal of Clinical Oncology, 22, 4655.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2004.04.186
[5] Extermann, M. (2010) Geriatric Oncology: An Overview of Progresses and Challenges. Cancer Research and Treatment, 42, 61-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2010.42.2.61
[6] Hutchins, L.F., Unger, J.M. and Crowley, J.J. (2000) Patients 65 Years of Age or Older in Cancer-Treatment Trials. The New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 1531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200005183422016
[7] Wildiers, H., Mauer, M. and Pallis, A. (2013) End Points and Trial Design in Geriatric Oncology Research: A Joint European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer—Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 31, 3711-3718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2013.49.6125
[8] Vijaykumar, D.K., Anupama, R. and Gorasia, T.K. (2012) Geriatric Oncology: The Need for a Separate Subspecialty. Indian Journal of Medical Paediatric Oncology, 33, 134-136.
[9] Monfardini, S., Giordano, G. and Sandri, R. (2012) Bringing Geriatrics into Oncology or Also Oncology into Geriatrics? Annals of Oncology, 23, 801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdr597
[10] Kunkler, I.H., Audisio, R. and Belkacemi, Y. (2014) Review of Current Best Practice and Priorities for Research in Radiation Oncology for Elderly Patients with Cancer: The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) Task Force. Annals of Oncology, 25, 2134-2146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdu104
[11] Kenis, C., Schuermans, H. and Van Custem, E. (2009) Screening for a Geriatric Risk Profile in Older Cancer Patients: A Comparative Study of the Predictive Validity of Three Screening Tools. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 72, S22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1040-8428(09)70046-0
[12] Overcash, J.A., Beckstead, J. and Moody, L. (2006) The Abbreviated Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (aCGA) for Use in the Older Cancer Patient as a Prescreen: Scoring and Interpretation. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 59, 205-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2006.04.003
[13] Balducci, L., Lyman, G.H., Ershler, W.B. and Extermann, M. (2004) Comprehensive Geriatric Oncology. 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, London & New York.
[14] Extermann, M., Green, T., Tiffenberg, G. and Rich, C.J. (2009) Validation of the Senior Adult Oncology Program (SAOP) 2 Screening Questionnaire. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 69, 185.
[15] Monfardini, S., Aapro, M.S. and Bennett, J.M. (2007) Organization of the Clinical Activity of Geriatric Oncology: Report of SIOG (International Society of Geriatric Oncology) Task Force. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 62, 62-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2006.10.003
[16] White, H.K. and Cohen, H.J. (2006) The Older Cancer Patient. Medical Clinics of North America, 90, 967-982.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2006.05.017
[17] Pal, S.K., Katheria, V. and Hurria, A. (2010) Evaluating the Older Patient with Cancer: Understanding Frailty and the Geriatric Assessment. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 60, 120-132. http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.20059
[18] Surbone, A., Kagawa-Singer, M. and Terret, C. (2007) The Illness Trajectory of Elderly Cancer Patients across Cultures: SIOG Position Paper. Annals of Oncology, 18, 633-638. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdl178
[19] Anisimov, V.N. (2003) The Relationship between Aging and Carcinogenesis: A Critical Appraisal. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 45, 277-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1040-8428(02)00121-X
[20] Flood, K.L., Carroll, M.B. and Le, C.V. (2006) Geriatric Syndromes in Elderly Patients Admitted to an Oncology-Acute Care for Elders Unit. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, 2298-2303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.02.8514
[21] Koroukian, S.M., Murray, P. and Madigan, E. (2006) Comorbidity, Disability, and Geriatric Syndromes in Elderly Cancer Patients Receiving Home Health Care. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 24, 2304-2310.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2005.03.1567
[22] Mohile, S., Dale, W. and Hurria, A. (2012) Geriatric Oncology Research to Improve Clinical Care. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 9, 571-578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrclinonc.2012.125
[23] Gupta, S.K. and Lamont, E.B. (2004) Patterns of Presentation, Diagnosis, and Treatment in Older Patients with Colon Cancer and Comorbid Dementia. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 1681-1687.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52461.x
[24] Balducci, L. and Ershler, W.B. (2005) Cancer and Ageing: A Nexus at Several Levels. Nature Reviews Cancer, 5, 655-662. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc1675
[25] Kumar, A., Soares, H.P. and Balducci, L. (2007) Treatment Tolerance and Efficacy in Elderly Oncology: A Systematic Review of Phase III Randomized Trials Conducted by Five National Cancer Institute-Sponsored Cooperative Groups. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25, 1272-1276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.09.2759
[26] Caillet, P., Laurent, M. and Bastuji-Garin, S. (2014) Optimal Management of Elderly Cancer Patients: Usefulness of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 9, 1645-1660.
[27] Extermann, M. (2003) Studies of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Patients with Cancer. Cancer Control, 10, 463-468.
[28] Puts, M.T., Hardt, J. and Monette, J. (2012) Use of Geriatric Assessment for Older Adults in the Oncology Setting: A Systematic Review. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 104, 1133-1163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djs285
[29] Extermann, M., Aapro, M. and Bernabei, R. (2005) Use of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in Older Cancer Patients: Recommendations from the Task Force on CGA of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG). Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 55, 241-252.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2005.06.003
[30] Extermann, M. (2010) Evaluation of the Senior Cancer Patient: Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment and Screening Tools for the Elderly. In: Schrijvers, D., Aapro, M., Zakotnik, B., Audisio, R., van Halteren, H. and Hurria, A., Eds., Handbook of Cancer in the Senior Patient, Informa Healthcare, New York, London, 13-21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/9781841847481.003
[31] Hitz, F., Mey, U. and Clough-Gorr, K.M. (2009) Results from a Pilot Study of a Brief Cancer-Specific Geriatric Assessment (CGA) Tool for Use in Clinical Trials in Older Cancer Patients. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, 72, S20-S21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1040-8428(09)70044-7
[32] Brighi, N., Balducci, L. and Biasco, G. (2014) Cancer in the Elderly: Is It Time for Palliative Care in Geriatric Oncology? Journal of Geriatric Oncology, 5, 197-203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2014.01.007
[33] Yee, K.W., Pater, J.L. and Pho, L. (2003) Enrollment of Older Patients in Cancer Treatment Trials in Canada: Why Is Age a Barrier? Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 1618-1623.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.12.044
[34] Aapro, M.S., Kohne, C.H. and Cohen, J.H. (2005) Never Too Old. Age Should Not Be a Barrier to Enrollment in Cancer Clinical Trials? Oncology, 10, 198-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.10-3-198
[35] Kimmick, G.G., Peterson, B.L., Kornblith, A.B., Mandelblatt, J., Johnson, J.L., Wheeler, J., et al. (2004) Improving Accrual of Older Persons to Cancer Treatment Trials: A Randomized Trial Comparing an Educational Intervention with standard information: CALGB 360001. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 2201-2207.
[36] Kemeny, M.M., Peterson, B.L. and Kornblith, A.B. (2003) Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation by Older Women with Breast Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 21, 2268-2275.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2003.09.124
[37] Kornblith, A.B., Kemeny, M., Peterson, B.L., et al. (2002) Survey of Oncologists Perceptions of Barriers to Accrual of Older Patients with Breast Carcinoma to Clinical Trials. Cancer, 95, 989-996.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.10792
[38] Hurria, A., Naylor, M. and Cohen, H.J. (2013) Improving the Quality of Cancer Care in an Aging Population: Recommendations from an IOM Report. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 310, 1795-1796.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.280416
[39] Maggiore, R.J., Gorawara-Bhat, R. and Levine, S.K. (2014) Perceptions, Attitudes, and Experiences of Hematology/Oncology Fellows toward Incorporating Geriatrics in Their Training. Journal of Geriatric Oncology, 5, 106-115.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2013.10.003
[40] Williams, G.R., Deal, A.M. and Jolly, T.A. (2014) Feasibility of Geriatric Assessment in Community Oncology Clinics. Journal of Geriatric Oncology, 5, 245-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2014.03.001
[41] Kalsi, T., Payne, S. and Brodie, H. (2013) Are the UK Oncology Trainees Adequately Informed about the Needs of Older People with Cancer? British Journal of Cancer, 108, 1936-1941.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2013.204
[42] Puts, M.T., Santos, B. and Hardt, J. (2014) An Update on a Systematic Review of the Use of Geriatric Assessment for Older Adults in Oncology. Annals of Oncology, 25, 307-315.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt386                                                                     eww150120lx

Memory Training and Task Specificity in 90-99-Year-Old Seniors with Mild Cognitive Impairment

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52949#.VK3glMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Managing memory deficits is a central problem among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study examined the effects of memory training on memory performance in an understudied “oldest-old” population ranging in age from 90 to 99 years. Eighteen mild to moderately cognitive-impaired older seniors, 90 years and older were recruited from memory clinics established in senior living communities. Treatment sessions took place, on average, twice weekly, for 55 minutes. Memory intervention included nineteen computer-based exercises customized to focus on memory loss. The specificity of memory training was very clear; memory training produced significant effects (F(3,51) = 2.81, p = 0.05) on memory performance, especially after 6 months of training, while other outcome measures showed no effects as predicted. Based on the results, it can be concluded that interventions targeting cognition and memory in the oldest-old MCI population can significantly improve memory function and reduce cognitive deficits.

Cite this paper

Magaro, P. , Brotter, B. and Jalees, M. (2015) Memory Training and Task Specificity in 90-99-Year-Old Seniors with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Advances in Aging Research, 4, 1-12. doi: 10.4236/aar.2015.41001.

References

[1] Belleville, S., Clément, F., Mellah, S., Gilbert, B., Fontaine, F. and Gauthier, S. (2011) Training-Related Brain Plasticity in Subjects at Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease. Brain: A Journal of Neurology, 134, 1623-1634.
[2] Gunther, V.K., Schafer, P., Holzner, B.J. and Kemmler, G.W. (2003) Long-Term Improvements in Cognitive Performance through Computer-Assisted Cognitive Training: A Pilot Study in a Residential Home for Older People. Aging & Mental Health, 7, 200-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1360786031000101175
[3] Peretz, C., Korczyn, A.D., Shatil, E., Aharonson, V., Birnboim, S. and Giladi, N. (2011) Computer-Based, Personalized Cognitive Training versus Classical Computer Games: A Randomized Double-Blind Prospective Trial of Cognitive Stimulation. Neuroepidemiology, 36, 91-99.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000323950
[4] Rapp, S., Brenes, G. and Marsh, A.P. (2002) Memory Enhancement Training for Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Preliminary Study. Aging & Mental Health, 6, 5-11.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860120101077
[5] Smith, G. (2009) A Cognitive Training Program Based on Principles of Brain Plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-Based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) Study. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 57, 594-603. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02167.x
[6] Stavros, Z., Fotini, K. and Magda, T. (2010) Computer Based Cognitive Training for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Pervasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments, No. 21.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1839294.1839319
[7] Talassi, E., Guerreschi, M., Feriani, M., Fedi, V., Bianchetti, A. and Trabucchi, M. (2007) Effectiveness of a Cognitive Rehabilitation Program in Mild Dementia (MD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A Case Control Study. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 44, 391-399.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2007.01.055
[8] Wolinsky, F.D., Vander Weg, M.W., Martin, R., Unverzagt, F.W., Willis, S.L., Marsiske, M. and Tennstedt, S.L. (2010) Does Cognitive Training Improve Internal Locus of Control Among Older Adults? Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 65B, 591-598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbp117
[9] Wolinsky, F.D., Unverzagt, F.W., Smith, D.M., Jones, R., Stoddard, A. and Tennstedt, S.L. (2006) The ACTIVE Cognitive Training Trial and Health-Related Quality of Life: Protection That Lasts for 5 Years. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 61, 1324-1329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/61.12.1324
[10] Rebok, G.W., Ball, K., Guey, L.T., Jones, R.N., Kim, H., King, J.W. and Willis, S.L. (2014) Ten-Year Effects of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cognitive Training Trial on Cognition and Everyday Functioning in Older Adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62, 16-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.12607
[11] Ball, K., Berch, D.B., Helmers, K.F., Jobe, J.B., Leveck, M.D. and Marsiske, M., the ACTIVE Study Group (2002) Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions with Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271-2281.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.288.18.2271
[12] Willis, S.L., Tennstedt, S.L., Marsiske, M., Ball, K., Elias, J. and Koepke, K.M., the ACTIVE Study Group (2006) Long-Term Effects of Cognitive Training on Everyday Functional Outcomes in Older Adults. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 296, 2805-2814.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.296.23.2805
[13] Zelinski, E.M., Spina, L.M., Yaffe, K., Ruff, R., Kennison, R.F., Mahncke, H.W. and Smith, G.E. (2011) Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-Based Adaptive Cognitive Training: Results of the 3-Month Follow-Up. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 59, 258-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03277.x
[14] Richmond, L.L., Morrison, A.B., Chein, J.M. and Olson, I.R. (2011) Working Memory Training and Transfer in Older Adults. Psychology and Aging, 26, 813-822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0023631
[15] Kinsella, G.J., Mullaly, E., Rand, E., Ong, B., Burton, C., Price, S. and Storey, E. (2009) Early Intervention for Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 80, 730-736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2008.148346
[16] Cipriani, G., Bianchetti, A. and Trabucchi, M. (2006) Outcomes of a Computer-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program on Alzheimer’s Disease Patients Compared with Those on Patients Affected by Mild Cognitive Impairment. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 43, 327-335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2005.12.003
[17] Troyer, A.K., Murphy, K.J., Anderson, N.D., Moscovitch, M. and Craik, F.I.M. (2008) Changing Everyday Memory Behaviour in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 18, 65-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09602010701409684
[18] Corrada, M.M., Berlau, D.J. and Kawas, C.H. (2012) A Population-Based Clinicopathological Study in the Oldest-Old: The 90+ Study. Current Alzheimer Research, 9, 709-717.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/156720512801322537
[19] Prohovnik, I., Perl, D.P., Davis, K.L., Libow, L., Lesser, G. and Haroutunian, V. (2006) Dissociation of Neuropathology from Severity of Dementia in Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease. Neurology, 66, 49-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/01.wnl.0000191298.68045.50
[20] Savva, G.M., Wharton, S.B., Ince, P.G., Forster, G., Matthews, F.E. and Brayne, C. (2009) Age, Neuropathology, and Dementia. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360, 2302-2309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0806142
[21] Kawas, C.H. (2008) The Oldest Old and the 90+ Study. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association, 4, S56-S59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2007.11.007
[22] Keirnan, R.J., Mueller, J., Langston, W. and Dyke, C.V. (1987) The Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination: A Brief but Differentiated Approach to Cognitive Assessment. Annals of Internal Medicine, 107, 481-485.
[23] Mueller, J., Kiernan, R. and Langston, W. (2001) Manual for Cognistat (Neurobehavioral Status Exam, NCSE). The Northern California Neurobehavioral Group Inc., Fairfax.
[24] Schwamm, L.H., Van Dyke, C., Kiernan, R.J., Merrin, E.L. and Mueller, J. (1987) The Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination: Comparison with the Cognitive Capacity Screening Examination and the Mini-Mental State Examination in a Neurosurgical Population. Annals of Internal Medicine, 107, 486-491.
[25] Rabin, L.A., Barr, W.B. and Burton, L.A. (2005) Assessment Practices of Clinical Neuropsychologists in the United States and Canada: A Survey of INS, NAN, and APA Division 40 members. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 33-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2004.02.005
[26] Champley, J., Scherz, J.W., Apel, K. and Burda, A.N. (2008) A Preliminary Analysis of Reading Materials and Strategies Used by Older Adults. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 29, 131-140.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1525740108315365
[27] Belleville, S., Gilbert, B., Fontaine, F., Gagnon, L., Ménard, é. and Gauthier, S. (2006) Improvement of Episodic Memory in Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy Older Adults: Evidence from a Cognitive Intervention Program. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, 22, 486-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000096316
[28] Loosli, S.V., Buschkuehl, M., Perrig, W.J. and Jaeggi, S.M. (2012) Working Memory Training Improves Reading Processes in Typically Developing Children. Child Neuropsychology: A Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence, 18, 62-78.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2011.575772                                                               eww150108lx

Review of Major Theories of Skin Aging

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49375#.VI5zCMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Here we aim to describe each factor that leads to skin aging and describe their mechanisms. A PubMed database searches (from January 2004 to March 2014) using aging and skin as searched terms. There are substantial evidences showing that aging is associated with damage from free radicals represented by various reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria are producers and also targets of oxidative stress. The cycle of mitochondrial dysfunction can trigger the aging process. In the cellular senescence and telomeres theory, the diploid cells exhibit a limited proliferation potential. After a finite number of divisions, they enter a state of senescence with a stop replication in cell proliferation. It is suggested that aging is associated mainly with hyper-regulation of apoptosis. Obesity presumably accelerates the process of aging, which is aggravated by smoking. And the influence of the environment, called solar UV irradiation is of considerable importance to skin aging. There are several mechanisms that trigger the natural aging process and contribute to age-related changes, including oxidative stress theory of free radicals, the mitochondrial dysfunction, telomere shortening, UV radiation and other mechanisms that taken together or alone may or not accelerate the change in skin.

Cite this paper

Gragnani, A. , Cornick, S. , Chominski, V. , Ribeiro de Noronha, S. , Alves Corrêa de Noronha, S. and Ferreira, L. (2014) Review of Major Theories of Skin Aging. Advances in Aging Research, 3, 265-284. doi: 10.4236/aar.2014.34036.

References

[1] Prost-Squarcioni, C., Fraitag, S., Heller, M. and Boehm, N. (2008) Functional Histology of Dermis. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie, 135, 15-20.
[2] Gragnani, A., Müller, B.R., Silva, I.D., Noronha, S.M. and Ferreira, L.M. (2013) Keratinocyte Growth Factor, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-1 Beta Gene Expression in Cultured Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes from Burned Patients. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, 28, 551-558.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-86502013000800001
[3] Gragnani, A., Sobral, C.S. and Ferreira, L.M. (2007) Thermolysin in Human Cultured Keratinocyte Isolation. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 67, 105-109.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842007000100014
[4] Sobral, C.S., Gragnani, A., Cao, X., Morgan, J.R. and Ferreira, L.M. (2007) Human Keratinocytes Cultured on Collagen Matrix Used as an Experimental Burn Model. Journal of Burns and Wounds, 7, e6.
[5] Porcheron, A., Mauger, E. and Russell, R. (2013) Aspects of Facial Contrast Decrease with Age and Are Cues for Age Perception. PLoS ONE, 8, Article ID: e57985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057985
[6] Puizina-Ivic, N. (2008) Skin Aging. Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Panonica, et Adriatica, 17, 47-54.
[7] Du, C., Anderson, A., Lortie, M., Parsons, R. and Bodnar, A. (2013) Oxidative Damage and Cellular Defense Mechanisms in Sea Urchin Models of Aging. Free Radical Biology Medicine, 63, 254-263.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.05.023
[8] Viña, J., Borras, C., Abdelaziz, K.M., Garcia-Valles, R. and Gomez-Cabrera, M.C. (2013) The Free Radical Theory of Aging Revisited: The Cell Signaling Disruption Theory of Aging. Antioxidants Redox Signaling, 19, 779-787.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2012.5111
[9] Wei, Y., Zhang, Y.J., Cai, Y. and Xu, M.H. (2014) The Role of Mitochondria in mTOR-Regulated Longevity. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12103
[10] Barja, G. (2013) Updating the Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging: An Integrated View, Key Aspects and Confounding Concepts. Antioxidants Redox Signaling, 19, 1420-1445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2012.5148
[11] Fisard, M. and Ravussin, E. (2006) Energy Metabolism and Oxidative Stress: Impact on the Metabolic Syndrome and the Aging Process. Endocrine, 29, 27-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/ENDO:29:1:27
[12] Rattan, S.I. (2006) Theories of Biological Aging: Genes, Proteins and Free Radicals. Free Radical Research, 40, 1230-1238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10715760600911303
[13] Ma, Y.S., Wu, S.B., Lee, W.Y., Cheng, J.S. and Wei, Y.H. (2009) Response to the Increase of Oxidative Stress and Mutation of Mitochondrial DNA in Aging. Biochimca et Biophysica Acta, 1790, 1021-1029.
[14] Gladyshev, V.N. (2014) The Free Radical Theory of Aging Is Dead. Long Live the Damage Theory! Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 20, 727-731.
[15] Kohl, E., Steinbauer, J., Landthaler, M. and Szeimies, R.M. (2011) Skin Ageing. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 25, 873-884.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2010.03963.x
[16] Ott, M., Gogvadze, V., Orrenius, S. and Zhivotovsky, B. (2007) Mitochondria, Oxidative Stress and Cell Death. Apoptosis, 12, 913-922.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-007-0756-2
[17] Godic, A., Poljsak, B., Adamic, M. and Dahmane, R. (2014) The Role of Antioxidants in Skin Cancer Prevention and Treatment. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2014, Article ID: 860479.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/860479
[18] Fraga, C.G., Motchnik, P.A., Shigenaga, M.K., Helbock, H.J., Jacob, R.A. and Ames, B.N. (1991) Ascorbic Acid Protects against Endogenous Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Sperm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 88, 11003-11006.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.88.24.11003
[19] Tanigawa, T., Kanazawa, S., Ichibori, R., Fujiwara, T., Magome, T., Shingaki, K., Miyata, S., Hata, Y., Tomita, K., Matsuda, K., Kubo, T., Tohyama, M., Yano, K. and Hosokawa, K. (2014) (+)-Catechin Protects Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 14, 133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-133
[20] Randhawa, M., Sangar, V., Tucker-Samaras, S. and Southall, M. (2014) Metabolic Signature of Sun Exposed Skin Suggests Catabolic Pathway Overweighs Anabolic Pathway. PLoS ONE, 9, Article ID: e90367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090367
[21] Bennett, M.F., Robinson, M.K., Baron, E.D. and Cooper, K.D. (2008) Skin Immune Systems and Inflammation: Protector of the Skin or Promoter of Aging? Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, 13, 15-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.2008.3
[22] Slominski, A., Tobin, D.J., Shibahara, S. and Wortsman, J. (2014) Melanin Pigmentation in Mammalian Skin and Its Hormonal Regulation. Physiological Reviews, 84, 1155-1228.
Menck, C.F.M. and Munford, V. (2014) DNA Repair Diseases: What Do They Tell Us about Cancer and Aging? Genetics and Molecular Biology, 37, 220-233.
[23] McKay, B.C., Becerril, C. and Ljungman, M. (2001) P53 Plays a Protective Role against UV- and Cisplatin-Induced Apoptosis in Transcription-Coupled Repair Proficient Fibroblasts. Oncogene, 20, 6805-6808.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1204901
[24] Andrade, L.N., Nathanson, J.L., Yeo, G.W., Menck, C.F. and Muotri, A.R. (2012) Evidence for Premature Aging Due to Oxidative Stress in iPSCs from Cockayne Syndrome. Human Molecular Genetics, 21, 3825-3834.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/dds211
[25] Pascucci, B., Lemma, T., Iorio, E., Giovannini, S., Vaz, B., Iavarone, I., Calcagnile, A., Narciso, L., Degan, P., Podo, F., et al. (2012) An Altered Redox Balance Mediates the Hypersensitivity of Cockayne Syndrome Primary Fibroblasts to Oxidative Stress. Aging Cell, 11, 520-529.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-9726.2012.00815.x
[26] Brooks, P.J. (2012) Blinded by the UV Light: How the Focus on Transcription-Coupled NER Has Distracted from Understanding the Mechanisms of Cockayne Syndrome Neurologic Disease. DNA Repair, 12, 656-671.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2013.04.018
[27] Batista, L.F., Roos, W.P., Kaina, B. and Menck, C.F. (2009) p53 Mutant Human Glioma Cells Are Sensitive to UVC-Induced Apoptosis Due to Impaired Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Removal. Molecular Cancer Research, 7, 237-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-08-0428
[28] Rastogi, R.P., Richa, K.A., Tyagi, M.B., et al. (2010) Molecular Mechanisms of Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Repair. Journal of Nucleic Acids, 2010, Article ID: 592980.
[29] Amano, S. (2009) Possible Involvement of Basement Membrane Damage in Skin Photo Aging. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, 14, 2-7.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.2009.5
[30] Tian, L.M., Xie, H.F., Xiao, X., Yang, T., Hu, Y.H., Wang, W.Z., Liu, L.S., Chen, X. and Li, J. (2011) Study on the Roles of β-Catenin in Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Senescence in Human Skin Fibroblasts. Experimental Dermatology, 20, 836-838.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2011.01324.x
[31] Liu, J. and Lin, A. (2005) Role of JNK Activation in Apoptosis: A Double-Edged Sword. Cell Research, 15, 36-42.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.cr.7290262
[32] Volonte, D., Liu, Z., Musille, P.M., Stoppani, E., Wakabayashi, N., Di, Y.P., Lisanti, M.P., Kensler, T.W. and Galbiati, F. (2013) Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor (Nrf2) by Caveolin-1 Promotes Stress-Induced Premature Senescence. Molecular Biology of the Cell, 24, 1852-1862.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E12-09-0666
[33] Sanz, A., Pamplona, R. and Barja, G. (2006) Is the Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging Intact? Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, 8, 582-599.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ars.2006.8.582
[34] Lesenefsky, E. and Hoppel, C. (2006) Oxidative Phosphorylation and Aging. Ageing Research Reviews, 5, 402-433.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2006.04.001
[35] Wang, C.H., Wu, S.B., Wu, Y.T. and Wei, Y.H. (2013) Oxidative Stress Response Elicited by Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Implication in the Pathophysiology of Aging. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 238, 450-460.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370213493069
[36] Gregersen, N., Hansen, J. and Palmfeldt, J. (2012) Mitochondrial Proteomics—A Tool for the Study of Metabolic Disorders. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease, 35, 715-726.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-012-9480-3
[37] Menon, G.K., Dal Farra, C., Botto, J.M. and Domloge, N. (2010) Mitochondria: A New Focus as an Anti-Aging Target in Skin Care. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 9, 122-131.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-2165.2010.00496.x
[38] Avci, P., Sadasivam, M., Gupta, A., De Melo, W.C., Huang, Y.Y., Yin, R., Chandran, R., Kumar, R., Otufowora, A., Nyame, T. and Hamblin, M.R. (2013) Animal Models of Skin Disease for Drug Discovery. Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, 8, 331-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/17460441.2013.761202
[39] Chiba, Y., Yamashita, Y., Ueno, M., Fujisawa, H., Hirayoshi, K., Hohmura, K., Tomimoto, H., Akiguchi, I., Satoh, M., Shimada, A. and Hosokawa, M. (2005) Cultured Murine Dermal Fibroblast-Like Cells from Senescence-Accelerated Mice as in Vitro Models for Higher Oxidative Stress Due to Mitochondrial Alterations. The Journals of Gerontology Series A, 60, 1087-1098.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gerona/60.9.1087
[40] Orren, D.K. (2006) Werner Syndrome: Molecular Insights into the Relationships between Defective DNA Metabolism, Genomic Instability, Cancer and Aging. Frontiers in Bioscience, 11, 2657-2671.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2741/1999
[41] Crabbe, L., Jauch, A., Naeger, C.M., Holtgreve-Grez, H. and Karlseder, J. (2007) Telomere Dysfunction as a Cause of Genomic Instability in Werner Syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 2205-2210.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0609410104
[42] Kelland, L. (2007) Targeting the Limitless Replicative Potential of Cancer: The Telomerase/Telomere Pathway. Clinical Cancer Research, 13, 4960-4963.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-0422
[43] Finkel, T., Serrano, M. and Blasco, M.A. (2007) The Common Biology of Cancer and Ageing. Nature, 448, 767-774.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05985
[44] Nakagawa, H. and Opitz, O.G. (2007) Inducing Cellular Senescence Using Defined Genetic Elements. Methods in Molecular Biology, 371, 167-178.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-361-5_13
[45] Olovnikov, A.M. (2007) Hypothesis: Lifespan Is Regulated by Chronomere DNA of the Hypothalamus. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 11, 241-252.
[46] Buckingham, E.M. and Klingelhutz, A.J. (2011) The Role of Telomeres in the Ageing of Human Skin. Experimental Dermatology, 20, 297-302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2010.01242.x
[47] Burton, D.G. (2009) Cellular Senescence, Ageing and Disease. Age, 31, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-008-9075-y
[48] Burton, D.G.A., Allen, M.C., Bird, J.L.E. and Faragher, R.G.A. (2005) Bridging the Gap: Ageing, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 57, 671-679.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1211/0022357056163
[49] Burton, D.G.A., Sheerin, A., Ostler, E.L., Smith, K., Giles, P.J., Lowe, J., et al. (2007) Cyclin D1 Over-Expression Permits the Reproducible Detection of Senescent Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1119, 20-31.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1404.026
[50] Campisi, J. (1997) Aging and Cancer: The Double-Edged Sword of Replicative Senescence. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45, 482-488
[51] Campisi, J. (1997) The Biology of Replicative Senescence. European Journal of Cancer, 33, 703-709.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(96)00058-5
[52] Campisi J. (1998) The Role of Cellular Senescence in Skin Aging. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, 3, 1-5.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.1998.2
[53] Mancini, M., Lena, A.M., Saintigny, G., Mahé, C., Di Daniele, N., Melino, G. and Candi, E. (2014) MicroRNAs in Human Skin Ageing. Ageing Research Reviews.
[54] Lotfi, R.A., El Zawahry, K.M., Kamar, Z.A. and Hashem, Z. (2014) Effects of Smoking on Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Expression in the Skin. International Journal of Dermatology.
[55] Yin, B. and Jiang, X. (2013) Telomere Shortening in Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts Is Associated with Acute Photodamage Induced by UVA Irradiation. Postepy Dermatologii i Alergologii, 30, 13-18.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/pdia.2013.33374
[56] Herbig, U., Ferreira, M., Condel, L., Carey, D. and Sedivy, J.M. (2006) Cellular Senescence in Aging Primates. Science, 311, 1257.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1122446
[57] Coppe, J.P., Kauser, K., Campisi, J. and Beausejour, C.M. (2006) Secretion of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor by Primary Human Fibroblasts at Senescence. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 281, 29568-29574.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M603307200
[58] Kletsas, D., Pratsinis, H., Mariatos, G., Zacharatos, P. and Gorgoulis, V.G. (2004) The Proinflammatory Phenotype of Senescent Cells: The p53-Mediated ICAM-1 Expression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1019, 330-332.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1297.056
[59] Warner, H.R. (2007) Is Cell Death and Replacement a Factor in Aging? Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 128, 13-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2006.11.004
[60] Orrenius, S., Gogvadze, V. and Zhivotovsky, B. (2007) Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress: Implications for Cell Death. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 47, 143-183.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.47.120505.105122
[61] Hasty, P. and Christy, B.A. (2013) p53 as an Intervention Target for Cancer and Aging. Pathobiology of Aging & Age-Related Disease, 3.
[62] Cho, J.H., Lee, J.H., Lee, E.J., Nam, D., Shim, B.S., Song, M.Y., Kim, S.S., Kim, S.H., Jung, S.H., Chung, W.S. and Ahn, K.S. (2013) 8β-Hydroxy-3-Oxopimar-15-Ene Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects by Inhibiting ROS-Mediated Activation of the TRAF6-ASK1-p38 Signaling Pathway. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 35, 549-557.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08923973.2013.820742
[63] Wada, T. and Penninger, J.M. (2004) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Apoptosis Regulation. Oncogene, 23, 2838-2849.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207556
[64] Strozyk, E. and Kulms, D. (2013) The Role of AKT/mTOR Pathway in Stress Response to UV-Irradiation: Implication in Skin Carcinogenesis by Regulation of Apoptosis, Autophagy and Senescence. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 15260-15285.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms140815260
[65] Schagen, S.K., Zampeli, V.A., Makrantonaki, E. and Zouboulis, C.C. (2012) Discovering the Link between Nutrition and Skin Aging. Dermato-Endocrinology, 4, 298-307.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/derm.22876
[66] Draelos, Z.D. (2013) Aging Skin: The Role of Diet: Facts and Controversies. Clinics in Dermatology, 31, 701-706.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2013.05.005
[67] Pluijm, S.M., Visser, M., Puts, M.T., Dik, M.G., Schalk, B.W., et al. (2007) Unhealthy Lifestyles during the Life Course: Association with Physical Decline in Late Life. JAMA, 297, 986-994.
[68] Testa, G., Biasi, F., Poli, G. and Chiarpotto, E. (2014) Calorie Restriction and Dietary Restriction Mimetics: A Strategy for Improving Healthy Aging and Longevity. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 20, 2950-2977.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/13816128113196660699
[69] Jeyapalan, J.C., Ferreira, M., Sedivy, J.M. and Herbig, U. (2007) Accumulation of Senescent Cells in Mitotic Tissue of Aging Primates. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, 128, 36-44.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2006.11.008
[70] Freund, A., et al. (2010) Inflammatory Networks during Cellular Senescence: Causes and Consequences. Trends in Molecular Medicine, 16, 238-246.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmed.2010.03.003
[71] Passos, J.F., et al. (2010) Feedback between p21 and Reactive Oxygen Production Is Necessary for Cell Senescence. Molecular Systems Biology, 6, 347.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/msb.2010.5
[72] Xue, W., et al. (2007) Senescence and Tumour Clearance Is Triggered by p53 Restoration in Murine Liver Carcinomas. Nature, 445, 656-660.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05529
[73] Krtolica, A. and Campisi, J. (2002) Cancer and Aging: A Model for the Cancer Promoting Effects of the Aging Stroma. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 34, 1401-1414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1357-2725(02)00053-5
[74] Parrinello, S., et al. (2005) Stromal-Epithelial Interactions in Aging and Cancer: Senescent Fibroblasts Alter Epithelial Cell Differentiation. Journal of Cell Science, 118, 485-496.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.01635
[75] Baker, D.J., et al. (2008) Opposing Roles for p16Ink4a and p19Arf in Senescence and Ageing Caused by BubR1 Insufficiency. Nature Cell Biology, 10, 825-836.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb1744
[76] Berryman, D.E., et al. (2008) Role of the GH/IGF-1 Axis in Lifespan and Healthspan: Lessons from Animal Models. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 18, 455-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2008.05.005
[77] Masoro, E.J. (2006) Dietary Restriction-Induced Life Extension: A Broadly Based Biological Phenomenon. Biogerontology, 7, 153-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-006-9015-0
[78] Higami, Y., et al. (2006) Energy Restriction Lowers the Expression of Genes Linked to Inflammation, the Cytoskeleton, the Extracellular Matrix and Angiogenesis in Mouse Adipose Tissue. Journal of Nutrition, 136, 343-352.
[79] Wang, C., et al. (2010) Adult-Onset, Short-Term Dietary Restriction Reduces Cell Senescence in Mice. Aging, 2, 555-566.
[80] Ezure, T. and Amano, S. (2010) Increased Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Impairs Dermal Function in Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Experimental Dermatology, 19, 878-882.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00970.x
[81] Hiebert, P.R., Boivin, W.A., Abraham, T., Pazooki, S., Zhao, H., Granville, D.J. and Granzyme, B. (2011) Contributes to Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Skin Aging in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice. Experimental Gerontology, 46, 489-499.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2011.02.004
[82] Ohnishi, M. and Razzaque, M.S. (2010) Dietary and Genetic Evidence for Phosphate Toxicity Accelerating Mammalian Aging. The FASEB Journal, 24, 3562-3571.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.09-152488
[83] Nagase, T., Akase, T., Sanada, H., Minematsu, T., Ibuki, A., Huang, L., Asada, M., Yoshimura, K., Nagase, M., Shimada, T., Aburada, M., Nakagami, G. and Sugama, J. (2013) Aging-Like Skin Changes in Metabolic Syndrome Model Mice Are Mediated by Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling. Aging Cell, 12, 50-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12017
[84] Browner, W.S., Kahn, A.J., Ziv, E., Reiner, A.P., Oshima, J., et al. (2004) The Genetics of Human Longevity. American Journal of Medicine, 117, 851-860.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.06.033
[85] Kirkwood, T. (2006) Ageing: Too Fast by Mistake. Nature, 444, 1015-1107.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/4441015a
[86] Waaijer, M.E., Gunn, D.A., Catt, S.D., van Ginkel, M., de Craen, A.J., Hudson, N.M., van Heemst, D., Slagboom, P.E., Westendorp, R.G. and Maier, A.B. (2012) Morphometric Skin Characteristics Dependent on Chronological and Biological Age: The Leiden Longevity Study. Age, 34, 1543-1552.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-011-9314-5
[87] Fisher, G.J. (2005) The Pathophysiology of Photoaging of The Skin. Cutis, 75, 5-9.
[88] Rattan, S.I. and Ali, R.E. (2007) Hormetic Prevention of Molecular Damage during Cellular Aging of Humanskin Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1100, 424-430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1395.047
[89] Yaar, M. and Gilchrest, B.A. (2007) Photoageing: Mechanism, Prevention and Therapy. British Journal of Dermatology, 157, 874-887.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.08108.x
[90] Kosmadaki, M.G. and Gilchrest, B.A. (2004) The Role of Telomeres in Skin Aging/Photoaging. Micron, 35, 155-159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2003.11.002
[91] Baumann, L. (2007) Skin Ageing and Its Treatment. The Journal of Pathology, 211, 241-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.2098
[92] Sugimoto, M., Yamashita, R. and Ueda, M. (2006) Telomere Length of the Skin in Association with Chronological Aging and Photoaging. Journal of Dermatological Science, 43, 43-47.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2006.02.004
[93] Spiewak, R. (2012) The Substantial Differences between Photoallergic and Phototoxic Reactions. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 19, 888-889.
[94] Landau, M. (2007) Exogenous Factors in Skin Aging. Current Problems in Dermatology, 35, 1-13.
[95] Federman, D.G. and Kravetz, J.D. (2007) Peripheral Arterial Disease: Diagnosis, Treatment and Systemic Implications. Clinics in Dermatology, 25, 93-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2006.09.006
[96] Morita, A., Torii, K., Maeda, A. and Yamaguchi, Y. (2009) Molecular Basis of Tobacco Smoke-Induced Premature Skin Aging. Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, 14, 53-55.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jidsymp.2009.13
[97] Ono, Y., Torii, K., Fritsche, E., Shintani, Y., Nishida, E., Nakamura, M., Shirakata, Y., Haarmann-Stemmann, T., Abel, J., Krutmann, J. and Morita, A. (2013) Role of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Tobacco Smoke Extract-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression. Experimental Dermatology, 22, 349-353.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/exd.12148
[98] Garbe, C. and Eigentler, T.K. (2007) Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma: State of the Art 2006. Melanoma Research, 17, 117-127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0b013e328042bb36
[99] Norval, M., Cullen, A.P., de Gruijl, F.R., Longstreth, J., Takizawa, Y., et al. (2007) The Effects on Human Health from Stratospheric Ozone Depletion and Its Interactions with Climate Change. Photochemical Photobiological Sciences, 6, 232-251.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b700018a
[100] Arnold, S.F. and Price, P.S. (2007) Modeling Mixtures Resulting from Concurrent Exposures to Multiple Sources. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 223, 121-124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2006.11.032
[101] Valacchi, G., Sticozzi, C., Pecorelli, A., Cervellati, F., Cervellati, C. and Maioli, E. (2012) Cutaneous Responses to Environmental Stressors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1271, 75-81.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06724.x
[102] Vierkötter, A. (2011) Environmental Pollution and Skin Aging. Der Hautarzt, 62, 577-581.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00105-011-2135-8
[103] Sarchio, S.N., Kok, L.F., O’Sullivan, C., Halliday, G.M., Byrne, S.N. (2012) Dermal Mast Cells Affect the Development of Sunlight-Induced Skin Tumours. Experimental Dermatology, 21, 241-248.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2012.01438.x
[104] Nagai, H., Noguchi, T., Takeda, K. and Ichijo, H. (2007) Pathophysiological Roles of ASK1-MAP Kinase Signaling Pathways. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 40, 1-6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5483/BMBRep.2007.40.1.001
[105] Cornwell, D.G. and Ma, J. (2007) Studies in Vitamin E: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Tocopherol Quinones. Vitamins Hormones, 76, 99-134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0083-6729(07)76005-3
[106] Azzi, A., Gysin, R., Kempna, P., Munteanu, A., Negis, Y., et al. (2004) Vitamin E Mediates Cell Signaling and Regulation of Gene Expression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1031, 86-95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1331.009
[107] Liu, M., Xu, Y., Han, X., Liang, C., Yin, L., Xu, L., Qi, Y., Zhao, Y., Peng, J. and Sun, C. (2014) Potent Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Extract from Rosa laevigata Michx Fruit against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Damage in PC12 Cells via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Apoptosis. Molecules, 19, 11816-11832.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules190811816
[108] Tulah, A.S. and Birch-Machin, M.A. (2013) Stressed out Mitochondria: The Role of Mitochondria in Ageing and Cancer Focussing on Strategies and Opportunities in Human Skin. Mitochondrion, 13, 444-453.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mito.2012.11.007
[109] OyetakinWhite, P., Tribout, H. and Baron, E. (2012) Protective Mechanisms of Green Tea Polyphenols in Skin. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2012, Article ID: 560682.
[110] Korkina, L.G., Pastore, S., Dellambra, E. and De Luca, C. (2013) New Molecular and Cellular Targets for Chemoprevention and Treatment of Skin Tumors by Plant Polyphenols: A Critical Review. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 20, 852-868.
[111] Zouboulis, C.C. and Makrantonaki, E. (2011) Clinical Aspects and Molecular Diagnostics of Skin Aging. Clinics in Dermatology, 29, 3-14.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2010.07.001
[112] Kuphal, S. and Bosserhoff, A. (2009) Recent Progress in Understanding the Pathology of Malignant Melanoma. The Journal of Pathology, 219, 400-409.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.2617
[113] Kasper, M., Jaks, V., Hohl, D. and Toftgård, R. (2012) Basal Cell Carcinoma—Molecular Biology and Potential New Therapies. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 122, 455-463.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI58779
[114] Mimeault, M. and Batra, S.K. (2010) Recent Advances on Skin-Resident Stem/Progenitor Cell Functions in Skinregeneration, Aging and Cancers and Novel Anti-Aging and Cancer Therapies. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 14, 116-134.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1582-4934.2009.00885.x
[115] Jackson, R.L., Greiwe, J.S. and Schwen, R.J. (2011) Ageing Skin: Oestrogen Receptor β Agonists Offer an Approach to Change the Outcome. Experimental Dermatology, 20, 879-882.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0625.2011.01362.x
[116] Emmerson, E. and Hardman, M.J. (2012) The Role of Estrogen Deficiency in Skin Ageing and Wound Healing. Biogerontology, 13, 3-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-011-9322-y
[117] Thornton, M.J. (2013) Estrogens and Aging Skin. Dermato-Endocrinology, 5, 264-270.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/derm.23872
[118] Pageon, H. (2010) Reaction of Glycation and Human Skin: The Effects on the Skin and Its Components, Reconstructed Skin as a Model. Pathologie Biologie, 58, 226-231.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patbio.2009.09.009
[119] Salbach, J., Rachner, T.D., Rauner, M., Hempel, U., Anderegg, U., Franz, S., Simon, J.C. and Hofbauer, L.C. (2012) Regenerative Potential of Glycosaminoglycans for Skin and Bone. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 90, 625-635.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-011-0843-2
[120] Farris, P.K. (2011) Innovative Cosmeceuticals: Sirtuin Activators and Anti-Glycationcompounds. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 30, 163-166.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sder.2011.05.004
[121] Babizhayev, M.A. and Yegorov, Y.E. (2010) Therapeutic Uses of Drug-Carrier Systems for Imidazole-Containing Dipeptide Compounds That Act as Pharmacological Chaperones and Have Significant Impact on the Treatment of Chronic Diseases Associated with Increased Oxidative Stress and the Formation of Advanced Glycation End Products. Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems, 27, 85-154.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.v27.i2.10
[122] Poljsak, B., Dahmane, R. and Godic, A. (2013) Skin and Antioxidants. Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, 15, 107-113.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14764172.2012.758380                                                                            eww141215lx

Comparison and Quantification of the Development of Phenolic Compounds during the Aging of Cachaça in Oak (Quercus sp) and Amburana (Amburana cearensis) Barrels

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50399#.VDyB41fHRK0

ABSTRACT

Aging is a stage of the cachaça production process in which several chemical reactions occur between compounds extracted from the wood and other compounds present on the beverage. In an attempt to establish a profile regarding the chemical characterization of aged cachaças, phenolic compounds have been studied because of the specific characteristics of each wood species and their known antioxidant properties. This work sought to assess and compare the development of 12 phenolic compounds in cachaças aged in oak (Quercus sp) and amburana (Amburana cearenses) barrels during a period of 12 months. There was a progressive increase in the concentration of phenolic compounds in the beverage for both of the types of wood. The principal compounds encountered in the cachaça aged in oak barrels were gallic acid, syringaldehyde and syringic acid, while vanillic acid, syringaldehyde, sinapic acid and gallic acid were isolated from that aged in amburana barrels.

Cite this paper

Santiago, W. , Cardoso, M. , A. Santiago, J. , Gomes, M. , Rodrigues, L. , Brandão, R. , Cardoso, R. , d’Avila, G. , Silva, B. and Caetano, A. (2014) Comparison and Quantification of the Development of Phenolic Compounds during the Aging of Cachaça in Oak (Quercus sp) and Amburana (Amburana cearensis) Barrels. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3140-3150. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.521330.

References

[1] Dias, S.M.B.C., Maia, A.B.R.A. and Nelson, D.L. (2009) Utilização de Madeiras Nativas no Envelhecimento da Cachaça de Alambique. Informe Agropecuário, 30, 49-54.
[2] Anjos, J.P., Cardoso, M.G., Saczk, A.A., Dorea, H.S., Santiago, W.D., Zacaroni, L.M., Machado, A.M.R. and Nelson, D.L. (2011) Evolution of the Concentration of Phenolic Compounds in Cachaça during Aging in an Oak (Quercus sp.) Barrel. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 22, 1307-1314.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532011000700016
[3] Aquino, F.W.B., Nascimento, R.F., Rodrigues, S. and Casemiro, A.R.S. (2006) Determinação de Marcadores de Envelhecimento em Cachaças. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 26, 145-149.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612006000100024
[4] Mori, F.A., Mendes, L.M. and Mori, C.L.S.O. (2013) Influência da Madeira no Envelhecimento da Cachaça. In: Cardoso, M.G., Ed., Produção de Aguardente de Cana, Editora UFLA, Lavras, 204-219.
[5] Dias, S., Maia, A. and Nelson, D. (1998) Efeito de Diferentes Madeiras Sobre a Composição da Aguardente de Cana Envelhecida. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 18, 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20611998000300014
[6] Aquino, F.W.B., Rodrigues, S., Nascimento, R.F. and Casemiro, A.R.S. (2006) Simultaneous Determination of Agind Markers in Sugar Cane Spirits. Food Chemistry, 98, 569-574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.034
[7] Maia, G.N. (2004) Caatinga: árvores e Arbustos e Suas Utilidades. D & Z Ed, São Paulo.
[8] Canuto, K.M. and Silveira, E.R. (2006) Constituintes Químicos da Casca do Caule de Amburana cearensis A.C. Smith. Química Nova, 29, 1241-1243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422006000600018
[9] Sherev, R.N. and Brink, J.A. (1980) Indústria de Fermentação. In: Sherev, R.N., Ed., Indústrias de Processos Químicos, Guanabara Dois, Rio de Janeiro, 469-495.
[10] Cardoso, M.G. (2013) Produção de Aguardente de Cana. 3rd Edition, Editora UFLA, Lavras.
[11] Cardello, H.M.A.B. and Faria, J.B. (2000) Análise da Aceitação de Aguardentes de Cana por Testes Afetivos e Mapa de Preferência Interno. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 20, 1.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612000000100007
[12] Rakic, S., Petrovic, S., Kukic, J., Jadranin, M., Tesevic, V., Povrenovic, D. and Siler-Marinkovic, S. (2007) Influence of Thermal Treatment on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Oak Acorns from Serbia. Food Chemistry, 104, 830-834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.01.025
[13] Zacaroni, L.M., Cardoso, M.G., Saczk, A.A., Morais, A.R., Anjos, J.P., Machado, A.M.R. and Nelson, D.L. (2011) Determination of Phenolic Compounds and Coumarins in Sugar Cane Spirit Aged in Different Species of Wood. Analytical Letters, 44, 2061-2073. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00032719.2010.546017
[14] Goldeberg, D.M., Hoffman, B., Yang, J. and Soleas, G.J. (1999) Phenolic Constituents, Furans, and Total Antioxidants Status of Distilled Spirits. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry, 47, 3978-3985. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf9811626
[15] Faria, J.B., Cardello, H.M.A.B., Boscolo, M., Isique, W.D., Odello, L. and Franco, D.W. (2003) Evaluation of Brazilian Woods as an Alternative to Oak for Cachaças Aging. European Food Research and Technology, 218, 83-87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-003-0795-z
[16] Morales, M.L., Benitiz, B. and Troncoso, A.M. (2004) Acellerated of Wine Vinegars with Oak Chips: Evaluation of Wood Flavour Compounds. Food Chemistry, 88, 305-315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.04.004
[17] Santiago, W.D., Cardoso, M.G., Zacaroni, L.M., Anjos, J.P., Machado, A.M.R. and Mendonça, J.G.P. (2012) Perfil Físico-Químico e Quantificação de Compostos Fenólicos e Acroleína em Aguardentes de Cana-de-Açúcar Armazenadas em Tonéis de Diferentes Madeiras. Científica, 40, 189-197.
[18] Gruz, J., Novák, O. and Strnad, M. (2008) Rapid Analysis of Phenolic Acids in Beverages by UPLC-MS/MS. Food Chemistry, 111, 789-794.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.05.014
[19] Ribani, M., Bottoli, C.B.G., Collins, C.H., Jardim, I.C.S.F. and Melo, L.F.C. (2004) Validação em Métodos Cromato-gráficos e Eletroforéticos. Química Nova, 27, 771-780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422004000500017
[20] Ferreira, D.F. (2011) SISVAR: A Computer Statistical Analysis System. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 35, 1039-1042.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-70542011000600001
[21] Nunes, C.A., Freitas, M.P., Pinheiro, A.C.M. and Bastos, S.C. (2012) Chemoface: A Novel Free User-Friendly Interface for Chemometrics. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 23, 2003-2010.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532012005000073
[22] Kameyama, M.O., Yanagida, A., Kanda, T. and Nagata, T. (1997) Identification of Catechin Oligomers from Apple (Malus pumila cv. Fuji) in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and FastAtom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. Mass Spectrometry, 11, 31-36.
[23] Quideau, S., Joudes, M., Lefeuvre, D., Moutandon, D., Saucier, C., Glories, Y., Pardon, P. and Pouquier, P. (2005) The Chemistry of Wine Polyphenolic C-Glycosidic Ellagitannins Targeting Human Topoisomerase II. Chemistry: A European Journal, 11, 6503-6513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.200500428
[24] Snyder, L.R., Kirkland, J.J. and Glajch, J.L. (1997) Practical HPLC Method Development. 2nd Edition, J. Wiley, New York.
[25] Harris, D.C. (2008) Análise Química Quantitativa. 7th Edition, LTC, Rio de Janeiro.
[26] Collins, C.H., Braga, G.L. and Bonato, P.S. (2007) Fundamentos de Cromatografia. Editora Unicamp.    eww141014lx
[27] de Miranda, M.B., Horii, J. and Alcarde, A.R. (2006) Estudo do Efeito da Irradiação Gamma (60Co) na Qualidade da Cachaça e no Tonel de Envelhecimento. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 26, 4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612006000400010

Melatonin Avoids Anatomofunctional Changes Associated to Aging in a Rat Model

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49846#.VBumTlfHRK0

Melatonin Avoids Anatomofunctional Changes Associated to Aging in a Rat Model.

ABSTRACT

Melatonin is a hormone synthesized and released primarily by the pineal gland. Its secretion fol-lows a circadian rhythm with a peak overnight. Its secretion is initiated approximately to the three months of age and continues to rise during the childhood. Previous to the puberty there is a de-crease of melatonin secretion that continues until the old age. Melatonin has effects in the body and acts through at least four mechanisms: membrane receptors, orphan nuclear receptors, calmodulin and free radicals. It has been suggested that aging can be a consequence of the oxidation of cells that eventually become vulnerable to injury and die. This work reviews the antioxidant effects of melatonin in a rodent model, on the formation of free radicals, on the MAP2 protein expression and on the electrophysiology of the hippocampus at different ages. The results indicate that melatonin maintains in a “best” state to the experimental animals compared to controls. It suggests the use of melatonin as a therapy to prevent or delay the aging effects on the cells.

Cite this paper

Gómez, B. , Reyes-Vázquez, C. and Velázquez-Paniagua, M. (2014) Melatonin Avoids Anatomofunctional Changes Associated to Aging in a Rat Model. Advances in Aging Research, 3, 318-325. doi: 10.4236/aar.2014.34041.
References

 

[1] Sierra, R. (2010) Concentrations and Profiles of Melatonin and Serotonin in Fruits and Vegetables during Fruit Ripening: A Mini-Review. Nature Precedings.
[2] Karasek, M. and Winczyk, K. (2006) Melatonin in Humans. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 57, 19-39.
[3] Campos, C.I., Nogueira, C.H. and Fernandes, L. (2013) Aging, Circadian Rhythms and Depressive Disorders: A Review. American Journal of Neurodegenerative Disease, 2, 228-246.
[4] Tan, D.-X., Manchester, L.C., Fuentes-Broto, L., Paredes, S.D. and Reiter, R.J. (2011) Significance and Application of Melatonin in the Regulation of Brown Adipose Tissue Metabolism: Relation to Human Obesity. Obesity Reviews, 12, 167-188.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00756.x
[5] Sánchez-Barceló, E.J., Mediavilla, M.D., Tan, D.X. and Reiter, R.J. (2010) Clinical Uses of Melatonin: Evaluation of Human Trials. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 17, 2070-2095.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986710791233689
[6] Sack, R.L., Brandes, R.W., Kendall, A.R. and Lewy, A.J. (2000) Entrainment of Free-Running Circadian Rhythms by Melatonin in Blind People. New England Journal of Medicine, 343, 1070-1077.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM200010123431503
[7] Boudreau, E.A., Johnson, K.P., Jackman, A.R., Blancato, J., Huizing, M., Bendavid, C., Jones, M.P., Chandrasekharappa, S.C., Lewy, A.J., Smith, A.C.M. and Magenis, R.E. (2009) Review of Disrupted Sleep Patterns in Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Normal Melatonin Secretion in a Patient with an Atypical Interstitial 17p11.2 Deletion. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 149, 1382-1391.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.32846
[8] Simonneaux, V. and Ribelayga, C. (2003) Generation of the Melatonin Endocrine Message in Mammals: A Review of the Complex Regulation of Melatonin Synthesis by Norepinephrine, Peptides, and Other Pineal Transmitters. Pharmacological Reviews, 55, 325-395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/pr.55.2.2
[9] Reiter, R.J., Tan, D.X. and Fuentes-Broto, L. (2010) Melatonin: A Multitasking Molecule. Progress in Brain Research, 181, 127-151.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0079-6123(08)81008-4
[10] Chemical Reactions.
http://www.ch.ic.ac.uk/local/projects/s_thipayang/synth.html
[11] Grivas, T.B. and Savvidou, O.D. (2007) Melatonin the “Light of Night” in Human Biology and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis. Scoliosis, 2, 6.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1748-7161-2-6
[12] Lam, R.W. and Levitan, R.D. (2000) Pathophysiology of Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Review. Journal of Psychiatry Neuroscience, 25, 469-480.
[13] Butler, M.P., Turner, K.W., Park, J.H., Schoomer, E.E., Zucker, I. and Gorman, M.R. (2010) Seasonal Regulation of Reproduction: Altered Role of Melatonin under Naturalistic Conditions in Hamsters. Proceedings of the Royal Society, 277, 2867-2874.
[14] Thomas, D.R. and Miles, A. (1989) Melatonin Secretion and Age. Biological Psychiatry, 25, 365-367.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(89)90187-X
[15] Cardinali, D.P., Furio, A.M. and Brusco, L.I. (2010) Clinical Aspects of Melatonin Intervention in Alzheimers Disease Progression. Current Neuropharmacology, 8, 218-227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157015910792246209
[16] Chan, K.H. and Wong, Y.H. (2013) A Molecular and Chemical Perspective in Defining Melatonin Receptor Subtype Selectivity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 18385-18406. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms140918385
[17] Masana, M.I., Doolen, S., Ersahin, C., Al-Ghoul, W.M., Duckles, S.P., Dubocovich, M.L. and Krause, D.N. (2002) MT2 Melatonin Receptors Are Present and Functional in Rat Caudal Artery. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental, 302, 1295-1302.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.302.3.1295
[18] Dubocovich, M.L., Delagrange, P., Krause, D.N., Sugden, D., Cardinali, D.P. and Olcese, J. (2010) International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXV. Nomenclature, Classification and Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Melatonin Receptors. Pharmacological Reviews, 62, 343-380.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/pr.110.002832
[19] Li, D.Y., Smith, D.G., Hardeland, R., Yang, M.Y., Xu, H.L., Zhang, L., Yin, H.D. and Zhu, Q. (2013) Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 11208-11223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms140611208
[20] Tunstall, R.R., Shukla, P., Grazul-Bilska, A., Sun, C. and O’Rourke, S.T. (2011) MT2 Receptors Mediate the Inhibitory Effects of Melatonin on Nitric Oxide-Induced Relaxation of Porcine Isolated Coronary Arteries. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 336, 127-133.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.110.174482
[21] Malpaux, B., Tricoire, H., Mailliet, F., Daveau, A., Migaud, M., Skinner, D.C., Pelletier, J. and Chemineau, P. (2002) Melatonin and Seasonal Reproduction: Understanding the Neuroendocrine Mechanisms Using the Sheep as a Model. Reproduction (Cambridge, England) Supplement, 59, 167-179.
[22] Ram, P.T., Dai, J., Yuan, L., Dong, C., Kiefer, T.L., Lai, L. and Hill, S.M. (2002) Involvement of the Mt1 Melatonin Receptor in Human Breast Cancer. Cancer Letters, 179, 141-150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3835(01)00873-4
[23] Srinivasan, V., Pandi-Perumal, S.R., Brzezinski, A., Bhatnagar, K.P. and Cardinali, D.P. (2011) Melatonin, Immune Function and Cancer. Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery, 5, 109-123.
[24] Witt-Enderby, P.A., Bennett, J., Jarzynka, M.J., Firestine, S. and Melissa, A. (2003) Melatonin Receptors and Their Regulation: Biochemical and Structural Mechanisms. Life Sciences, 72, 2183-2198.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0024-3205(03)00098-5
[25] Rosales-Corral, S.A. Acuña-Castroviejo, D., Coto-Montes, A., Boga, J.A., Manchester, L.C., Fuentes-Broto, L., Korkmaz, A., Ma, S., Tan, D.X. and Reiter, R.J. (2012) Alzheimer’s Disease: Pathological Mechanisms and the Beneficial Role of Melatonin. Journal of Pineal Research, 52, 167-202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2011.00937.x
[26] Radogna, F., Diederich, M. and Ghibelli, L. (2010) Melatonin: A Pleiotropic Molecule Regulating Inflammation. Biochemical Pharmacology, 80, 1844-1852.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2010.07.041
[27] Di Bella, G., Mascia, F., Gualano, L. and Di Bella, L. (2013) Melatonin Anticancer Effects: Review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 2410-2430.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms14022410
[28] Soto-Vega, E., Meza, I., Ramírez-Rodríguez, G. and Benitez-King, G. (2004) Melatonin Stimulates Calmodulin Phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C. Journal of Pineal Research, 37, 98-106.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2004.00141.x
[29] Srinivasan, V., Pandi-Perumal, S.R., Brown, G.M., Cardinali, D.P., Spence, D.W. and Hardeland, R. (2011) Melatonin: A Pleiotropic, Orchestrating Regulator Molecule. Progress in Neurobiology, 93, 350-384.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2010.12.004
[30] Acuña-Castroviejo, D., Martín, M., Macías, M., Escames, G., León, J., Khaldy, H. and Reiter, R.J. (2001) Melatonin, Mitochondria and Cellular Bioenergetics. Journal of Pineal Research, 30, 65-74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-079X.2001.300201.x
[31] Dilek, M., Naziroglu, M., Oral, H.B., Ovey, I.S., Küçükayaz, M., Mungan, M.T., Kara, H.Y. and Sütçü, R. (2010) Melatonin Modulates Hippocampus NMDA Receptors, Blood and Brain Oxidative Stress Levels in Ovariectomized Rats. Journal of Membrane Biology, 233, 135-142.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00232-010-9233-x
[32] Reiter, R.J., Tan, D.X., Osuna, C. and Gitto, E. (2000) Actions of Melatonin in the Reduction of Oxidative Stress. Journal of Biomedical Science, 7, 444-448.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02253360
[33] Baldassarri1, V., Salucci1, S., Curzi1, D., Burattini, S. and Falcieri, E. (2012) Cytoprotective Effects of Melatonin in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Cells: A Multiple Technical Approach. Italian Journal of Anatomy and Embryology, 117, 15.
[34] Parlakpinar, H., Sahna, E., Ozer, M.K., Ozugurlu, F., Vardi, N. and Acet, A. (2002) Physiological and Pharmacological Concentrations of Melatonin Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Toxicity. Journal of Pineal Research, 33, 161-167.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-079X.2002.02910.x
[35] Poeggeler, B., Saarela, S., Reiter, R.J., Tan, D.-X., Chen, L.-D., Manchester, L.C. and Barlow-Walden, L.R. (2006) Melatonin—A Highly Potent Endogenous Radical Scavenger and Electron Donor: New Aspects of the Oxidation Chemistry of This Indole Accessed in Vitro. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 738, 419-420.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb21831.x
[36] Shirinzadeh, H., Eren, B., Gurer-Orhan, H., Suzen, S. and Özden, S. (2010) Novel Indole-Based Analogs of Melatonin: Synthesis and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity Studies. Molecules, 15, 2187-2202.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules15042187
[37] Turjanski, A.G., Saenz, D.A., Doctorovich, F., Estrin, D.A. and Rosenstein, R.E. (2001) Nitrosation of Melatonin by Nitric Oxide: A Computational Study. Journal of Pineal Research, 31, 97-101.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-079x.2001.310201.x
[38] Blanchard, B., Pompon, D. and Ducroq, C. (2000) Nitrosation of Melatonin by Nitric Oxide and Peroxynitrite. Journal of Pineal Research, 29, 184-192.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-079X.2000.290308.x
[39] Bondy, S.C., Lahiri, D.K., Perreau, V.M., Sharman, K.Z., Campbell, A., Zhou, J. and Sharman, E.H. (2004) Retardation of Brain Aging by Chronic Treatment with Melatonin. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1035, 197-215.
[40] du Plessis, S.S., Hagenaar, K. and Lampiao, F. (2010) The in Vitro Effects of Melatonin on Human Sperm Function and Its Scavenging Activities on NO and ROS. Andrologia, 42, 112-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0272.2009.00964.x
[41] Bonnefont-Rousselot, D. and Collin, F. (2010) Melatonin: Action as Antioxidant and Potential Applications in Human Disease and Aging. Toxicology, 278, 55-67.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2010.04.008
[42] Barja, G. (2004) Free Radicals and Aging. Trends in Neurosciences, 27, 595-600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2004.07.005
[43] Wu, Y.H. and Dick, F.S. (2005) The Human Pineal Gland and Melatonin in Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Pineal Research, 38, 145-152.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2004.00196.x
[44] Velázquez-Paniagua, M., Contreras-Pérez, R., Gómez-Vidales, V., Meneses-Pérez, M.A. and Prieto-Gómez, B. (2007) Melatonin’s Effects on Free Radical Levels in Rat Hippocampus, Measured by Electronic Paramagnetic Resonance. Pharmacologyonline, 1, 170-175.
[45] Prieto-Gomez, B., Velazquez-Paniagua, M., Olivos-Cisneros, L., Reyes-Vazquez, C., Jimenez-Trejo, F., Reyes, M.E., Mendoza-Torreblanca, J. and Gutierrez-Ospina, G. (2008) Melatonin Attenuates the Decrement of Dendritic Protein MAP-2 Immuno-Staining in the Hippocampal CA1 and CA3 Fields of the Aging Male Rat. Neuroscience Letters, 448, 56-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2008.10.041
[46] Perez-Torres, D., Reyes-Vázquez, C., Velázquez-Paniagua, M. and Prieto-Gómez, B. (2014) Melatonin Changes the Electrical Spontaneous Activity of Hippocampal Rat Neurons at Different Ages. Advances in Aging Research, 3, 29-34.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aar.2014.31006
[47] Rameswhar, S. and Sharma, D. (2005) Electrophysiology Ageing of the Brain and Pharmacology of Ageing. In: Thakur, M.K. and Prasad, S., Eds., Molecular and Cellular Neurobiology, Narosa Publishing House Private Limited, New Delhi, 135-148.
[48] Reiter, R.J., Tan, D.X., Osuna, C. and Gitto, E. (2000) Actions of Melatonin in the Reduction of Oxidative Stress. A Review. Journal of Biomedical Science, 7, 444-458.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02253360
[49] Reiter, R.J., Tan, D.X., Mayo, J.C., Sainz, R.M., Leon, J. and Czarnocki, Z. (2003) Melatonin as an Antioxidant: Biochemical Mechanisms and Pathophysiological Implications in Humans. Acta Biochimica Polonica, 50, 1129-1146.
[50] Bharti, V.K. and Srivastava, R.S. (2009) Pineal Proteins Upregulate Specific Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Brain. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2, 88-92.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/oxim.2.2.8361
[51] Hardeland, R. (2009) Neuroprotection by Radical Avoidance: Search for Suitable Agents. Molecules, 14, 5054-5102.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules14125054
[52] Mayo, J.C., Tan, D.X., Sainz, R.M., Natarajan, M., Lopez-Burillo, S. and Reiter, R.J. (2003) Protection against Oxidative Protein Damage Induced by Metal-Catalyzed Reaction or alkylperoxyl Radicals: Comparative Effects of Melatonin and Other Antioxidants. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1620, 139-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-4165(02)00527-5
[53] Samir, M., Sawhney, G. and Pandhi, P. (2004) The Therapeutic Potential of Melatonin: A Review of the Science. Archive of Medscape General Medicine, 6, 46.
[54] Vinogradova1, A.I., Anisimov, V.N., Bukalev1, A.N., Ilyukha1, V.A., Khizhkin, E.A., Lotosh, T.A., Semenchenko, A.V. and Zabezhinski, M.A. (2010) Circadian Disruption Induced by Light-at-Night Accelerates Aging and Promotes Tumorigenesis in Young but Not in Old Rats. Aging, 2, 82-92.
[55] http://www.lef.org/
[56] Bonmati-Carrion, M.A., álvarez-Sánchez, N., Hardeland, R., Madrid, J.A. and Rol, M.A. (2013) A Comparison of B16 Melanoma Cells and 3T3 Fibroblasts Concerning Cell Viability and ROS Production in the Presence of Melatonin, Tested over a Wide Range of Concentrations. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 3901-3920.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms14023901
[57] Voordouw, B.C., Euser, R., Verdonk, R.E., Alberda, B.T., de Jong, F.H., Drogendijk, A.C., Fauser, B.C. and Cohen, M. (2013) Melatonin and Melatonin-Progestin Combinations Alter Pituitary-Ovarian Function in Women and Can Inhibit Ovulation.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jcem.74.1.1727807
[58] Gwayi, N. and Bernard, R.T. (2002) The Effects of Melatonin on Sperm Motility in Vitro in Wistar Rats. Andrologia, 34, 391-396.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0272.2002.00522.x
[59] Gutiérrez-Ruiz, J., Granados-Canseco, F., Martínez-Esparza, C., Velázquez-Paniagua, M. and Prieto-Gómez, B. (2006) Chronic Melatonin Application Modifies the Cytoarchitecture of Testis and Decreases the Sperm Number in Wistar Rat. Pharmacologyonline, 3, 422-427.                     eww140919lx