The Addition of Midazolam Reduces the Incidence of Early Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Short Time Gynecological Procedures

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53365#.VMBjCyzQrzE

ABSTRACT

Background: If untreated, one third of patients who undergo surgery develop postoperative nausea and/or vomiting (PONV). The prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting can improve satisfaction among vulnerable patients. We hypothesized that preoperative anxiety may increase the incidence of PONV. The objective was to assess whether administration of a benzodiazepine prior to surgery would reduce the incidence of PONV. Methods: 130 women (ASA I and II) scheduled to undergo dilatation and curettage comprised the study group. The women were allocated randomly to two study groups according to the type of anesthesia administered (with and without midazolam). Results: Sixty-eight women received midazolam and 62 did not. Patients treated with midazolam were feeling more comfortable (“friendliness”, p = 0.005 and “elation”, p = 0.01) and had less postoperative fatigue (p = 0.04) than non-midazolam-treated group. Patients treated with midazolam had significantly fewer emetic episodes during the first 4 hours after surgery than those without midazolam (0.1 ± 0.2 vs 0.3 ± 0.6, respectively, p = 0.003). Conclusions: Midazolam reduces the incidence of PONV and improves patient’s comfort. We suggest that midazolam has to be routinely included in the anesthesia protocol for short-term gynecological procedures (dilatation and curettage).

Cite this paper

Rozentsveig, V. , Brotfain, E. , Klein, M. , Koyfman, L. , Boyko, M. and Zlotnik, A. (2015) The Addition of Midazolam Reduces the Incidence of Early Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Short Time Gynecological Procedures. Open Journal of Anesthesiology, 5, 13-19. doi: 10.4236/ojanes.2015.51003.

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Does Early Improvement in Anxiety Symptoms in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Affect Remission Rates? A Post-Hoc Analysis of Pooled Duloxetine Clinic Trials

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=48963#.VJjj9cCAM4

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder or significant anxiety symptoms have decreased functioning, increased risk of suicidality, and worse post-treatment outcomes. This pooled analysis of 8 duloxetine MDD trials was designed to determine whether early improvement in anxiety symptoms predicts MDD remission. Methods: Eight trials were pooled. Patients with a baseline 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HA-MD17) anxiety/somatization factor score ≥7 were considered to have anxious depression. Early response on the HAMD17 total score was defined as a 20% reduction at weeks 2 or 4, a 30% reduction at weeks 2 or 4, or a 50% reduction at weeks 2 or 4 in the HAMD17 anxiety subscale. Each category was analyzed separately for all patients. MDD remission is a score of ≤7 on the HAMD17 total score at study endpoint. Results: The early responder group in each analysis showed greater numerical improvement at endpoint on the HAMD17 total score than the nonresponder group. Duloxetine showed statistically significantly greater improvement than placebo in most nonresponder and responder subgroups. There were no statistically significant interaction effects for the difference between duloxetine and placebo for any of the anxious categories. Conclusion: Although patients who responded in the various response categories had greater numerical improvement and greater remission rates than nonresponding patients, the response and nonresponse groups did not differ statistically regarding the treatment effect of duloxetine. Therefore, early improvement in anxiety symptoms was not a predictor of greater endpoint remission of depressive symptoms for duloxetine treatment.

Cite this paper

Altin, M. , Harada, E. , Schacht, A. , Berggren, L. , Walker, D. and Dueñas, H. (2014) Does Early Improvement in Anxiety Symptoms in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder Affect Remission Rates? A Post-Hoc Analysis of Pooled Duloxetine Clinic Trials. Open Journal of Depression, 3, 112-123. doi: 10.4236/ojd.2014.33015.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v63n0303                                                                                          eww141223lx

Altered Neurogranin Phosphorylation and Protein Levels are Associated with Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats Following Forced Swim Stress

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51699#.VHUk52fHRK0

ABSTRACT

Here we tested the hypothesis that stress-induced alterations in Neurogranin (Ng) synthesis and/ or utilization might underlie stress-related depression and anxiety. Rats were randomly divided into five conditions: chronic swim stress (CS), acute swim stress (AS), and three control groups. The CS group was exposed to daily swim stress (5 min/day) for 14 consecutive days, the AS group received a single swim stress, and control groups were maintained in a stress-free condition. Both before and after swim stress, rats were tested for body weight gain, open-field locomotor activity, and saccharine preference. Ng and phospho-Ng (P-Ng) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined by Western blot analysis. Compared to controls, CS animals displayed significantly decreased body weight gain, ambulation, and saccharine intake, and increased grooming behavior. CS animals had decreased Ng levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In CS animals, Ng levels were positively correlated with saccharine intake and ambulation, and inversely correlated with grooming behavior. Compared to controls, AS increased immobility behavior and P-Ng and Ng levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In AS animals, immobility behavior was positively correlated with the P-Ng in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, CS and AS produced opposing effects on Ng and P-Ng levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Low Ng levels in the hippocampus were associated with anhedonic behavior in CS animals, whereas high P-Ng levels in the prefrontal cortex were associated with anxiety-like behavior in AS animals. Thus, Ng dysfunction might contribute to the neural mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression and anxiety.

Cite this paper

Li, H. , Lin, W. , Li, J. and Wang, W. (2014) Altered Neurogranin Phosphorylation and Protein Levels are Associated with Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats Following Forced Swim Stress. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 4, 506-522. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.411050.

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Shoulda’ Put a Ring on It: Investigating Adult Attachment, Relationship Status, Anxiety, Mindfulness, and Resilience in Romantic Relationships

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51644#.VHPT02fHRK0

Author(s)

Aileen M. Pidgeon, Alexandra C. Giufre*

Affiliation(s)

Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia.

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the predictive ability of relationship status, anxiety, mindfulness, and resilience in relation to the two orthogonal dimensions of adult attachment: attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. 156 participants completed measures assessing relationship status, adult attachment, anxiety, mindfulness and resilience. The results showed that resilience and the relationship status of single significantly predicted attachment anxiety, whereas anxiety and being either single or divorced significantly predicted attachment avoidance. A significant mediating role of resilience in the prediction of attachment anxiety from being single was also observed. The main implications of this study provided preliminary support for the significant predictive value of resilience in attachment anxiety.

KEYWORDS

Attachment, Romantic Relationships, Relationship Status, Anxiety, Mindfulness, Resilience

Cite this paper

Pidgeon, A. and Giufre, A. (2014) Shoulda’ Put a Ring on It: Investigating Adult Attachment, Relationship Status, Anxiety, Mindfulness, and Resilience in Romantic Relationships. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 32-40. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.211005.

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Psychosocial Moderators of Perceived Stress, Anxiety and Depression in University Students: An International Study

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51642#.VHPSf2fHRK0

Author(s)

Aileen M. Pidgeon1, Stephanie McGrath2*, Heidi B. Magya3, Peta Stapleton1, Barbara C. Y. Lo4

Affiliation(s)

1PhD (Clin) Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia.
2Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia.
3ARNP, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
4PhD University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT

Extensive research shows university students experience high levels of stress, which can lead to the development of mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. Preliminary evidence supports the role of psychosocial factors such as perceived social support (PSS) and campus connectedness (CC) as protective factors in the development of mental health problems in university students. However, research conducted on the potential ameliorating effects of social support on stress applying Cohen and Wills’ (1985) stress-buffering hypothesis produced weak, inconsistent, and even contradictory results. In addition, little attention has been given to examining the protective role of CC in the relationships between perceived stress, anxiety, and depression. The cur- rent study examined the applicability of CC and PSS in buffering the relationships been perceived stress, anxiety, and depression across an international sample comprised of university students (N = 206) from Australia, Hong Kong, and the United States. The prediction that CC and PSS would moderate the relationships between perceived stress, anxiety, and depression was partially sup- ported. The results indicated CC moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depression but did not moderate the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety. PSS did not moderate the relationship between perceived stress and depression or the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety, thus rejecting the stress-buffering hypothesis. These findings sug- gest less emphasis should be placed on PSS as a protective factor, with universities focusing on enhancing CC to reduce the high prevalence of mental health problems to promote psychological wellbeing among students.

KEYWORDS

Perceived Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Psychosocial, Perceived Social Support, Campus Connectedness, Stress-Buffering Hypothesis, Moderating, Buffering

Cite this paper

Pidgeon, A. , McGrath, S. , Magya, H. , Stapleton, P. and Lo, B. (2014) Psychosocial Moderators of Perceived Stress, Anxiety and Depression in University Students: An International Study. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 23-31. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.211004.

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An Exploratory Study: Reducing Nursing Students Stress Levels Facilitate Perceived Quality of Patient Care

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47027#.VGLKwGfHRK0

ABSTRACT

The aim of this project was to examine if stress levels in Associate Degree (AD) nursing students can affect their perceived quality of care provided to patients. Nursing students experience tremendous amounts of stress especially during their clinical experience. High levels of stress may affect the quality of patient care provided. This project implemented a stress reducing workshop and an instructional deep breathing compact disk (CD) to determine the effects of this intervention upon the stress levels of nursing students and the quality of care provided to patients. Nursing students completed a workshop where recognition of stress producing situations and effective ways to deal with them were discussed. Each student was provided with a CD containing a ten minute instructional deep breathing exercise which they were asked to listen to five times a week for six weeks. Nursing students were asked to complete Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Student Perception of Quality of Patient Care Provided questionnaire prior to and after the implementation of the intervention. The results of the two questionnaires were compared to determine effectiveness of the stress reducing interventions. Using paired t scores, results demonstrated that students’ stress levels were decreased and student’s perception of quality of patient care provided improved after the stress reducing interventions.

Cite this paper

Williams, K. (2014) An Exploratory Study: Reducing Nursing Students Stress Levels Facilitate Perceived Quality of Patient Care. Open Journal of Nursing, 4, 512-519. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2014.47054.

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Effect of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil and Haloperidol on Anxiety in Male Mice

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51297#.VGK7cWfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Relationship between sociability and the amount of brain’s dopamine is very well known. In this study, we have examined the effect of Citrus aurantium L. essential oil on anxiety and its interaction with dopaminergic pathways. 70 male mice were assigned into experimental, control, and sham groups. Essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. was injected intraperitonealy at doses of 0.5%, 2.5% and 5% for 5 days. Subcutaneous injection of haloperidol was administered on the fifth day, 30 minutes before the injection of the essential oil. The anxiety-related behavior of mice was then assessed by elevated plus-maze test. The result of this study showed that the injection of Citrus aurantium L. essential oil at doses of 2.5% and 5% increased significantly the time spent in the open arms (OAT) (p < 0.001), also there was a significant increase in the number of entries into the open arms (OAE). Injection of different doses of the essential oil along with haloperidol significantly increased OAT (p < 0.001(. The results demonstrate that the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. along with haloperidol medication reduces anxiety-related behaviors.

Cite this paper

Khakpour, S. , Khosravi, M. , Mashayekhipour, Z. and Jahromy, M. (2014) Effect of Citrus aurantium L. Essential Oil and Haloperidol on Anxiety in Male Mice. World Journal of Neuroscience, 4, 427-433. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2014.45047.

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