Spectrum of Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in Children: A Single-Center Experience from Western Provence of Saudi Arabia

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The aim of this study was to describe the common presentation, frequency, and complications of Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) in patients <18 years who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah over the last 12 years. We performed a retrospective chart review of the medical records of all patients diagnosed as HSP. During this period, only 29 cases were reported (15 males, 14 females), with the mean age at the diagnosis 7.5 years. 82% percent of the patients had joint involvement in the form of arthritis or arthralgia; 17.2% had no joint involvement. Abdominal manifestations were reported in 72.4% of the patients, while renal involvement was documented in 24.1% of the cases; two patients had scrotal involvement. Four patients (13.7%) had a recurrence within four months of HSP diagnosis. However, all patients had full recovery within a month. More research is warranted to study the prevalence, clinical manifestations, preceding factors, and complications of HSP in a Saudi-based cohort.

Cite this paper

Bukhari, E. , Al-Sofyani, K. and Muzaffer, M. (2015) Spectrum of Henoch-Schonlein Purpura in Children: A Single-Center Experience from Western Provence of Saudi Arabia. Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases, 5, 17-22. doi: 10.4236/ojra.2015.51004.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mpd.2000.103448                                    eww150226lx
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Cycloplegic Refraction in Children: A Complete Audit Cycle

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Purpose: Use of appropriate cycloplegic agent is an essential area of management in children with strabismus and refractive error. This study was designed to audit our own department’s understanding and practice with respect to cycloplegia. Methods: Children in age group of 0 – 12 years with refractive errors and strabismus were evaluated with respect to four parameters: adherence to cycloplegic refraction (group-I), choice of cycloplegic agent (group-II), dosage of cycloplegia (group-III) and duration of cycloplegia (group-IV). Following the initial audit, the hospital audit committee evaluated the results; thereafter concerned staff was educated and aidememoires of the dilatation protocol were introduced; a second audit cycle was carried out after 3 months. Results: First and second audit cycle included 334 children (mean age 6.2 ± 2.2 years) and 436 children (mean age 7.25 ± 2.9 years) respectively. A statistically significant improvement was found in all four parameters in the second audit cycle: adherence to dilation protocol (82.3% in first cycle to 94.3% in second cycle; p = 0.001), choice of cycloplegic agent (77% in the first cycle to 94.8% in the second cycle; p = 0.001), dosage of cycloplegic agent (84% in the first cycle to 96.3% in the second cycle; p = 0.001) and duration of cycloplegic agents (65% in the first cycle to 97.5% in the second cycle; p = 0.001 for CTC and 71.8% in the first cycle to 98% in the second cycle; p = 0.001 for Tropicamide). Conclusions: A complete audit cycle demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all four parameters related to cycloplegic refraction in children. Regular auditing coupled with targeted interventions aimed to maintain the “best practice guidelines” for determination of refractive errors in children could prove effective in improving standards of clinical practice.

Cite this paper

Ganesh, S. , Arora, P. , Sethi, S. and Gurung, C. (2015) Cycloplegic Refraction in Children: A Complete Audit Cycle. Open Journal of Ophthalmology, 5, 41-45. doi: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.51007.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/fampra/17.suppl_1.S7                                      eww150225lx

Sickle Cell Anaemia: Errors in Haemoglobin Genotyping: Impact on Parents of Children Attending Two Hospitals in South East Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

Objectives: The study is aimed at determining that errors in assigning genotypes to intending couples do exist; and the impact of these errors on parents. Methods: The study was conducted at the children clinics in Enugu and Abakiliki, south east Nigeria. It is a cross-sectional retrospective study in which a review of the records of all the children attending 2 private clinics in Enugu and Abakaliki of Enugu and Ebonyi states respectively, over a 3-year period was done. Results: A total of 6006 children attended the children clinics over the study period. Twenty three (23) of them had sickle cell anaemia. Out of the 23 cases 10 (43.5%) were males and 13 (56.5%) were females. Male to female ratio was 1:1.3. The commonest features were abdominal and leg pains, involving 20 (87%) and 21 (91.3 %) respectively. Among the 23 parents that had their genotypes repeated, 9 males had different genotypes from what they had during courtship or before marriage. The genotypes of all the females that could recall their genotypes before marriage or during courtship were the same after a repeat test. Conclusions: There exist errors in assigning genotypes to parents which at the end made them have children with sickle cell anemia, unwittingly, with serious consequences bordering on strained relationship between the parents with the children bearing the brunt.

Cite this paper

Chinawa, J. , Manyike, P. , Aronu, A. , Obu, H. and Chinawa, A. (2015) Sickle Cell Anaemia: Errors in Haemoglobin Genotyping: Impact on Parents of Children Attending Two Hospitals in South East Nigeria. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 5, 7-11. doi: 10.4236/ojped.2015.51002.

References

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An Unusual Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Fractured in Vivo with Embolization Happened in a Child: A Case Report

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ABSTRACT

We report a case of a 7-year-old child who received a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) for chemotherapy. He suffered from an unusual PICC fracture in vivo with pulmonary embolism after eight circles of chemotherapeutic agents administered. In this case report, we review the literatures for the underlying pathophysiology of this uncommon phenomenon. IV nurses should consider the possibility of the infusion dysfunction deriving from the PICC line fractured. Accurate tip catheter placement and specific care may reduce morbidity.

Cite this paper

Fang, F. , Zhang, H. and Yang, W. (2015) An Unusual Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Fractured in Vivo with Embolization Happened in a Child: A Case Report. Case Reports in Clinical Medicine, 4, 10-13. doi: 10.4236/crcm.2015.41003.

References

[1] Kossoff, E.H. and Poirier, M.P. (1998) Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheter Fracture and Embolization to the Lung. Pediatric Emergency Care, 14, 403-405.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006565-199812000-00006
[2] Shen, G.M. and Gao, Y.J. (2009) Survey of the Long-Term Use of Peripherally Inserted Central Venous Catheters in Children with Cancer Experience in a Developing Country. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, 31, 489-492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPH.0b013e318190d740
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.RVI.0000128812.20864.EC                                             eww150113lx

Study of Vision Problems in Schools in Libreville and Owendo, Gabon

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ABSTRACT

<span “=””>The purpose of this work is to evaluate the epidemiological aspects of vision problems and their repercussions in the schooling of children in Libreville and Owendo. Methodology: This transversal and descriptive study was carried out in May and June 2011. Included in the study were children in the 7th and 8th grades of the primary schools in Libreville and Owendo. For each child, an eye exam, including the subjective measure of visual acuity, was carried out using the Monoyer scale, and the color vision assessment was carried out with the Ishihara test. Any visual capacity under or equal to 7/10th in at least one eye was considered to be pathological. We gathered information about demographic characteristics, any preceding vision issues on the record, data on other medical problems on the record and the eye examination on computer cards. Results: Nine hundred and sixty-three children (416 boys and 517 girls, with a gender ratio of 0.86) were examined. The average age was 12<span “=””> <span “=””>±<span “=””> <span “=””>1.7 years old. The prevalence of the drop in visual acuity was 16.2%. The prevalence of color vision anomalies was 15.5%. Complaints concerning vision problems were significantly more present from children with a drop in visual acuity (p<span “=””> <span “=””><<span “=””> <span “=””>0.01). Visual anomalies had an impact on the children’s schoolwork, and yet, visits to the ophthalmologist’s office were few. Conclusion: The frequency of anomalies in vision justifies systematic screening in schools and organization of an appropriate treatment.<span “=””>

Cite this paper

Ategbo, S. , Koko, J. , Ngoungou, E. , Kuissi, E. , Tchapbou, C. , Minto’o, S. , Mengome, E. and Moussavou, A. (2014) Study of Vision Problems in Schools in Libreville and Owendo, Gabon. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 4, 300-306. doi: 10.4236/ojped.2014.44041.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0181-5512(07)89660-4
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[16] Tabone, M.D., Vincelet, C., Leclerq, J.P. and Clogenson, M.F. (2000) Dépistage des anomalies de la vision à l’age préscolaire: Expérience du centre de bilans de santé de l’enfant de Paris. Archives dePédiatrie, 7, 1274-1283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0929-693X(00)00143-3
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[18] Jeddi, A., Ben Hadj Alouane, W., Hammoud, M., Malouch, N., Zghal, I., Ayed, S. and Zouari, B. (2002) Apport de la correction totale après cycloplégie dans les céphalées. Journal Fran?ais d’Ophtalmologie, 25, 270-273.
[19] Zhao, J., Pan, X., Sui, R., Munoz, S., Sperduto, H.D. and Ellwein, L.B. (2000) Refractive Error Study in Children: Results from Shunyi District, China. American Journal of Ophtalmology, 129, 427-435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9394(99)00452-3
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Immunological Responses against Different Lineages of Influenza B Antigen in School Children during Two Consecutive Seasons

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52499#.VJohBcCAM4

ABSTRACT

While Influenza B viruses currently circulating worldwide are of two distinct evolutionary hemagglutinin lineages, current trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccines (TIV) contain only a single component. Single doses of TIV containing B antigen of B/Florida/4/2006 (Yamagata-like) or B/Brisbane/60/2008 (Victoria-like) were administered during 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 influenza seasons, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunological response against different lineages of B antigens in school-aged children. A non-randomized sero-epidemiological study was conducted and the immunogenicity responses based on sero-protection rate and geometric mean titre ratio (GMTR) of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibodies were measured before and after immunization as well as post-influenza season. Our results suggested that school-aged children under the age of 9 years receiving TIV vaccination induced and retained higher level of sero-protection rate (66.7% and 69% for the 2008-09 and 2009-10 season, respectively) to the homologous lineage than the heterologous lineage post-vaccination (19.4% and 27.6% for the 2008-09 and 2009-10 season, respectively). The need for the quadrivalent TIV by including both lineages of influenza B viruses is recommended in this study, particularly for children under the age of 9 years.

Cite this paper

Chao, D. , Cheng, K. , Liao, Y. , Liu, M. , Hsieh, Y. , Li, T. , Wu, T. and Chen, C. (2014) Immunological Responses against Different Lineages of Influenza B Antigen in School Children during Two Consecutive Seasons. Health, 6, 2837-2847. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.621322.

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Healthy Children Arizona: Early Intervention for Prevention

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49363#.VI5UmcnQrzE

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>The Healthy Children Arizona (HCA) program was developed to promote early, positive exposure to cancer-preventive diet, physical activity and sun safety behaviors. Five lessons delivered weekly were evaluated by classroom teachers while pre- and post-curriculum surveys examined increases in students’ understanding of concepts and self-reported behavior. The first and second graders and their teachers in ethnically diverse elementary schools (including Title 1) in Tucson and Phoenix, Arizona participated in the curriculum assessment. All 5 interactive lessons were highly rated by teachers in qualitative assessments. Aggregated analyses of pre- (n = 582) and post- (n = 588) comparison tests indicated that the HCA curriculum significantly increased students’ knowledge of each of six measured concepts (p < 0.0001), although correct choice of muscle-building foods (25%), whole grain items (78%) and target time for daily exercise (61%) were lower than desired. Mean self-reported fruit and vegetable servings eaten in the previous day increased from 3.1 ± 1.8 to 3.8 ± 1.6 (p < 0.0001). The HCA curriculum significantly improved cancer prevention knowledge among primary school children.

Cite this paper

Plattner, S. , McCartney, G. , Thomson, C. , Balderama, A. , Alberts, D. and Foote, J. (2014) Healthy Children Arizona: Early Intervention for Prevention. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, 689-698. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48078.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10598405030190020601                                                                    eww141215lx