Green Energy: Examining Their Effects on Heritage Sites and Climate Change Mitigation

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The damage which brought about global warming and climate change to heritage sites is more or less immutable. However, further deterioration could be slowed, if not stopped, with the patronization of green energy. Three sources of green energy, namely solar power, wind power, and hydropower were discussed in this research. Their indirect role in preserving heritage sites was examined and their cumulative effects on mitigating climate change were also cited. Results showed that the climate might have been continually changing for the past thousands of years. The effects of climate change and global warming on the arctic ice, carbon dioxide concentration, sea levels, global surface temperature and land ice status were undeniable. These factors greatly contributed to the deterioration of the preservation of world heritage sites.

Cite this paper

Al-Zubaidy, M. (2015) Green Energy: Examining Their Effects on Heritage Sites and Climate Change Mitigation. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 5, 39-52. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2015.51005.

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Combined Effects of Temperature and Nutrient Enrichment on Palatability of the Brown Alga Sargassum yezoense (Yamada) Yoshida & T. Konno

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53668#.VM8r5CzQrzE

ABSTRACT

Global warming is predicted to strengthen marine plant-herbivore interactions. However, little is known about the effect of temperature on palatability and the associated chemical composition of marine macroalgae. To study the effects of physiological stress caused by the warm water temperatures and nutrient-poor conditions that occur during summer, we cultured the brown alga Sargassum yezoense at three different temperatures (16°C, 22°C, and 28°C) in both nutrient-enriched and non-enriched media. We then compared phlorotannin (i.e., defensive compounds) and nitrogen concentrations of S. yezoense as well as consumption rate by the sea urchin Hemicetrotus pulcherrimus among the treatment groups. No effect of culture temperature on phlorotannin and ni-trogen concentrations or consumption rate was detected. Nutrient enrichment resulted in decreased phlorotannin concentration and increased nitrogen concentration. Although nutrient enrichment did not affect consumption rate, a positive correlation between nitrogen concentration and consumption rate was detected. In contrast, there was no correlation between phlorotannin concentration and consumption rate. These results suggested that palatability of S. yezoense to H. pulcherrimus might not be affected by elevated temperature but that it could increase with nutrient enrichment.

Cite this paper

Endo, H. , Suehiro, K. , Kinoshita, J. and Agatsuma, Y. (2015) Combined Effects of Temperature and Nutrient Enrichment on Palatability of the Brown Alga Sargassum yezoense (Yamada) Yoshida & T. Konno. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 275-282. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.62031.

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A Case Study on Climate Change Response and Adaptation: Fictional Aysese Islands in the South Pacific

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52880#.VKtMi8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), established by the United Nations and World Meteorological Organization, has determined that humans have very likely influenced a net warming to the Earth from the increase of greenhouse gases, aerosols and land use changes. This warming has caused the amount of ice on the Earth to continue to decrease and sea levels to rise. In addition, extreme precipitation events are happening more often in selected regions of the world. A case study that assesses the impacts of, and adaptations to, these changes in climate is presented here. Two modeling programs, Sim CLIM and Train CLIM, (CLIM Systems, Hamilton, New Zealand) were used to support assessments for water supply, coastal zones and tropical cyclones in a fictitious island group in the South Pacific region. In the case study, a consulting group was “hired” to carry out these assessments. A final analysis and synthesis report were created to help the Ministry of the Environment of the made-up nation decide how to improve the governmental actions to address the real concerns posed by changing climate and sea level. Although a simulated island group is used in this article, there are sincere concerns about climate change and extreme weather events in this part of the world. It is important to address the real and dangerous threat that these islands and people face in the wake of a changing climate and a growing global society.

Cite this paper

Cannon, A. , Lalor, P. , Sriharan, S. , Fan, C. and Ozbay, G. (2014) A Case Study on Climate Change Response and Adaptation: Fictional Aysese Islands in the South Pacific. American Journal of Climate Change, 3, 455-473. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.35040.

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[11] Nicholls, R.J., Hoozemans, F.M.J. and Marchand, M. (1999) Increasing Flood Risk and Wetland Losses Due to Global Sea-Level Rise: Regional and Global Analyses. Global Environmental Change, 9, S69-S87.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-3780(99)00019-9                                                            eww150105lx

Can the Iberian Floristic Diversity Withstand Near-Future Climate Change?

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52760#.VKNQOMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

We assess how effectively the current network of protected areas (PAs) across the Iberian Peninsula will conserve plant diversity under near-future (2020) climate change. We computed 3267 MAXENT environmental niche models (ENMs) at 1-km spatial resolution for known Iberian plant species under two climate scenarios (1950-2000 baseline & 2020). To predict near-future species distributions across the network of Iberian and Balearics PAs, we combined projections of species’ ENMs with simulations of propagule dispersal by using six scenarios of annual dispersal rates (no dispersal, 0.1 km, 0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km and unlimited). Mined PA grid cell values for each species were then analyzed. We forecast 3% overall floristic diversity richness loss by 2020. The habitat of regionally extant species will contract on average by 13.14%. Niche movement exceeds 1 km per annum for 30% of extant species. While the southerly range margin of northern plant species retracts northward at 8.9 km per decade, overall niche movement is more easterly and westerly than northerly. There is little expansion of the northern range margin of southern plant species even under unlimited dispersal. Regardless of propagule dispersal rate, altitudinal niche movement of +25 m per decade is strongest for northern species. Pyrenees flora is most vulnerable to near-future climate change with many northern plant species responding by shifting their range westerly and easterly rather than northerly. Northern humid habitats will be particularly vulnerable to near-future climate change. Andalusian National Parks will become important southern biodiversity refuges. With limited human intervention (particularly in the Pyrenees), we conclude that floristic diversity in Iberian PAs should withstand near-future climate change.

Cite this paper

Heap, M. , Culham, A. , Lenoir, J. and Gavilán, R. (2014) Can the Iberian Floristic Diversity Withstand Near-Future Climate Change?. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 1089-1101. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.417089.

References

[1] Chen, I.C., Hill, J.K., Ohlemüller, R., Roy, D.B. and Thomas, C.D. (2011) Rapid Range Shifts of Species Associated with High Levels of Climate Warming. Science, 333, 1024-1026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1206432
[2] Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. (2003) A Globally Coherent Fingerprint of Climate Change Impacts across Natural Systems. Nature, 421, 37-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01286
[3] Lenoir, J., Gégout, J.C., Guisan, A., Vittoz, P., Wohlgemuth, T., et al. (2010) Going against the Flow: Potential Mechanisms for Unexpected Downslope Range Shifts in a Warming Climate. Ecography, 33, 295-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06279.x
[4] Crimmins, S.M., Dobrowski, S.Z., Greenberg, J.A., Abatzoglou, J.T. and Mynsberge, A.R. (2011) Changes in Climatic Water Balance Drive Downhill Shifts in Plant Species’ Optimum Elevations. Science, 331, 324-327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1199040
[5] VanDerWal, J., Murphy, H.T., Kutt, A.S., Perkins, G.C., Bateman, B.L., et al. (2013) Focus on Poleward Shifts in Species’ Distribution Underestimates the Fingerprint of Climate Change. Nature Climate Change, 3, 239-243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1688
[6] Cannone, N. and Pignatti, S. (2014) Ecological Responses of Plant Species and Communities to Climate Warming: Upward Shift or Range Filling Processes? Climatic Change, 123, 201-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1065-8
[7] Lenoir, J. and Svenning, J.C. (2014) Climate-Related Range Shifts—A Global Multidimensional Synthesis and New Research Directions. Ecography. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecog.00967
[8] Groom, Q.J. (2013) Some Poleward Movement of British Native Vascular Plants Is Occurring, but the Fingerprint of Climate Change Is Not Evident. PeerJ, 1, e77. http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.77
[9] Colwell, R.K., Brehm, G., Cardelús, C.L., Gilman, A.C. and Longino, J.T. (2008) Global Warming, Elevational Range Shifts, and Lowland Biotic Attrition in the Wet Tropics. Science, 322, 258-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1162547
[10] Feeley, K.J. and Silman, M.R. (2010) Biotic Attrition from Tropical Forests Correcting for Truncated Temperature Niches. Global Change Biology, 16, 1830-1836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02085.x
[11] Fernández-González, F., Loidi, J., Moreno, J.C., Del Arco, M., Férnández-Cancio, A., et al. (2005) Impactos sobre la biodiversidad vegetal. In: Moreno, J.M., Ed., Evaluación preliminar de los impactos en Espana por efecto del cambio climático, Ministerio de MedioAmbiente, Madrid, 183-248.
[12] Araújo, M.B., Alagador, D., Cabeza, M., Nogués-Bravo, D. and Thuiller, W. (2011) Climate Change Threatens European Conservation Areas. Ecology Letters, 14, 484-492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01610.x
[13] Thuiller, W., Lavorel, S., Araújo, M.B., Sykes, M.T. and Prentice, I.C. (2005) Climate Change Threats to Plant Diversity in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 8245-8250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0409902102
[14] Lenoir, J., Graae, B.J., Aarrestad, P.A., Alsos, I.G., Armbruster, W.S., Austrheim, G., et al. (2013) Local Temperatures Inferred from Plant Communities Suggest Strong Spatial Buffering of Climate Warming across Northern Europe. Global Change Biology, 19, 1470-1481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12129
[15] Willis, K.J. and Bhagwat, S.A. (2009) Biodiversity and Climate Change. Science, 326, 806-807.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1178838
[16] Dullinger, S., Gattringer, A., Thuiller, W., Moser, D., Zimmermann, N.E., Guisan, A., et al. (2012) Extinction Debt of High-Mountain Plants under Twenty-First-Century Climate Change. Nature Climate Change, 2, 619-622.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1514
[17] Heap, M.J., Culham, A. and Osborne, J. (2013) The Benefits of a Compute Cluster Approach to High Spatial Resolution Biodiversity Richness Modelling: Projecting the Impact of Climate Change on Mediterranean Flora. The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses, 4, 115-218.
[18] Thuiller, W., Albert, C., Araújo, M.B., Berry, P.M., Cabeza, M., Guisan, A., et al. (2008) Predicting Global Change Impacts on Plant Species’ Distributions: Future Challenges. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 9, 137-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2007.09.004
[19] Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006) A Phyloclimatic Study of Cyclamen. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 6, 72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-6-72
[20] Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P. and Schapire, R.E. (2006) Maximum Entropy Modeling of Species Geographic Distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.026
[21] Hijmans, R.J., Cameron, S.E., Parra, J.L., Jones, P.G. and Jarvis, A. (2005) Very High Resolution Interpolated Climate Surfaces for Global Land Areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965-1978.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.1276
[22] FAO and ISRIC (2010) Harmonized World Soil Database (Version 1.1). FAO, Rome and IIASA, Laxenburg.
[23] Hansen, M., DeFries, R., Townshend, J.R.G. and Sohlberg, R. (1998) UMD Global Land Cover Classification, 1 Kilometer, 1.0. Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, 1981-1994.
[24] Pliscoff, P., Luebert, F., Hilger, H.H. and Guisan, A. (2014) Effects of Alternative Sets of Climatic Predictors on Species Distribution Models and Associated Estimates of Extinction Risk: A Test with Plants in an Arid Environment. Ecological Modelling, 288, 166-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.06.003
[25] Ramirez-Villegas, J. and Jarvis, A. (2010) Downscaling Global Circulation Model Outputs: The Delta Method Decision and Policy Analysis. Working Paper No. 1, Policy Analysis 1, 1-18.
[26] Thiers, B. (2011) Continuously Updated. Index Herbariorum: A Global Directory of Public Herbaria and Associated Staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium.
http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/IndexHerbariorum.asp
http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/
[27] Yesson, C., Brewer, P.W., Sutton, T., Caithness, N., Pahwa, J.S., Burgess, M. and Culham, A. (2007) How Global Is the Global Biodiversity Information Facility? PLoS ONE, 2, e1124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001124
[28] Heap, M.J. and Culham, A. (2010) Automated Pre-Processing Strategies for Species Occurrence Data Used in Biodiversity Modelling. In: Setchi, R., Jordanov, I., Howlett, R.J. and Jain, L.C., Eds., Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 517-526.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15384-6_55
[29] Castroviejo, S. (1986) Flora iberica: Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares.
[30] Casas, C. (1998) The Anthocerotae and Hepaticae of Spain and Balearic Islands: A Preliminary Checklist. Orsis, 13, 17-26.
[31] Rivas-Martínez, S., Diaz, T.E., Fernandez-Gonzalez, F., Izco, J., Loidi, J., Lous?, M. and Penas, á. (2002) Vascular Plant Communities of Spain and Portugal: Addenda to the Syntaxonomical Checklist of 2001. Itinera Geobotanica, 15, 5-922.
[32] Euro+Med (2006) Euro+Med PlantBase—The Information Resource for Euro-Mediterranean Plant Diversity.
http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/
[33] The Plant List (2010) Version 1. http://www.theplantlist.org/
[34] Ros, R.M., Mazimpaka, V., Abou-Salama, U., Aleffi, M., Blockeel, T.L., et al. (2013) Mosses of the Mediterranean, an Annotated Checklist. Cryptogamie, Bryologie, 34, 99-283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7872/cryb.v34.iss2.2013.99
[35] Roskov, Y., Kunze, T., Paglinawan, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., et al. (2013) Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. 2013 Annual Checklist, Species 2013.
[36] Encyclopedia of Life (2014) http://www.eol.org.
[37] Pittman, S.J. and Brown, K.A. (2011) Multi-Scale Approach for Predicting Fish Species Distributions across Coral Reef Seascapes. PloS ONE, 6, e20583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020583
[38] Morin, X. and Thuiller, W. (2009) Comparing Niche-and Process-Based Models to Reduce Prediction Uncertainty in Species Range Shifts under Climate Change. Ecology, 90, 1301-1313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-0134.1
[39] Brommer, J.E. (2004) The Range Margins of Northern Birds Shift Polewards. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 41, 391-397.
[40] Heubes, J., Schmidt, M., Stuch, B., García Márquez, J.R., Wittig, R., Zizka, G., et al. (2013) The Projected Impact of Climate and Land Use Change on Plant Diversity: An Example from West Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 96, 48-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2013.04.008
[41] Gavilán, R.G. (2005) The Use of Climatic Parameters and Indices in Vegetation Distribution. A Case Study in the Spanish Sistema Central. International Journal of Biometeorology, 50, 111-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-005-0271-5
[42] Hampe, A. and Jump, A.S. (2011) Climate Relicts: Past, Present, Future. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 42, 313-333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-102710-145015
[43] Thomas, C.D. (2011) Translocation of Species, Climate Change, and the End of Trying to Recreate Past Ecological Communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 26, 216-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2011.02.006
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[49] Dlugokencky, E. and Tans, P. (2014) NOAA/ESRL. http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/        eww141231lx

Can the Iberian Floristic Diversity Withstand Near-Future Climate Change?

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52760#.VKISbcCAM4

ABSTRACT

We assess how effectively the current network of protected areas (PAs) across the Iberian Peninsula will conserve plant diversity under near-future (2020) climate change. We computed 3267 MAXENT environmental niche models (ENMs) at 1-km spatial resolution for known Iberian plant species under two climate scenarios (1950-2000 baseline & 2020). To predict near-future species distributions across the network of Iberian and Balearics PAs, we combined projections of species’ ENMs with simulations of propagule dispersal by using six scenarios of annual dispersal rates (no dispersal, 0.1 km, 0.5 km, 1 km, 2 km and unlimited). Mined PA grid cell values for each species were then analyzed. We forecast 3% overall floristic diversity richness loss by 2020. The habitat of regionally extant species will contract on average by 13.14%. Niche movement exceeds 1 km per annum for 30% of extant species. While the southerly range margin of northern plant species retracts northward at 8.9 km per decade, overall niche movement is more easterly and westerly than northerly. There is little expansion of the northern range margin of southern plant species even under unlimited dispersal. Regardless of propagule dispersal rate, altitudinal niche movement of +25 m per decade is strongest for northern species. Pyrenees flora is most vulnerable to near-future climate change with many northern plant species responding by shifting their range westerly and easterly rather than northerly. Northern humid habitats will be particularly vulnerable to near-future climate change. Andalusian National Parks will become important southern biodiversity refuges. With limited human intervention (particularly in the Pyrenees), we conclude that floristic diversity in Iberian PAs should withstand near-future climate change.

Cite this paper

Heap, M. , Culham, A. , Lenoir, J. and Gavilán, R. (2014) Can the Iberian Floristic Diversity Withstand Near-Future Climate Change?. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 1089-1101. doi: 10.4236/oje.2015.417089.

References

[1] Chen, I.C., Hill, J.K., Ohlemüller, R., Roy, D.B. and Thomas, C.D. (2011) Rapid Range Shifts of Species Associated with High Levels of Climate Warming. Science, 333, 1024-1026.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1206432
[2] Parmesan, C. and Yohe, G. (2003) A Globally Coherent Fingerprint of Climate Change Impacts across Natural Systems. Nature, 421, 37-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01286
[3] Lenoir, J., Gégout, J.C., Guisan, A., Vittoz, P., Wohlgemuth, T., et al. (2010) Going against the Flow: Potential Mechanisms for Unexpected Downslope Range Shifts in a Warming Climate. Ecography, 33, 295-303.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2010.06279.x
[4] Crimmins, S.M., Dobrowski, S.Z., Greenberg, J.A., Abatzoglou, J.T. and Mynsberge, A.R. (2011) Changes in Climatic Water Balance Drive Downhill Shifts in Plant Species’ Optimum Elevations. Science, 331, 324-327.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1199040
[5] VanDerWal, J., Murphy, H.T., Kutt, A.S., Perkins, G.C., Bateman, B.L., et al. (2013) Focus on Poleward Shifts in Species’ Distribution Underestimates the Fingerprint of Climate Change. Nature Climate Change, 3, 239-243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1688
[6] Cannone, N. and Pignatti, S. (2014) Ecological Responses of Plant Species and Communities to Climate Warming: Upward Shift or Range Filling Processes? Climatic Change, 123, 201-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-014-1065-8
[7] Lenoir, J. and Svenning, J.C. (2014) Climate-Related Range Shifts—A Global Multidimensional Synthesis and New Research Directions. Ecography. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ecog.00967
[8] Groom, Q.J. (2013) Some Poleward Movement of British Native Vascular Plants Is Occurring, but the Fingerprint of Climate Change Is Not Evident. PeerJ, 1, e77. http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.77
[9] Colwell, R.K., Brehm, G., Cardelús, C.L., Gilman, A.C. and Longino, J.T. (2008) Global Warming, Elevational Range Shifts, and Lowland Biotic Attrition in the Wet Tropics. Science, 322, 258-261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1162547
[10] Feeley, K.J. and Silman, M.R. (2010) Biotic Attrition from Tropical Forests Correcting for Truncated Temperature Niches. Global Change Biology, 16, 1830-1836. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02085.x
[11] Fernández-González, F., Loidi, J., Moreno, J.C., Del Arco, M., Férnández-Cancio, A., et al. (2005) Impactos sobre la biodiversidad vegetal. In: Moreno, J.M., Ed., Evaluación preliminar de los impactos en Espana por efecto del cambio climático, Ministerio de MedioAmbiente, Madrid, 183-248.
[12] Araújo, M.B., Alagador, D., Cabeza, M., Nogués-Bravo, D. and Thuiller, W. (2011) Climate Change Threatens European Conservation Areas. Ecology Letters, 14, 484-492.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2011.01610.x
[13] Thuiller, W., Lavorel, S., Araújo, M.B., Sykes, M.T. and Prentice, I.C. (2005) Climate Change Threats to Plant Diversity in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 8245-8250.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0409902102
[14] Lenoir, J., Graae, B.J., Aarrestad, P.A., Alsos, I.G., Armbruster, W.S., Austrheim, G., et al. (2013) Local Temperatures Inferred from Plant Communities Suggest Strong Spatial Buffering of Climate Warming across Northern Europe. Global Change Biology, 19, 1470-1481. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12129
[15] Willis, K.J. and Bhagwat, S.A. (2009) Biodiversity and Climate Change. Science, 326, 806-807.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1178838
[16] Dullinger, S., Gattringer, A., Thuiller, W., Moser, D., Zimmermann, N.E., Guisan, A., et al. (2012) Extinction Debt of High-Mountain Plants under Twenty-First-Century Climate Change. Nature Climate Change, 2, 619-622.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1514
[17] Heap, M.J., Culham, A. and Osborne, J. (2013) The Benefits of a Compute Cluster Approach to High Spatial Resolution Biodiversity Richness Modelling: Projecting the Impact of Climate Change on Mediterranean Flora. The International Journal of Climate Change: Impacts and Responses, 4, 115-218.
[18] Thuiller, W., Albert, C., Araújo, M.B., Berry, P.M., Cabeza, M., Guisan, A., et al. (2008) Predicting Global Change Impacts on Plant Species’ Distributions: Future Challenges. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 9, 137-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ppees.2007.09.004
[19] Yesson, C. and Culham, A. (2006) A Phyloclimatic Study of Cyclamen. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 6, 72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-6-72
[20] Phillips, S.J., Anderson, R.P. and Schapire, R.E. (2006) Maximum Entropy Modeling of Species Geographic Distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231-259. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.026
[21] Hijmans, R.J., Cameron, S.E., Parra, J.L., Jones, P.G. and Jarvis, A. (2005) Very High Resolution Interpolated Climate Surfaces for Global Land Areas. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 1965-1978.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/joc.1276
[22] FAO and ISRIC (2010) Harmonized World Soil Database (Version 1.1). FAO, Rome and IIASA, Laxenburg.
[23] Hansen, M., DeFries, R., Townshend, J.R.G. and Sohlberg, R. (1998) UMD Global Land Cover Classification, 1 Kilometer, 1.0. Department of Geography, University of Maryland, College Park, 1981-1994.
[24] Pliscoff, P., Luebert, F., Hilger, H.H. and Guisan, A. (2014) Effects of Alternative Sets of Climatic Predictors on Species Distribution Models and Associated Estimates of Extinction Risk: A Test with Plants in an Arid Environment. Ecological Modelling, 288, 166-177.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2014.06.003
[25] Ramirez-Villegas, J. and Jarvis, A. (2010) Downscaling Global Circulation Model Outputs: The Delta Method Decision and Policy Analysis. Working Paper No. 1, Policy Analysis 1, 1-18.
[26] Thiers, B. (2011) Continuously Updated. Index Herbariorum: A Global Directory of Public Herbaria and Associated Staff. New York Botanical Garden’s Virtual Herbarium.
http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/IndexHerbariorum.asp
http://sweetgum.nybg.org/ih/
[27] Yesson, C., Brewer, P.W., Sutton, T., Caithness, N., Pahwa, J.S., Burgess, M. and Culham, A. (2007) How Global Is the Global Biodiversity Information Facility? PLoS ONE, 2, e1124.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0001124
[28] Heap, M.J. and Culham, A. (2010) Automated Pre-Processing Strategies for Species Occurrence Data Used in Biodiversity Modelling. In: Setchi, R., Jordanov, I., Howlett, R.J. and Jain, L.C., Eds., Knowledge-Based and Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, 517-526.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-15384-6_55
[29] Castroviejo, S. (1986) Flora iberica: Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares.
[30] Casas, C. (1998) The Anthocerotae and Hepaticae of Spain and Balearic Islands: A Preliminary Checklist. Orsis, 13, 17-26.
[31] Rivas-Martínez, S., Diaz, T.E., Fernandez-Gonzalez, F., Izco, J., Loidi, J., Lous?, M. and Penas, á. (2002) Vascular Plant Communities of Spain and Portugal: Addenda to the Syntaxonomical Checklist of 2001. Itinera Geobotanica, 15, 5-922.
[32] Euro+Med (2006) Euro+Med PlantBase—The Information Resource for Euro-Mediterranean Plant Diversity.
http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/
[33] The Plant List (2010) Version 1. http://www.theplantlist.org/
[34] Ros, R.M., Mazimpaka, V., Abou-Salama, U., Aleffi, M., Blockeel, T.L., et al. (2013) Mosses of the Mediterranean, an Annotated Checklist. Cryptogamie, Bryologie, 34, 99-283.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7872/cryb.v34.iss2.2013.99
[35] Roskov, Y., Kunze, T., Paglinawan, L., Orrell, T., Nicolson, D., et al. (2013) Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. 2013 Annual Checklist, Species 2013.
[36] Encyclopedia of Life (2014) http://www.eol.org.
[37] Pittman, S.J. and Brown, K.A. (2011) Multi-Scale Approach for Predicting Fish Species Distributions across Coral Reef Seascapes. PloS ONE, 6, e20583. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0020583
[38] Morin, X. and Thuiller, W. (2009) Comparing Niche-and Process-Based Models to Reduce Prediction Uncertainty in Species Range Shifts under Climate Change. Ecology, 90, 1301-1313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/08-0134.1
[39] Brommer, J.E. (2004) The Range Margins of Northern Birds Shift Polewards. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 41, 391-397.
[40] Heubes, J., Schmidt, M., Stuch, B., García Márquez, J.R., Wittig, R., Zizka, G., et al. (2013) The Projected Impact of Climate and Land Use Change on Plant Diversity: An Example from West Africa. Journal of Arid Environments, 96, 48-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2013.04.008
[41] Gavilán, R.G. (2005) The Use of Climatic Parameters and Indices in Vegetation Distribution. A Case Study in the Spanish Sistema Central. International Journal of Biometeorology, 50, 111-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-005-0271-5
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Climate Change and Its Influence on Agricultural Pest in Mexico

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52475#.VJoRIcCAM4

ABSTRACT

The present paper reviewed the researches of how they have affected agricultural pests in the territory of Mexico. It emphasizes that traditional climate models are not “predict” non-linear systems and are necessary to resort to the construction of scenarios for study. Some climate change models applied to Mexico used for this purpose obtained significant results. It showed that to better understand the ecology of pests and their hosts, it is necessary to further research the correlations between them and improve climate modeling and its consequences, to prioritize risks and improve the reliability of predictions and scenarios in the future.

Cite this paper

Servín, C. and Mendoza, G. (2014) Climate Change and Its Influence on Agricultural Pest in Mexico. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 931-940. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.45082.

References

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Techniques in Utilizing Remote Sensor Technology for Precision Crop Production by Farmers as Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in Nigeria

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52467#.VJjOpcCAM4

ABSTRACT

This paper focuses on techniques in utilizing remote sensor technology for precision crop production by farmers as climate change adaptation strategy in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and was carried out between August 2013 and May 2014. The findings of the study revealed that 32 items were needed by farmers in utilizing sensory technology for precision crop production. The study recommended that the 32 items identified by the study should be utilized by extension agent in teaching the farmers the use of sensor technology for precision crop production while the farmers should make themselves available for the training.

Cite this paper

Ifeanyieze, F. , Ikehi, M. and Isiwu, E. (2014) Techniques in Utilizing Remote Sensor Technology for Precision Crop Production by Farmers as Climate Change Adaptation Strategy in Nigeria. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1476-1482. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.514158.

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