Exercise and Dietary Restriction for Promotion of Neurohealth Benefits

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ABSTRACT

Physical exercise, whether of aerobic, endurance or resistance types, plays a central role in establishing and maintaining the integrity of the brain and central nervous system (CNS). When exercise is adhered to in conjunction with selective food/drink intake and dietary restriction, it promotes neurohealth. In this article, we review the interactions of age and gender, as well as insulin and diabetes, with exercise, individuals’ cognitive-affective status and its interactions with exercise propensity, all of which modulate the eventual outcomes of the influence of exercise upon parameters of neurohealth. The combination of exercise with dietary restriction provides numerous factors pertaining to psychological, neurochemical and anti-pathological manifestations of neurophysiological resilience even through aging. The challenge evoked by the exercise-diet combination in the body mobilizes a multitude of adaptive cellular stress-response signaling pathways in neurons involving neurotrophic factors, anti-inflammatory cytokines, DNA-repair proteins, macroautophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis.

Cite this paper

Archer, T. and Garcia, D. (2015) Exercise and Dietary Restriction for Promotion of Neurohealth Benefits. Health, 7, 136-152. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.71016.

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Memory Training and Task Specificity in 90-99-Year-Old Seniors with Mild Cognitive Impairment

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52949#.VK3glMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Managing memory deficits is a central problem among older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study examined the effects of memory training on memory performance in an understudied “oldest-old” population ranging in age from 90 to 99 years. Eighteen mild to moderately cognitive-impaired older seniors, 90 years and older were recruited from memory clinics established in senior living communities. Treatment sessions took place, on average, twice weekly, for 55 minutes. Memory intervention included nineteen computer-based exercises customized to focus on memory loss. The specificity of memory training was very clear; memory training produced significant effects (F(3,51) = 2.81, p = 0.05) on memory performance, especially after 6 months of training, while other outcome measures showed no effects as predicted. Based on the results, it can be concluded that interventions targeting cognition and memory in the oldest-old MCI population can significantly improve memory function and reduce cognitive deficits.

Cite this paper

Magaro, P. , Brotter, B. and Jalees, M. (2015) Memory Training and Task Specificity in 90-99-Year-Old Seniors with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Advances in Aging Research, 4, 1-12. doi: 10.4236/aar.2015.41001.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2011.575772                                                               eww150108lx

Cognitive and Functional Profiles in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Compared to Healthy Elderly

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52264#.VI-A1snQrzE

ABSTRACT

Background: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are clinically distinct but impact cognitive and functional ability similarly. Comprehensive assessment of cognitive and functional deficits may prove useful in informing differential diagnosis in early stages of dementia and in informing endpoint selection in therapeutic AD trials. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of cognitive and functional impairment in aMCI and mild-to-moderate AD subjects compared to cognitively intact healthy elderly (HE). Methods: Thirty-one healthy elderly, 20 aMCI and 19 AD participants were administered a cognitive test battery that included the ADAS-Cog and functional assessments. Z-scores were calculated for all endpoints based on the HE reference group. Results: Cognitive deficits were observed in AD and aMCI participants relative to the referent group. On average, aMCI participants performed 1 – 2 standard deviations below HE on cognitive tests, and AD participants performed 2 – 3 standard deviations below HE. Domain-specific functional deficits among AD participants (z- score -0.4 to -6.4) were consistently greater than those of aMCI participants (z-score 0 to -1.7). Conclusion: This study provides further support for comprehensive assessment and monitoring of cognitive and functional domain scores in the diagnosis and treatment of aMCI and mild AD. Domain-specific cognitive scores may be more useful than composite scores in characterizing impairment and decline. Measuring domains such as attention, processing speed and executive function may increase the sensitivity of detecting disease progression and therapeutic effects, particularly in mild-moderate AD where memory decline may be too slow to detect drug effects during a typical clinical trial.

Cite this paper

Marsico, M. , Jager, C. , Grant, A. , Zhu, X. , Markwick, A. and Chandler, J. (2014) Cognitive and Functional Profiles in Mild-to-Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment Compared to Healthy Elderly. Advances in Alzheimer’s Disease, 3, 168-186. doi: 10.4236/aad.2014.34016.

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Screening Measures Used in Child Daycare Centers: A 15-Years Systematic Review

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52120#.VIkFxMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Childcare programs can be expensive for developing countries. To measure the efficiency of these interventions in early childhood cognitive outcomes, screening measures are proposed in this article. A systematic review was conducted to answer two questions: which are the empirical evidence available in the literature to support using psychological screening measures in child daycare centers; and if those measures can be adopted as cost-effective assessment policies for children’s cognition. A total of 109 articles were retrieved. After the exclusion criteria, 18 articles remained. Ten screening measures were detected in the literature. Among those ten, three instruments were used both in child daycare centers and as assessment policies. Psychometric properties and adequacy of these measures to childcare programs are considered. Using Brazil as an example, the present article also discusses the challenges of adopting evidence-based practices in childcare policies in developing countries.

Cite this paper

Filgueiras, A. , Pires, P. & Landeira-Fernandez, J. (2014). Screening Measures Used in Child Daycare Centers: A 15-Years Systematic Review. Psychology, 5, 2109-2119. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.519213.

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Executive and Non-Executive Cognitive Abilities in Teenagers: Differences as a Function of Intelligence

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51698#.VHUk5WfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Intelligence and cognitive abilities, including executive functions (EF), have been addressed by psychometrics and cognitive psychology, respectively. Studies have found similarities and overlap among constructs, especially between EF and fluid intelligence (Gf). This study’s aim was to investigate in teenagers: 1) the relationships among Gf, crystallized intelligence (Gc), cognitive, and executive abilities; and 2) the differences among groups with average, superior and very superior intelligence in regard to cognitive and executive functions. A total of 120 adolescents aged between 15 and 16 years old were assessed via IQ tests (the WISC III and Raven’s), EF (computer version of the Stroop Test, FAS Verbal Fluency Test, Trail Making Test—part B), and cognitive abilities (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test [PPVT], Repetition of words and pseudo words Test, the Rey Complex Figure [REY CF]). Low to moderate correlations were found among measures of intelligence and cognitive and executive functions. Even though interrelated, the measures seem to capture somewhat distinct aspects. Subsequently, the participants were divided into three groups according to their performance on Raven’s Test: Group with very superior intelligence (VSI), Group with superior intelligence (SI), and Group with average intelligence (AI). The ANOVA revealed the groups’ significant effect (VSI, SI, AI), that is, the VSI and SI groups tended to perform better on the WISC subtests, in the cognitive measures of the PPVT, Rey CF, and in executive measure (FAS). A tendency of increasingly better performance in the various abilities according to groups was observed, but the hypothesis of greater specific association between Gf and EF was not confirmed. The results show better general performance according to the level of intelligence.

Cite this paper

Godoy, S. , Dias, N. & Seabra, A. (2014). Executive and Non-Executive Cognitive Abilities in Teenagers: Differences as a Function of Intelligence. Psychology, 5, 2018-2032. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.518205.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2004.07.003                                                                        eww141126lx

Changing Thoughtforms

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51096#.VFLz12fHRK0

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

The author introduces and defines the idea of thoughtforms and their role in psychic life. Using both clinical and theoretical data to build his argument, the idea is put forward that dominant thoughtforms can be displaced by new ones, and that this is in fact the process of growth in both life and psychotherapy.

Cite this paper

lugman, D. (2014). Changing Thoughtforms. Psychology, 5, 1837-1843. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.515189.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198909000-00004                                                               eww141031lx

Awake Craniotomy and Coaching

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50739#.VEm6ClfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Background: The importance of monitoring cognition during awake craniotomy has been well described in previous studies. The relevance of being coached during such a procedure has received less attention and questions still remain unanswered about what factors are the most important herein. Objective: The aim of this study was to qualitatively analyze what factors were, according to our patients, important in being coaching during awake craniotomy. Methods: Twenty-six patients who underwent awake craniotomy received a questionnaire about their experiences during the procedure. The questions concerned different aspects of the pre-operative part, the operation itself and coaching aspects. Answers were qualitatively analyzed by two investigators and per question, different answer categories were made. Results: Two thirds of the 20 patients who responded to the questionnaire reported anxiety in the days before or during the operation, varying from general anxiety for being awake during surgery to anxiety for very specific aspects such as opening the skull. The constant presence of the neuropsychologist and a transparent communication during the procedure were most frequently (65% of all the answers) reported as helpful in staying calm. Conclusion: Results of this descriptive study show that patients experience different anxieties before and during an awake craniotomy and give more insight into what factors are important for patients in being coached during such an operation. This study gives directions for clinicians in improving their role as a coach.

Cite this paper

Ruis, C. , Wajer, I. , Robe, P. and Zandvoort, M. (2014) Awake Craniotomy and Coaching. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 3, 382-389. doi: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.35040.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-013-1801-2                                                              eww141024lx