Anisotropic Damage Mechanics Modeling of Concrete under Biaxial Fatigue Loading

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An anisotropic damage mechanics model is presented to describe the behavior and failure of concrete under biaxial fatigue loading. Utilizing the approach of bounding surfaces, the limit surface becomes a special case when the number of loading cycles is set to one. By increasing the number of loading cycles, the strength of concrete gradually decreases and the limit surface is allowed to contract and form new curves representing residual strengths. The magnitude of loading, load range, and the load path are known to influence the fatigue life and hence are addressed in this formulation. In this paper, a strength softening function is proposed in order to address the reduction in the strength of concrete due to fatigue. Separate softening functions are also proposed to account for the deformation characteristics in concrete under cyclic loading. Numerical simulations predicted by the model in both uniaxial and biaxial stress paths show a good correlation with the experimental data available in the literature.

Cite this paper

Saboori, A. , Yazdani, S. and Tolliver, D. (2015) Anisotropic Damage Mechanics Modeling of Concrete under Biaxial Fatigue Loading. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 5, 8-16. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2015.51002.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021998305055549                                                       eww150209lx
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Concrete Thinking

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Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Existence is concrete discerned bodily, thinking considers existents, and so concrete thinking is primal, at the base of logical thinking. Still, concrete actuality is reasonable beyond logical analysis. So, concrete thinking is “illogical” bodily reasonable. Thus this essay explores 1) concrete thinking various and 2) concrete thinking concretely. All this concrete thinking culminates in kids’ joys alive.

Cite this paper

Wu, K. (2015) Concrete Thinking. Open Journal of Philosophy, 5, 73-86. doi: 10.4236/ojpp.2015.51009.

References

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Evaluation of Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

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ABSTRACT

This paper compared the rheological properties and compressive strengths of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and conventional cement concrete. The flowability and segregation resistance of freshly mixed concrete specimens were examined by the V-funnel apparatus, while the characteristics of passing ability were investigated with the L-box apparatus. Cylindrical concrete specimens of 100 mm diameter × 200 mm length were investigated for compressive strength. The rheological properties of SCC are incomparable with those of the conventional concrete due to their diverse testing methods and characteristics of individual flow. The compressive strength results of hardened concrete showed that SCC gained strength slowly compared to the conventional cement concrete due to the presence of admixtures and its 28 days strength was lower than conventional cement concrete, but SCC eventually had potentials of higher strength beyond 90 days. Finally, the effect of water-cement ratio on the plastic properties of self-compacting concrete was quite negligible compared to conventional concrete.

Cite this paper

Olafusi, O. , Adewuyi, A. , Otunla, A. and Babalola, A. (2015) Evaluation of Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 5, 1-7. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2015.51001.

References

[1] Olafusi, O.S. and Olutoge, F.A. (2012) Strength Properties of Corn Cob Ash Concrete. Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS), 3, 297-301.
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[11] Li, B., Wang, J. and Zhou, M. (2009) Effect of Limestone Fines Content in Manufactured Sand on Durability of Low- and High-Strength Concretes. Construction and Building Materials, 23, 2846-2850.
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[12] Corinaldesi, V. and Moriconi, G. (2009) Influence of Mineral Additions on the Performance of 100% Recycled Aggregate Concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 23, 2869-2876.
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[17] Adewuyi, A.P. and Adegoke, T. (2008) Exploratory Study of Periwinkle Shells as Coarse Aggregates in Concrete Works. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3, 1-5.
[18] Rukzon, S. and Chindaprasirt, P. (2014) Use of Rice Husk-Bark Ash in Producing Self-Compacting Concrete. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2014, Article ID: 429727.
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[22] Fathi, A., Shafiq, N., Nuruddin, M.F. and Elheber, A. (2013) Study the Effectiveness of the Different Pozzolanic Material on Self-Compacting Concrete. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 8, 299-305.
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[24] Geiker, M.R., Brandl, M., Thrane, L.N., Bager, D.H. and Wallevik, O. (2002) The Effect of Measuring Procedure on the Apparent Rheological Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 32, 1791-1795.
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[28] Jin, J. (2002) Properties of Mortar for Self-Compacting Concrete. Ph.D. Thesis, University College London, London.
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[31] EN 12350-9 (2007) Testing Fresh Concrete—Part 9: Self-Compacting Concrete—V-Funnel Test.
[32] Neville, A.M. (2000) Properties of Concrete. 4th Edition, Longman, England.                 eww150126lx

Effects of Pit-Sand on Resistance Capacities of Reinforced Concrete Space Framed Structures

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52195#.VIjpv8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

This paper used the existing formulae in estimating resistance parameter of reinforced concrete structure to assess the effect of concrete produced from pit-sand in Akure metropolis, on the resistance parameters of a collapsed building in Oba-Ile, Akure. Site inspections were carried out on the collapsed building, and concrete samples were taken. Both destructive and non-destructive methods were used to determine the structure’s concrete strength. The number of reinforcements in each structural element was determined by exposing them. Resistance parameters such as moments of resistance for slab (MRS), for beam (MRB) and shear capacity (VC) of the structural elements were estimated using existing formulae and, compare the results with the structure’s actual resistance parameters. The average concrete strength was 8.5 N/mm2 which was less than 20 N/mm2, the prescribed concrete strength for construction of the building. The estimated resistance parameters MRS, MRB and VC based on 8.5 N/mm2 concrete strength are 18.2 kN<span “=””>·m, 46.3 kN<span “=””>·m and 64.4 kN respectively. Also the estimated resistance parameters MRS, MRB and VC based on 20 N/mm2 concrete strength are 20.6 kN<span “=””>·m, 54.1 kN<span “=””>·m and 90.73 kN respectively. The actual MRS, MRB and VC at collapse were 6.67 kN<span “=””>·m, 13.6 kN<span “=””>·m and 18.88 kN respectively. The existing formulae for predicting resistance parameters did not give accurate resistance parameters for the building at collapse. The collapse of the building was by shear failure, since shear failure capacity will be reached first before any of the other resistance parameters.

Cite this paper

Olanitori, L. and Afolayan, J. (2014) Effects of Pit-Sand on Resistance Capacities of Reinforced Concrete Space Framed Structures. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 4, 328-337. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2014.44028.

References

[1] CP 110 (1972) Code of Practice for Structural Use of Concrete: Part I—Design, Materials and Workmanship. British Standards Institution, London.
[2] CP 114 (1957) The Structural Use of Reinforced Concrete in Buildings (Amended in 1965). British Standards Institution, London.
[3] ACI Committee 318 (1971) Buildings Code Requirement for Reinforced Concrete. American Concrete Institute, Detroit.
[4] ACI Committee 318 (1963) Buildings Code Requirement for Reinforced Concrete. American Concrete Institute, Detroit.
[5] Olanitori, L.M. and Olotuah, A.O. (2005) The Effect of Clayey Impurities in Sand on the Crushing Strength of Concrete (a Case Study of Sand in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria). Proceedings of 30th Conference on “Our World in Concrete and Structures”, Singapore City, 23-24 August 2005, 373-376.
[6] BS 8110 (1985) Structural Use of Concrete: Part—I: Code of Practice for Design and Construction. British Standards Institution, London.
[7] Olanitori, L.M. (2013) Codes of Practice: Prerequisite for Quality Structural Design and Management of Buildings in Nigeria. 5th West Africa Built Environment Research (WABER) Conference, Accra, 12-14 August 2013, 283-291.
[8] Olanitori, L.M. (2006) Mitigating the Effect of Clay Content of Sand on Concrete Strength. Proceedings of 31st Conference on Our World in Concrete and Structures, Kaula Lumpur, 15-17 August 2006, 344-352.
[9] Olanitori, L.M. (2012) Cost Implication of Mitigating the Effect of Clay/Silt Content of Sand on Concrete Compressive Strength. Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism, 2, 143-148.
[10] Olanitori, L.M. (2011) Causes of Structural Failures of a Building: Case Study of a Building at Oba—Ile Akure. Journal of Building Appraisal, 6, 277-284.
[11] Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 326 (1962) Shear and Diagonal Tension. A CI Journal Proceedings, 59, 1-30.
[12] ACI Committee 318 (2005) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills.
[13] Brown, M.D., Bayrak, O. and Jirsa, J.O. (2006) Design for Shear Based on Loading Conditions. ACI Structural Journal, 103, 541-550.
[14] Arslan, G. (2008) Cracking Shear Strength of RC Slender Beams without Stirrups. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 14, 177-182.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/1392-3730.2008.14.14
[15] Arslan, G. (2012) Diagonal Tension Failure of RC Beams without Stirrups. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 18, 217-226.
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[16] Kim, J.K. and Park, Y.D. (1996) Prediction of Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams without Web Reinforcement. ACI Materials Journal, 93, 213-222.
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[18] Khuntia, M. and Stojadinovic, B. (2001) Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams without Transverse Reinforcement. ACI Structural Journal, 98, 648-656.
[19] ACI Committee 318 (2008) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (ACI 318R-08). American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills.
[20] Arslan, G. and Polat, Z. (2013) Contribution of Concrete to Shear Strength of RC Beams Failing in Shear. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management, 19, 400-408.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3846/13923730.2012.757560
[21] Kotsovs, M.D. (2007) Concepts Underlying Reinforced Concrete Design: Time for Reappraisal. ACI Structural Journal, 104, 675-684.
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[25] BS 8110 (1997) Structural Use of Concrete—Part 1: Code of Practice for Design and Construction. British Standards Institution, London.                                                                                         eww141211lx

Enhancement of Workability of Cement-Poor Concrete by Optimizing Paste Content

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52143#.VIZIImfHRK1

ABSTRACT

This study describes the performance of concrete in fresh state, intended for sealing deep bore-holes in the host rock of radioactive repositories. Set of different paste volumes, combinations of water-to-powder ratios and fine aggregate contents have been performed within the frame of this study. The main objective was to search for tendencies, logical connections and phenomena that occur for different combination of materials regarding the fluidity and segregation and mainly the effect from the (paste) or fine aggregate content. It shall be pointed out that this investigation is a suggestion on how concrete can be optimized using two simple test methods based on changing the paste content. The results highlighted the importance of having sufficient amounts of filler and cement paste for separate and carry larger particles, which gives the concrete good workability and fluidity at casting. It was concluded that the slump behaviors can be optimized based on the adjustments of the superplastisizer dosage.

Cite this paper

Mohammed, M. , Al-Ansari, N. and Knutsson, S. (2014) Enhancement of Workability of Cement-Poor Concrete by Optimizing Paste Content. Engineering, 6, 869-876. doi: 10.4236/eng.2014.613080.

References

[1] Pusch, R., Ramqvist, G., Bockgard, N. and Ekman, L. (2011) Sealing of Investigation Boreholes, Phase 4. Final Report SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm.
[2] Pusch, R., Warr, L., Grathoff, G., Pour-bakhtiar, A., Knutsson, S. and Ramqvist, G. (2013) A Study on Cement-Poor Concrete with Talc for Borehole Sealing in Rock Hosting Radioactive Waste. Comunicacoes Geológicas, 5, 251-267.
[3] Mohammed, M.H., Pusch, R., Al-Ansari, N., Knutsson, S., Jonasson, J.-E., Emborg, M. and Pourbakhtiar, A. (2013) Proportioning of Cement-Based Grout for Sealing Fractured Rock-Use of Packing Models. Engineering, 5, 765-774.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/eng.2013.510092
[4] Pourbakhtiar, A. (2012) Pilot Study of Method for Constructing Concrete Seals and Fracture Grouts in Deep Boreholes and Cementitious Backfills in Tunnels, Drifts and Shafts in Crystalline Rock. M.Sc. Thesis, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea.
[5] Mohammed, M.H., Pusch, R., Al-Ansari, N., Knutsson, S., Emborg, M., Nilsson, M. and Pourbakhtiar, A. (2013) Talc-Based Concrete for Sealing Borehole Optimized by Using Particle Packing Theory. Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture, 7, 440-455.
[6] Pusch, R., Warr, L., Grathoff, G., Pourbakhtiar, A., Knutsson, S. and Mohammed, M.H. (2013) A Talc-Based Cement-Poor Concrete for Sealing Boreholes in Rock. Engineering, 5, 251-267.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/eng.2013.53036
[7] Kristoffer, N. (2005) Packing Theory for Crushed Aggregates in Concrete. Master Thesis, ETSEIB, Betongindustri AB, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea.
[8] Mohammed, M.H., Pusch, R., Al-Ansari, N. and Knutsson S. (2012) Optimization of Concrete by Minimizing Void Volume in Aggregate Mixture System. Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Research, 2, 208-222.
[9] Utsi, S. (2008) Performance Based Concrete Mix-Design Aggregate and Micro Mortar Optimization Applied on Self-Compacting Concrete Containing Fly Ash. Ph.D. Thesis, Lulea University of Technology, Lulea.
[10] Kennedy, C.T. (1940) The Design of Concrete Mixes. Proceedings of the American Concrete Institute, 36, 373-400.                                                                                                                            eww141209lx

Studies on Strength and Related Properties of Concrete Incorporating Aggregates from Demolished Wastes: Part 1—A Global Perspective

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51356#.VGVQgWfHRK0

ABSTRACT

The present study addresses the global concern of sustainability in building and construction engineering and how to an extent the use of demolished aggregate wastes in concrete production contributes towards ameliorating or minimizing the problem. The influence of demolished aggregate waste on the mechanical strength and stiffness of concrete are examined from the standpoint of the compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths as well as the modulus of elasticity of the concrete. In this respect the research carried out by previous investigators are noted. It is observed that in the Southern African region in general and Botswana in particular there is a paucity of studies on the subject, and consequently, it is concluded that further investigations need to be conducted utilizing aggregates derived from local wastes or sources.

Cite this paper

Franklin, S. and Gumede, M. (2014) Studies on Strength and Related Properties of Concrete Incorporating Aggregates from Demolished Wastes: Part 1—A Global Perspective. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 4, 311-317. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2014.44026.

References

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Indicators Benchmarking of Cement-Based Construction Technologies: Brazilian Case Study

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51355#.VGVQg2fHRK0

ABSTRACT

The adoption of performance indicators promotes knowledge of quantitative and qualitative material wastes in businesses and, when inserted in a collaborative process, provides a comparative evaluation of results between companies and, thereafter, an identification of best practices (bench-marking). The purpose of this paper is to present the best practices identified by performance indicators, related to the measurement of wastes and associated to construction companies participation in the benchmarking research process “Implementation of a system of performance indicators of cement-based construction technologies of the Community of Construction of Recife city in Brazil-PROGRIDE”, coordinated by the Brazilian Association of Portland Cement-ABCP. Therefore, it was sought to characterize best practices that led to the benchmarking of performance indicators related to the wastes of concrete, industrialized mortar for masonry settling and blocks/ bricks. As a contribution, a set of factors that characterize the best practices for each technology and conducted to benchmarking were identified.

Cite this paper

Lordsleem Júnior, A. and de Lima, B. (2014) Indicators Benchmarking of Cement-Based Construction Technologies: Brazilian Case Study. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 4, 301-310. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2014.44025.

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