Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Perspective of Intercultural Mutual Understanding Comprehension Deepening

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49872#.VJD-NsnQrzE

Author(s)

Vladimir Yanchuk*

Affiliation(s)

Department of Psychology, Belarus State University, Minsk, Belarus.

ABSTRACT

Sociocultural-interdeterminist dialogical approach focuses attention on the caused interdeteministic character of mutual relations of situational, personal and activity determinants of the behaviour, staticized in concrete historical cultural context. For example, a change in a situational context leads to changes both in the person, and in his or her activity. Achievement of changes in the person and his or her activity assumes creation of the special conditions promoting to their actualization, etc. For understanding of the nature of progress in culture and science the theoretical construct “cultural-scientific tradition” is offered, allowing to trace changes in common cultural and scientific worldview throughout the human history. Consideration of personality problems is carried out in a three-dimensional continuum conscious-unconscious-existential, allowing to capture all variety of displays of psychological phenomenology. Proceeding from understanding of culture as orientational and normative structure of behaviour and as communicative matrix by means of which the behaviour is interpreted, integrated, coordinated and authorized (R. Priest), efficiency of use of the conceptual device of the epistemic approach of Michel Foucault and cultural framing of E. Goffman to understanding of intercultural interaction specificity is proved. The epistemic differences of European (graphic), Chinese, and classic Arabic languages are demonstrated. Intercultural competence is considered in aspect of ability of formation of shared meanings and experiences on the basis of mastering by knowledge about originalities of language, values and norms, experiences and behavioral algorithms of each other. The basis of such mutual understanding creates the dialogue that assumes unconditional acceptance of another based on tolerance and pluralism, the joint extension of the horizons directed on formation and development of coordinated and mutually endured values and senses. As unit of the analysis of intercultural interaction the evaluation of a sharedness of meanings and experiences is offered. Results of empirical research of the given approach on the example of formation of interpersonal mutual understanding of the Belarus and Chinese students are presented.

KEYWORDS

Cultural Competence, Cultural Framing, Culture, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Dialog, Ecocultural Dialogical Educational Environment, Episteme, Epistemology, Emic, Ethic, Framing, Interdetermination, Integration, Intgrative-Eclectic Approach, Integrative Eclectic through Triangulation, Intersubjectivity, Intertextuality, Mutual Understanding, Shared Meaning, Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Approach

Cite this paper

Yanchuk, V. (2014) Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Perspective of Intercultural Mutual Understanding Comprehension Deepening. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 178-191. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.28025.

References

[1] Yanchuk, V.A. (2000) Methodology, Theory, and Methods in Modern Social Psychology and Personology: An Integrative-Eclectical Approach. Bestprint, Minsk. (Russian)
[2] Yanchuk, V.A. (2006) Postmodernist, Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogisity as a Prospect of Positioning in Psychology Subject Methodology and History of Psychology, 1, 193-206. (Russian)
[3] Yanchuk, V.A. (2007) Postmodernist, Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Prospect of Explanation in Psychology Methodology and History of Psychology, 2, 207-226. (Russian)
[4] Yanchuk, V.A. (2009) Progress in Psychological Phenomenology Understanding: Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Prospect. In: Zguravlev, A.L., Marzinkovskaya, T.L. and Yurevich, A.V., Eds., Progress in Psychology: Criteria and Indicators, Institute of Psychology RAS, Moscow, 262-285. (Russian)
[5] Yanchar, S.C. and Slife, B.D. (2000) Putting It All Together: Toward a Hermeneutic Unity of Psychology. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 21, 325-326.
[6] Goertzen, J.R. (2010) Dialectical Pluralism: A Theoretical Conceptualization of Pluralism in Psychology. New Ideas in Psychology, 28, 201-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.013
[7] Yanchuk, V.A. (2005) Introduction to Modern Social Psychology. ASAR, Minsk, 768 p. (Russian)
[8] Healy, P. (2012) Toward an Integrative, Pluralistic Psychology: On the Hermeneutico-Dialogical Conditions of the Possibility for Overcoming Fragmentation. New Ideas in Psychology, 30, 271-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2011.12.005
[9] Smythe, W.E. and McKenzie, S.A. (2010) A Vision of Dialogical Pluralism in Psychology. New Ideas in Psychology, 28, 227-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.016
[10] Teo, T. (2010) Ontology and Scientific Explanation: Pluralism as an a Priori Condition of Psychology New Ideas in Psychology, 28, 235-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.017
[11] Valsiner Y. (2007) Becoming Integrative in Science: Re-building Contemporary Psychology through Interdisciplinary and International Collaboration. Integrative Psycho-logical and Behavioral Science, 41, 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12124-007-9002-2
[12] Ishii, S. (1997) Tasks for Intercultural Communication Researchers in the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st Century. Dokkyo International Review, 10, 313-326.
[13] Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E. and McDaniel, E.R. (2010) Communication between Cultures. 7th Edition, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Boston, MA.
[14] Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E. and McDaniel, E.R. (2010) Communication between Cultures. 7th Edition, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Boston, MA, 150.
[15] Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E. and McDaniel, E. R. (2012) In-tercultural Communication: A Reader. 13th Edition, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Boston, MA, 67.
[16] Jahoda, G. (2013) Critical Reflections on Some Recent Definitions of “Culture”. Culture & Psychology, 18, 289-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354067X12446229
[17] Kroeber, A.L. and Kluckhohn, C. (1952) Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA.
[18] Kroeber, A.L. and Kluckhohn, C. (1952) Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA, 181.
[19] Hong, Y. (2009) A Dynamic Constructivist Approach to Culture: Moving from Describing Culture to Explaining Culture. In: Wyer, R.S., Chiu, C.-Y. and Hong, Y.-Y., Eds., Understanding Culture: Theory, Research and Application (pp. 3-23). Psychology Press, New York.
[20] Wan, C. and Chiu, C. (2009). An Intersubjective Consensus Approach to Culture. The Role of Intersubjective Norms versus Cultural Self in Cultural Processes. In Wyer, R.S., Chiu, C.-Y. and Hong, Y.-Y., Eds., Understanding Culture: Theory, Research and Application, Psychology Press, New York, 80, 79-91.
[21] Ishii, S. (1997) Tasks for Intercultural Communication Researchers in the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st Century. Dokkyo International Review, 10, 313-326.
[22] Ishii, S. (1997) Tasks for Intercultural Communication Researchers in the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st Century. Dokkyo International Review, 10, 313-326, 321.
[23] Yanchuk V.A. (2000) Methodology, Theory, and Methods in Modern Social Psychology and Personology: An Integrative-Eclectical Approach. Bestprint, Minsk, 11.
[24] Yanchuk, V.A. (2006) Postmodernist, Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogisity as a Prospect of Positioning in Psychology Subject. Methodology and History of Psychology, 1, 204. (Russian)
[25] Ranganath, K.A., Spellman, B.A. and Joy-Gaba, J.A. (2010) Cognitive “Category-Based Induction” Research and Social “Persuasion” Research Are Each about What Makes Arguments Believable: A Tale of Two Literatures. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 115-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691610361604
[26] Meiser, T. (2011) Much Pain, Little Gain? Paradigm-Specific Models and Methods in Experimental Psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 183-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691611400241
[27] Healy, P. (2012) Toward an integrative, Pluralistic Psychology: On the Hermeneutico-Dialogical Conditions of the Possibility for Overcoming Fragmentation New Ideas in Psychology, 30, 275-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2011.12.005
[28] Sternberg, R.J. and Grigorenko, E.L. (2001) Unified Psychology. American Psychologist, 56, 1069-1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.12.1069
[29] Nilsson A. (2014) Personality Psychology as the Integrative Study of Traits and Worldviews. New ideas in Psychology, 32, 29.
[30] Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundation of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
[31] Franklin, C.W. (1982) Theoretical Perspectives in Social Psychology. Little, Brown and Company, Boston.
[32] Yanchuk, V.A. (2010) Cul-tural Framing as Determinant of Mutual Understanding in the Conditions of Cultural Diversity. Psychological Journal, 2, 41-48. (Russian)
[33] Foucault, M. (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. Pantheon Books, New York.
[34] Bukobza, G. (2007) The Epistemological Basis of Selfhood. New Ideas in Psychology, 25, 37-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2006.11.001
[35] Foucault, M. (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. Pantheon Books, New York, xiv.
[36] Pepper, S.C. (1942) World Hypotheses: A Study in Evidence. University of California Press, Berkeley.
[37] Yanchuk, V.A. (2014) The Methodological, Theoretical and Empirical Problems of the Unclosely and Closely-Related Cultures and Ethnosis Research. In: Gritsenko, V., Ed., Theoretical Problems of Ethnic and Cross-Cultural Psychology: Materials of 4-th International Conference, May 30-31, 2014, Smolensk: Smolensk Humanitarian University, Vol. 1, 15-23. (Russian)
[38] Bustamante, R.M., Nelson, J.A. and Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2009) Assessing Schoolwide. Cultural Competence: Implications for School Leadership Preparation Educational Administration Quarterly, 45, 793-827.
[39] Sue, D.W. (2001) Multidimensional Facets of Cultural Competence The Counseling Psychologist, 29, 790-821.
[40] Yanchuk, V.A. (2013) Eco-Cultural Educational Environment: Formation and Development. Part 2: From Cultural to the Intercultural Competence. Education and Nurture, 1, 69-76. (Russian)
[41] Bustamante, R.M., Nelson, J.A. and Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2009) Assessing Schoolwide. Cultural Competence: Implications for School Leadership Preparation. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45, 793-827.
[42] Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F., Thomason, S.J., Yanchuk, V.A., et al. (2011) National Culture as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Managers’ Use of Guidance Sources and How Well Work Events Are Handled. Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology, 42, 1101-1121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022110381427
[43] Smith, P.B., Torres, C.V., Yanchuk, V.A., et al. (2011) Individualism-Collectivism and Business Context as Predictors of Behaviors in Cross-National Work Settings: Incidence and Outcomes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 440-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.02.001
[44] Matsumoto, D. (2009) The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology. David Matsumoto (General ed.), Cambridge University Press, 61.
[45] Spencer-Oatey, H. and Franklin, P. (2009) Intercultural Interaction: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Intercultural Communication. Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230244511
[46] Chen, G.-M. and Starosta, W.J. (1996) Intercultural Communication Competence: A Synthesis. Communication Yearbook, 19, 353-384.
[47] Ting-Toomey, S. (1999) Communicating across Cultures. The Guilford Press, New York, 261.
[48] Hermans, H.J.M. and Kempen, H.J. (1993) The Dialogical Self. Academic Press, London.
[49] Hermans, H.J.M. (2002) The Dialogical Self as a Society of Mind: Introduction. Theory & Psychology, 12, 147-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354302122001
[50] Bakhtin, M.M. (1984) Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 183.
[51] Tu, W. (2001) The Context of Dialogue: Globalization and Diversity. In: Picco, G., Ed., Crossing the Divide: Dialogue among Civilizations, School of Diplomacy and International Relations, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ, 49- 96.                                                                                                            eww141217lx
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Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Perspective of Intercultural Mutual Understanding Comprehension Deepening

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49872#.VB_MXlfHRK0

Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Perspective of Intercultural Mutual Understanding Comprehension Deepening.

ABSTRACT

Sociocultural-interdeterminist dialogical approach focuses attention on the caused interdeteministic character of mutual relations of situational, personal and activity determinants of the behaviour, staticized in concrete historical cultural context. For example, a change in a situational context leads to changes both in the person, and in his or her activity. Achievement of changes in the person and his or her activity assumes creation of the special conditions promoting to their actualization, etc. For understanding of the nature of progress in culture and science the theoretical construct “cultural-scientific tradition” is offered, allowing to trace changes in common cultural and scientific worldview throughout the human history. Consideration of personality problems is carried out in a three-dimensional continuum conscious-unconscious-existential, allowing to capture all variety of displays of psychological phenomenology. Proceeding from understanding of culture as orientational and normative structure of behaviour and as communicative matrix by means of which the behaviour is interpreted, integrated, coordinated and authorized (R. Priest), efficiency of use of the conceptual device of the epistemic approach of Michel Foucault and cultural framing of E. Goffman to understanding of intercultural interaction specificity is proved. The epistemic differences of European (graphic), Chinese, and classic Arabic languages are demonstrated. Intercultural competence is considered in aspect of ability of formation of shared meanings and experiences on the basis of mastering by knowledge about originalities of language, values and norms, experiences and behavioral algorithms of each other. The basis of such mutual understanding creates the dialogue that assumes unconditional acceptance of another based on tolerance and pluralism, the joint extension of the horizons directed on formation and development of coordinated and mutually endured values and senses. As unit of the analysis of intercultural interaction the evaluation of a sharedness of meanings and experiences is offered. Results of empirical research of the given approach on the example of formation of interpersonal mutual understanding of the Belarus and Chinese students are presented.

Cite this paper

Yanchuk, V. (2014) Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Perspective of Intercultural Mutual Understanding Comprehension Deepening. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 178-191. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.28025.
References

 

[1] Yanchuk, V.A. (2000) Methodology, Theory, and Methods in Modern Social Psychology and Personology: An Integrative-Eclectical Approach. Bestprint, Minsk. (Russian)
[2] Yanchuk, V.A. (2006) Postmodernist, Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogisity as a Prospect of Positioning in Psychology Subject Methodology and History of Psychology, 1, 193-206. (Russian)
[3] Yanchuk, V.A. (2007) Postmodernist, Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Prospect of Explanation in Psychology Methodology and History of Psychology, 2, 207-226. (Russian)
[4] Yanchuk, V.A. (2009) Progress in Psychological Phenomenology Understanding: Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogical Prospect. In: Zguravlev, A.L., Marzinkovskaya, T.L. and Yurevich, A.V., Eds., Progress in Psychology: Criteria and Indicators, Institute of Psychology RAS, Moscow, 262-285. (Russian)
[5] Yanchar, S.C. and Slife, B.D. (2000) Putting It All Together: Toward a Hermeneutic Unity of Psychology. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 21, 325-326.
[6] Goertzen, J.R. (2010) Dialectical Pluralism: A Theoretical Conceptualization of Pluralism in Psychology. New Ideas in Psychology, 28, 201-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.013
[7] Yanchuk, V.A. (2005) Introduction to Modern Social Psychology. ASAR, Minsk, 768 p. (Russian)
[8] Healy, P. (2012) Toward an Integrative, Pluralistic Psychology: On the Hermeneutico-Dialogical Conditions of the Possibility for Overcoming Fragmentation. New Ideas in Psychology, 30, 271-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2011.12.005
[9] Smythe, W.E. and McKenzie, S.A. (2010) A Vision of Dialogical Pluralism in Psychology. New Ideas in Psychology, 28, 227-234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.016
[10] Teo, T. (2010) Ontology and Scientific Explanation: Pluralism as an a Priori Condition of Psychology New Ideas in Psychology, 28, 235-243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2009.09.017
[11] Valsiner Y. (2007) Becoming Integrative in Science: Re-building Contemporary Psychology through Interdisciplinary and International Collaboration. Integrative Psycho-logical and Behavioral Science, 41, 1-5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12124-007-9002-2
[12] Ishii, S. (1997) Tasks for Intercultural Communication Researchers in the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st Century. Dokkyo International Review, 10, 313-326.
[13] Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E. and McDaniel, E.R. (2010) Communication between Cultures. 7th Edition, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Boston, MA.
[14] Samovar, L.A., Porter, R.E. and McDaniel, E.R. (2010) Communication between Cultures. 7th Edition, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Boston, MA, 150.
[15] Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. E. and McDaniel, E. R. (2012) In-tercultural Communication: A Reader. 13th Edition, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, Boston, MA, 67.
[16] Jahoda, G. (2013) Critical Reflections on Some Recent Definitions of “Culture”. Culture & Psychology, 18, 289-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1354067X12446229
[17] Kroeber, A.L. and Kluckhohn, C. (1952) Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA.
[18] Kroeber, A.L. and Kluckhohn, C. (1952) Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. Peabody Museum, Cambridge, MA, 181.
[19] Hong, Y. (2009) A Dynamic Constructivist Approach to Culture: Moving from Describing Culture to Explaining Culture. In: Wyer, R.S., Chiu, C.-Y. and Hong, Y.-Y., Eds., Understanding Culture: Theory, Research and Application (pp. 3-23). Psychology Press, New York.
[20] Wan, C. and Chiu, C. (2009). An Intersubjective Consensus Approach to Culture. The Role of Intersubjective Norms versus Cultural Self in Cultural Processes. In Wyer, R.S., Chiu, C.-Y. and Hong, Y.-Y., Eds., Understanding Culture: Theory, Research and Application, Psychology Press, New York, 80, 79-91.
[21] Ishii, S. (1997) Tasks for Intercultural Communication Researchers in the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st Century. Dokkyo International Review, 10, 313-326.
[22] Ishii, S. (1997) Tasks for Intercultural Communication Researchers in the Asia-Pacific Region in the 21st Century. Dokkyo International Review, 10, 313-326, 321.
[23] Yanchuk V.A. (2000) Methodology, Theory, and Methods in Modern Social Psychology and Personology: An Integrative-Eclectical Approach. Bestprint, Minsk, 11.
[24] Yanchuk, V.A. (2006) Postmodernist, Sociocultural-Interdeterminist Dialogisity as a Prospect of Positioning in Psychology Subject. Methodology and History of Psychology, 1, 204. (Russian)
[25] Ranganath, K.A., Spellman, B.A. and Joy-Gaba, J.A. (2010) Cognitive “Category-Based Induction” Research and Social “Persuasion” Research Are Each about What Makes Arguments Believable: A Tale of Two Literatures. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 115-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691610361604
[26] Meiser, T. (2011) Much Pain, Little Gain? Paradigm-Specific Models and Methods in Experimental Psychology. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6, 183-184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1745691611400241
[27] Healy, P. (2012) Toward an integrative, Pluralistic Psychology: On the Hermeneutico-Dialogical Conditions of the Possibility for Overcoming Fragmentation New Ideas in Psychology, 30, 275-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2011.12.005
[28] Sternberg, R.J. and Grigorenko, E.L. (2001) Unified Psychology. American Psychologist, 56, 1069-1079. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.12.1069
[29] Nilsson A. (2014) Personality Psychology as the Integrative Study of Traits and Worldviews. New ideas in Psychology, 32, 29.
[30] Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundation of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
[31] Franklin, C.W. (1982) Theoretical Perspectives in Social Psychology. Little, Brown and Company, Boston.
[32] Yanchuk, V.A. (2010) Cul-tural Framing as Determinant of Mutual Understanding in the Conditions of Cultural Diversity. Psychological Journal, 2, 41-48. (Russian)
[33] Foucault, M. (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. Pantheon Books, New York.
[34] Bukobza, G. (2007) The Epistemological Basis of Selfhood. New Ideas in Psychology, 25, 37-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.newideapsych.2006.11.001
[35] Foucault, M. (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge and the Discourse on Language. Pantheon Books, New York, xiv.
[36] Pepper, S.C. (1942) World Hypotheses: A Study in Evidence. University of California Press, Berkeley.
[37] Yanchuk, V.A. (2014) The Methodological, Theoretical and Empirical Problems of the Unclosely and Closely-Related Cultures and Ethnosis Research. In: Gritsenko, V., Ed., Theoretical Problems of Ethnic and Cross-Cultural Psychology: Materials of 4-th International Conference, May 30-31, 2014, Smolensk: Smolensk Humanitarian University, Vol. 1, 15-23. (Russian)
[38] Bustamante, R.M., Nelson, J.A. and Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2009) Assessing Schoolwide. Cultural Competence: Implications for School Leadership Preparation Educational Administration Quarterly, 45, 793-827.
[39] Sue, D.W. (2001) Multidimensional Facets of Cultural Competence The Counseling Psychologist, 29, 790-821.
[40] Yanchuk, V.A. (2013) Eco-Cultural Educational Environment: Formation and Development. Part 2: From Cultural to the Intercultural Competence. Education and Nurture, 1, 69-76. (Russian)
[41] Bustamante, R.M., Nelson, J.A. and Onwuegbuzie, A.J. (2009) Assessing Schoolwide. Cultural Competence: Implications for School Leadership Preparation. Educational Administration Quarterly, 45, 793-827.
[42] Smith, P.B., Peterson, M.F., Thomason, S.J., Yanchuk, V.A., et al. (2011) National Culture as a Moderator of the Relationship Between Managers’ Use of Guidance Sources and How Well Work Events Are Handled. Journal of Cross- Cultural Psychology, 42, 1101-1121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022022110381427
[43] Smith, P.B., Torres, C.V., Yanchuk, V.A., et al. (2011) Individualism-Collectivism and Business Context as Predictors of Behaviors in Cross-National Work Settings: Incidence and Outcomes. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 440-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2011.02.001
[44] Matsumoto, D. (2009) The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology. David Matsumoto (General ed.), Cambridge University Press, 61.
[45] Spencer-Oatey, H. and Franklin, P. (2009) Intercultural Interaction: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Intercultural Communication. Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230244511
[46] Chen, G.-M. and Starosta, W.J. (1996) Intercultural Communication Competence: A Synthesis. Communication Yearbook, 19, 353-384.
[47] Ting-Toomey, S. (1999) Communicating across Cultures. The Guilford Press, New York, 261.
[48] Hermans, H.J.M. and Kempen, H.J. (1993) The Dialogical Self. Academic Press, London.
[49] Hermans, H.J.M. (2002) The Dialogical Self as a Society of Mind: Introduction. Theory & Psychology, 12, 147-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354302122001
[50] Bakhtin, M.M. (1984) Problems of Dostoevsky’s Poetics. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, 183.
[51] Tu, W. (2001) The Context of Dialogue: Globalization and Diversity. In: Picco, G., Ed., Crossing the Divide: Dialogue among Civilizations, School of Diplomacy and International Relations, Seton Hall University, South Orange, NJ, 49- 96.

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