Thickness, Distribution and Quality Assessment of Gopalganj-Madaripur Peat Deposits: A Case Study of Potential Economic Opportunities in Mid-Eastern Low-Lying Bangladesh

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=48959#.VJjgOcCAM4

Author(s)

Mrinmoy Kumar Maitra, Md. Ashraful Islam, Md. Al Mamun

Affiliation(s)

Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
Department of Geology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Padma Mining & Energy Corporation Limited, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

ABSTRACT

The present research work illustrates the extent, distribution and a generalized quality assessment of southern low-lying peat deposits in Madaripur and part of Gopalganj district that covers approximately 17,000 hectare areas. Based on the survey of 800 boreholes, drilled in this region at different times by several government and non-government organizations for the purposes of peat exploration and hydrogeological investigation, reveals that the study area is composed of a considerable amount of peat deposits in various localities among which the deposits at Baghia-Chanda beel in Madaripur and Gopalganj districts are the most remarkable. The average peat thickness (in-situ condition), studied during field investigation, is 6.5 feet for the upper peat deposits, overlying with an average of 3.5 feet of alluvium cover, followed by the lower peat layer of about 3 feet thick that begins at an average depth of 8 feet and separated by a thin bluish grey silty clay sediments from the upper one. The lower part of the study area, locally known as beels, is the most prospective region for peat, whereas the western part is less potential either having no peat intersection or minimal peat thickness. The overburden covers, on the other hand are inversely correlated with the peat thicknesses, i.e., thick overburden tend to correlate with thin peat deposits and the thickest peat intersections have no or minimal overburden. Due to the variation in bulk density and peat depth, this Holocene peat has an average of 59.10% carbon stock. Nitrogen levels, more than 3%, indicate that the peat developed from the decomposition of reeds, sedges, bushes and trunks of trees (higher in nitrogen) rather than either moss or grass (lower in nitrogen). Higher sulphur content (about 2.7%) reflected the influence of brackish environments where the formation of FeS2 took place in the roots of existing vegetation. The calorific values, about 1308.8 k-cal/kg (after 20% moisture reduction), suggest that the Gopalganj-Madaripur peat is a low grade fuel that can be used as an alternative energy source in the domestic and limited industrial purposes , to relatively expensive natural gas and coal.

KEYWORDS

Bengal Basin, Depression, Incipient Peat, Proximate Analysis

Cite this paper

Maitra, M. , Islam, M. and Mamun, M. (2014) Thickness, Distribution and Quality Assessment of Gopalganj-Madaripur Peat Deposits: A Case Study of Potential Economic Opportunities in Mid-Eastern Low-Lying Bangladesh. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 943-955. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.59081.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0012-821X(78)90082-1                                                                   eww141223lx

Predicting Depression among Jordanian Patients Diagnosed with Physical Illnesses

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52122#.VIkFx8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

Depression is associated with increased medical morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic medical illnesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial predictors of depression among patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses in Jordan. A cross sectional survey using 806 patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses has been used to collect data in regards to depressive symptoms, psychological distress, coping, optimism, life satisfaction, and perceived social support. 27.5% of the patients reported that they had moderate to severe depressive symptoms, and about 31% of them had mild level of depression. Psychological distress, perceived social support from family, life satisfaction and optimism were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R2 = .29; F 11, 803 = 29.7, p < .001). Male and female patients were significantly different in their depressive scores (t = -2.57, p = .01). Implication for clinical practice and research are discussed.

Cite this paper

Hamdan-Mansour, A. , Ghannam, B. , Abeiat, D. , Badawi, T. , Thultheen, I. & Shamali, I. (2014). Predicting Depression among Jordanian Patients Diagnosed with Physical Illnesses. Psychology, 5, 2120-2130. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.519214.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2                                                                           eww141211lx

Altered Neurogranin Phosphorylation and Protein Levels are Associated with Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats Following Forced Swim Stress

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51699#.VHUk52fHRK0

ABSTRACT

Here we tested the hypothesis that stress-induced alterations in Neurogranin (Ng) synthesis and/ or utilization might underlie stress-related depression and anxiety. Rats were randomly divided into five conditions: chronic swim stress (CS), acute swim stress (AS), and three control groups. The CS group was exposed to daily swim stress (5 min/day) for 14 consecutive days, the AS group received a single swim stress, and control groups were maintained in a stress-free condition. Both before and after swim stress, rats were tested for body weight gain, open-field locomotor activity, and saccharine preference. Ng and phospho-Ng (P-Ng) levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were determined by Western blot analysis. Compared to controls, CS animals displayed significantly decreased body weight gain, ambulation, and saccharine intake, and increased grooming behavior. CS animals had decreased Ng levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In CS animals, Ng levels were positively correlated with saccharine intake and ambulation, and inversely correlated with grooming behavior. Compared to controls, AS increased immobility behavior and P-Ng and Ng levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In AS animals, immobility behavior was positively correlated with the P-Ng in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, CS and AS produced opposing effects on Ng and P-Ng levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Low Ng levels in the hippocampus were associated with anhedonic behavior in CS animals, whereas high P-Ng levels in the prefrontal cortex were associated with anxiety-like behavior in AS animals. Thus, Ng dysfunction might contribute to the neural mechanisms underlying stress-induced depression and anxiety.

Cite this paper

Li, H. , Lin, W. , Li, J. and Wang, W. (2014) Altered Neurogranin Phosphorylation and Protein Levels are Associated with Anxiety- and Depression-Like Behaviors in Rats Following Forced Swim Stress. Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 4, 506-522. doi: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.411050.

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Psychosocial Moderators of Perceived Stress, Anxiety and Depression in University Students: An International Study

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51642#.VHPSf2fHRK0

Author(s)

Aileen M. Pidgeon1, Stephanie McGrath2*, Heidi B. Magya3, Peta Stapleton1, Barbara C. Y. Lo4

Affiliation(s)

1PhD (Clin) Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia.
2Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia.
3ARNP, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
4PhD University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

ABSTRACT

Extensive research shows university students experience high levels of stress, which can lead to the development of mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. Preliminary evidence supports the role of psychosocial factors such as perceived social support (PSS) and campus connectedness (CC) as protective factors in the development of mental health problems in university students. However, research conducted on the potential ameliorating effects of social support on stress applying Cohen and Wills’ (1985) stress-buffering hypothesis produced weak, inconsistent, and even contradictory results. In addition, little attention has been given to examining the protective role of CC in the relationships between perceived stress, anxiety, and depression. The cur- rent study examined the applicability of CC and PSS in buffering the relationships been perceived stress, anxiety, and depression across an international sample comprised of university students (N = 206) from Australia, Hong Kong, and the United States. The prediction that CC and PSS would moderate the relationships between perceived stress, anxiety, and depression was partially sup- ported. The results indicated CC moderated the relationship between perceived stress and depression but did not moderate the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety. PSS did not moderate the relationship between perceived stress and depression or the relationship between perceived stress and anxiety, thus rejecting the stress-buffering hypothesis. These findings sug- gest less emphasis should be placed on PSS as a protective factor, with universities focusing on enhancing CC to reduce the high prevalence of mental health problems to promote psychological wellbeing among students.

KEYWORDS

Perceived Stress, Anxiety, Depression, Psychosocial, Perceived Social Support, Campus Connectedness, Stress-Buffering Hypothesis, Moderating, Buffering

Cite this paper

Pidgeon, A. , McGrath, S. , Magya, H. , Stapleton, P. and Lo, B. (2014) Psychosocial Moderators of Perceived Stress, Anxiety and Depression in University Students: An International Study. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 23-31. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.211004.

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Psycho-Social Predictors of Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women: An Australian Study

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47161#.VGArX2fHRK0

Author(s)

Jocelyn Toohill, Jennifer Fenwick, Jenny Gamble, Debra K. Creedy, Anne Buist, Elsa Lena Ryding

Affiliation(s)

Griffith Health Institute, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
Griffith Health Institute, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
Griffith Health Institute, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
Griffith Health Institute, School of Nursing & Midwifery, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.
University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

ABSTRACT

Background: Around 20% of birthing women report high levels of childbirth fear. Fear potentially impacts women’s emotional health, preparation for birth, and birth outcomes. Evidence suggests that personal and external factors contribute to childbirth fear, however results vary. Aim: To identify pyscho-social factors associated with childbirth fear and possible antenatal predictors of childbirth fear according to women’s parity. Method: 1410 women in second trimester and attending one of three public hospitals in south-east Queensland were screened for childbirth fear using the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ). Other measures included the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EPDS), Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) and items from the EuroQol (EQ-5D) targeting Anxiety/Depression and Pain/Discomfort. In addition items measuring a previous mental health condition, social support and knowledge were used. Preferred mode of birth was also collected. Psycho-social factors were analysed to determine associations with childbirth fear. Multivariate analysis was used to determine predictors of fear. Results: Thirty-one percent (n = 190/604) of nulliparous and 18% (n = 143/782) of multiparous women reported high fear levels. Having a mental health history, desiring a caesarean section, reporting moderate to high pain during pregnancy, having a non-supportive partner and perceiving less childbirth knowledge than peers, were associated with childbirth fear. Standard multiple regression analyses by parity determined that depression, decisional conflict, low social support and less perceived knowledge predicted levels of childbirth fear. The model explained 32.4% of variance in childbirth fear for nulliparous and 29.4% for multiparous women. Conclusion: Psychosocial factors are significantly associated with childbirth fear. The identification of predictive psychosocial factors for childbirth fear indicates the importance of observing, assessing, and developing support strategies for women. Such strategies are required to decrease anxiety and depression for women during pregnancy, promote normal birth, and build social support to improve women’s feelings and positive expectations of birth.

KEYWORDS

Childbirth Fear, Predictors, Pain, Decisional Conflict, Depression, Social Support

Cite this paper

Toohill, J. , Fenwick, J. , Gamble, J. , Creedy, D. , Buist, A. and Ryding, E. (2014) Psycho-Social Predictors of Childbirth Fear in Pregnant Women: An Australian Study. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4, 531-543. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2014.49075.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-3712-0_1                                                                            eww141110lx

Internalized HIV-Stigma, Mental Health, Coping and Perceived Social Support among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Aizawl District—A Pilot Study

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51048#.VFLeW2fHRK0

ABSTRACT

AIDS is a global pandemic, and persons with HIV/AIDS are stigmatized throughout the world in varying degrees. The current study is a pilot study for a further in-depth study to understand the psychological implications of living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The study employed a quantitative approach with an aim to find out the level and prevalence of Internalized HIV Stigma (IHS) and to examine the mental health, coping strategies and perceived social support in a sample of 31 People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Two-way classification of “Gender” (male and female) and three-way classification of “Level of IHS” (High IHS, Moderate IHS and Low IHS) on the dependent variables was employed, to elucidate the relationships between Internalized Stigma, Mental Health, Coping and perceived social support. The overall analysis revealed moderate levels of IHS (64.5%), depression (35.5%), and perceived social support (54.8%), and low level of anxiety (54.8%). It was also seen that majority (54.84%) employed emotion-oriented coping strategy. No significant gender differences were found in IHS. However, significant gender differences were found in levels of depression (p < 0.05) and Emotion-oriented coping (p < 0.05). Further analysis revealed that the two subscales of the IHS measure i.e. Stereotypes of HIV and Social Relationships stigma were significantly and positively correlated with anxiety (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 respectively).

Cite this paper

Gohain, Z. & Halliday, M. (2014). Internalized HIV-Stigma, Mental Health, Coping and Perceived Social Support among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Aizawl District—A Pilot Study. Psychology, 5, 1794-1812. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.515186.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2                                                                           eww141031lx

Cultural Influences on the Presentation of Depression

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50956#.VFBcV1fHRK0

ABSTRACT

Depression is predicted to become the second highest disease burden by 2020 as well as being a common mental health condition across the globe. Nevertheless, the presentation of depression varies depending on several factors with the patient’s cultural background playing a significant role. Although depression is such a universal condition, the manner of how a patient presents not only affects the clinician’s ability to make a diagnosis, but ultimately affects the wellbeing of the patient. It is therefore paramount that as clinicians we appreciate how culture not only affects the presentation of depression but also how cultural beliefs affect the patient’s acceptance of such a diagnosis.

Cite this paper

Shafi, A. and Shafi, R. (2014) Cultural Influences on the Presentation of Depression. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 390-395. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44045.

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