The Mutuality of Challenges Facing Human Rights and Human Security: A New Framework of Analysis

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The interrelationship between Human Rights and “related fields” such as Human Security, Development, Democracy and Good Governance was emphasised at the United Nations Millennium Summit, which resulted in a declaration that affirmed global commitments to the protection of the vulnerable, the alleviation of poverty, and the rectification of corrupt structures and processes— particularly in those countries in which there is a lack of “rule of law” and good governance. The world’s leaders resolved to spare no effort to promote democracy and strengthen the rule of law, as well as respect for all internationally recognized human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to Human Security. This paper intends to analytically discuss Human Rights and Human Security with a focus on the interrelationship between human rights and concepts such as the right to development, conflict prevention, peace-making and peace-building, poverty reduction and good govcernance.

Cite this paper

Ome, E. and Casimir, A. (2015) The Mutuality of Challenges Facing Human Rights and Human Security: A New Framework of Analysis. Open Journal of Political Science, 5, 68-75. doi: 10.4236/ojps.2015.52007.

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Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis of Environmentally and Developmentally Regulated Gene Expression in Alfalfa

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53242#.VLh5H8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive technique that has become the standard for the analysis of differences in gene expression in response to experimental treatments or among genetic sources. The accuracy of the RT-qPCR results can be significantly affected by uncontrolled sources of variation that can be accounted for normalization with so-called reference genes stably expressed under various conditions. In this study we assessed the stability of 21 reference gene candidates in crowns of two alfalfa cultivars (Apica and Evolution) exposed to various environmental conditions (cold, water stress and photoperiod) and from above ground biomass of the cultivar Orca sampled at three developmental stages (vegetative, full bloom and mature pods). Candidates were selected based on their previous identification in other plant species or their stable expression in a differential hybridization of alfalfa ESTs with cDNA from non-acclimated and cold-acclimated alfalfa. Genes encoding ubiquitin protein ligase 2a (UBL-2a), actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) and retention in endoplasmic reticulum 1 protein (Rer1) were the most stable across experimental conditions. Conversely β-actin (Act), α-tubulin (Tub) and glyce-raldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) frequently used as “housekeeping genes” in gene expression studies showed poor stability. No more than two reference genes were required to normalize the gene expression data under each condition. Normalization of the expression of genes of interest with unstable reference genes led to observations that were conflicting with those made with validated reference genes and that were in some cases inconsistent with the current knowledge of the trait. The reference genes identified in this study are strong candidates for normalization of gene expression in cultivated alfalfa.

Cite this paper

Castonguay, Y. , Michaud, J. and Dubé, M. (2015) Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis of Environmentally and Developmentally Regulated Gene Expression in Alfalfa. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 132-143. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61015.

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Sindhi Civil Society: Its Praxis in Rural Sindh, and Place in Pakistani Civil Society

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=48898#.VK9MdsnQrzE

Author(s)

Ghulam Hussain, Anwaar Mohyuddin, Shuja Ahmed

Affiliation(s)

Department of Anthropology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Department of Anthropology, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Pakistan Study Centre, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan.

ABSTRACT

Sindhi Civil Society and NGOs working in rural Sindh have a dialectical relationship with each other and with rural communities, particularly peasants and marginalized rural ethnic groups. In this article, the nature and structure of Sindhi civil society vis-à-vis their efforts to differentiate themselves from Pakistani civil society and ethnically hegemonic NGO-structuring, resultant perceived marginalization of Sindhi civil society and NGOs working in rural Sindh, have been classified, explained and analyzed in the light of secondary and primary data. Effort has been made to locate historical intersection points between the spawning of NGOs and the origin of modern Civil Society networks, and relate it to Sindhi civil society in global perspective. This paper is the result of the analysis of secondary data validated through an ethnographic study conducted in Naon Dumbaalo and Chamber area of District Badin, and urban area of Qasimabad at Hyderabad District in Lower Sindh.

KEYWORDS

Sindhi Civil Society, NGOs, Development, Ethnic Marginalization

Cite this paper

Hussain, G. , Mohyuddin, A. & Ahmed, S. (2014). Sindhi Civil Society: Its Praxis in Rural Sindh, and Place in Pakistani Civil Society. Advances in Anthropology, 4, 149-163. doi: 10.4236/aa.2014.43019.

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Has the Status of “Maximum Sustainable Yield” Become an International Customary Rule?

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52676#.VKC5bcCAM4

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

The concept of maximum sustainable yield has emerged as a popularly accepted concept for the benefit of the environment, yet the practical implementation of this concept and the dubious acceptance by fisherman of its lawfulness provides the CORE discussion of this article. Customary law exists as a two pillared system depending both on an element of practice in addition to the belief that the behavior in question is lawfully mandated. As such, for customary status to apply to maximum sustainable yield, this requires both pillars. This article therefore evaluates the application of the customary status to maximum sustainable yield and in doing so, demonstrates that maximum sustainable yield is itself an implementation of the greater notion of sustainable development as a whole.

Cite this paper

Alberstadt, R. (2014). Has the Status of “Maximum Sustainable Yield” Become an International Customary Rule?. Beijing Law Review, 5, 264-271. doi: 10.4236/blr.2014.54025.

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Re-Evaluating Media Richness Theory in Software Development Settings

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52338#.VJIjicnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Software development teams communicate differently by using a variety of communication tools. Successful communication leads to competitive software based on clear and quickly delivered re-quirements, as well as smoothness in bug reporting and explanation. Agile and Waterfall software development approaches have both addressed the importance of communication for their process. However, neither Agile nor Waterfall has guaranteed communication effectiveness during their development lifecycle. In this study we highlight the main differences between Agile and Waterfall approaches in the light of Media Richness Theory (MRT). We also identify the preferred commu-nication tools during a project’s lifecycle using both Agile and Waterfall models separately. A mixed-method approach was employed in this study incorporating quantitative and qualitative data from interviews and a multilingual web-based survey. The results are presented descriptively and statistically and a rank ordering of communication tools based on our participants’ preferences leads to a better understanding of how to select the best tool in a given situation. Thus a new updated MRT ranking model tailored for software development environment was developed, as well as, we conclude that communication tools are employed differently based on project stages and team member’s role. These differences in using communication tools could be also attributed to the type of transferable information or personal preferences.

Cite this paper

Bindrees, M. , Pooley, R. , Ibrahim, I. and Taylor, N. (2014) Re-Evaluating Media Richness Theory in Software Development Settings. Journal of Computer and Communications, 2, 37-51. doi: 10.4236/jcc.2014.214004.

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Leadership, Social Identity and the Politics of Underdevelopment in Africa

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52332#.VJDhTMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Several researches have been conducted on the nature, character and causes of underdevelopment in Africa. Some scholars have alluded to the imperativeness of leadership in fostering development in Africa while some pointed a robust accusing finger to the structures of the international political system. While this paper does not join issues with these scholars, it however focuses on locating the dilemma of social identity as the missing factor in all inter personal relationships in Africa with special bias for the relationship between the led and the leaders. This paper briefly engages the arguments and counterarguments of the paradox of development in Africa and then goes on to show how the absence of social identity or group identity has been the bane of development in Africa. While dwelling on available secondary data, this paper theorizes the interplay among politics of underdevelopment, leadership and social identity in Africa. It concludes by arguing for the necessity of class suicide of the political class and also cognitive re-orientation of the led through education.

Cite this paper

Ade’ Agbude, G. , Excellence-Oluye, N. and Godwyns-Agbude, J. (2014) Leadership, Social Identity and the Politics of Underdevelopment in Africa. Open Journal of Leadership, 3, 106-115. doi: 10.4236/ojl.2014.34009.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/0-8213-5088-9                                                                                 eww141217lx

Environmental Consequences of Long-Term Development of Petroleum Fields, Absheron p-la, Azerbaijan, Case History

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52276#.VI-HmcnQrzE

ABSTRACT

In this paper the overview of a level of study of the deformation processes on long-term petroleum field development and ecological consequences accompanying them is given. In more details these processes are considered for the oldest Absheron petroleum bearing region (Absheron p-la, Azerbaijan) where fields are strongly depleted and the pressure drop reaches 80% from initial values. Ecological consequences of this phenomenon are the following: development in area of petroleum fields Balakhany-Sabunchi-Ramany, Surakhany, Garachukhur, Bibi-Eybat intensive process of ground subsiding (up to 47 mm/year) and flooding, frequent incidences of curved boreholes, breaks in oil, gas, and water pipelines, and sudden kicks of water and sand, occurrence of the induced seismicity (Surakhany earthquake in 1937 with magnitude 6). With purpose of forecasting of geodynamic processes creation on petroleum production complexes of system of the environmental control is recommended.

Cite this paper

Feyzullayev, A. and Ibragimov, V. (2014) Environmental Consequences of Long-Term Development of Petroleum Fields, Absheron p-la, Azerbaijan, Case History. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1603-1610. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.517151.

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