Leaving Home? Global Education Strategies

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College in much of the West is the formal site of higher education but what is expected from college is education more broadly conceived. The university is a place where students come to learn but it also is a collection of spaces where informal learning builds their capacities to create and perform on a larger stage than family and neighborhood. The public sphere constituted by the university is sheltered, but students are still exposed to individuals from different backgrounds and encouraged to expand their horizons to embrace concerns that lie outside the interests and competence of their families and neighborhoods. The adults and peers who surround them make demands that each student must either accommodate or resist. How to make these choices is an important element of both “global education” and the transition to adulthood. Some of this informal learning is accomplished through leaving home to join a university community. Here I examine the structures and practices that influence informal student learning where the relative impact of the home and the university differ. I also look at three study-abroad programs, arguing that the spaces and places of education in a foreign country remain influenced by the cultural values of home and home institutions. My purpose is to evaluate the extent to which these universities and programs prepare graduates for life in a globalized world, and to determine some of the reasons lying behind the differences.

Cite this paper

Tétreault, M. (2015) Leaving Home? Global Education Strategies. Creative Education, 6, 115-126. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.62010.

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Ferns and Lycophytes in Two Areas of Ecotone between Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53540#.VMiA-SzQrzE

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to present the wealth, ecological characteristics and the floristic similarity of ferns and lycophytes from two forest areas of the municipality of Campo Mourão, PR, Brazil. The vegetation of the municipality is characterized mainly by an ecotone between the Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest. We recorded 56 species, distributed in 31 genera and 16 families. The most representative families were Pteridaceae (14) and Polypodiaceae (11) and the wealthier genre was Thelypteris (6). The terricolous species were predominant (72%) and the preferential environments were riparian vegetation and forest interior (70%). The flora of Campo Mourão was more similar to the studies conducted in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and the cophenetic correlation coefficient (r = 0.9058) showed a consistent adjust. In the principal components analysis (PCA) the variance explained by the two principal components was 72.99%. The wealth found in this study corresponds to approximately 11.4% of the flora of ferns and lycophytes of Paraná. Future contributions are needed to increase the knowledge about the flora of ferns and lycophytes in areas of ecotone, mainly in the region of Campo Mourão, where the studies are scarce.

Cite this paper

Caxambú, M. , Geraldino, H. and Solvalagem, A. (2015) Ferns and Lycophytes in Two Areas of Ecotone between Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil. Open Journal of Forestry, 5, 195-209. doi: 10.4236/ojf.2015.52018.

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From Monoculture to Norfolk System: How the Number of Crops in Rotation Can Influence the Biodiversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Assemblages in the Soil

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52759

ABSTRACT

Given the attention drawn since several decades by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as potential biological alternatives to chemicals in a low-input agriculture, much effort has been spent in the investigation of mechanisms influencing the dynamics inside AMF communities. In the present study we evaluated the influence of different crop rotations on the AMF soil community, after a 50 y long-term field experiment established at Martonvásár, Hungary. Four types of crop rotation were chosen for sampling: corn monocropping, corn-alfalfa, corn-wheat, and corn-spring barley-peas-wheat. Community composition of AMF in soil was analyzed with a molecular approach amplifying a portion of 28S rDNA. The crop rotation practice didn’t show an influence on identity of the species composing AMF assemblages, but on the other hand seemed to affect positively the true diversity, defined as number of MOTUs present in the communities.

Cite this paper

Magurno, F. , Sasvári, Z. , Barchi, L. and Posta, K. (2014) From Monoculture to Norfolk System: How the Number of Crops in Rotation Can Influence the Biodiversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Assemblages in the Soil. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 1080-1088. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.417088.

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[3] Wright, S.F., Green, V.S. and Cavigelli, M.A. (2007) Glomalin in Aggregate Size Classes from Three Different Farming Systems. Soil & Tillage Research, 94, 546-549.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2006.08.003
[4] Ruiz-Lozano, J.M., Porcel, R. and Aroca, R. (2008) Evaluation of the Possible Participation of Drought-Induced Genes. In: Varma, A., Ed., The Enhanced Tolerance of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plants to Water Deficit, Mycorrhiza, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 185-205.
[5] Atkinson, D., Baddeley, J.A., Goicoechea, N., Green, J., Sánchez-Díaz, M. and Watson, C.A. (2002) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Low Input Agriculture. In: Gianinazzi, S., Schüepp, H., Barea, J.M. and Haselwandter, K., Eds., Mycorrhizal Technology in Agriculture, Birkhauser, Basel, 211-222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-8117-3_17
[6] Verbruggen, E., Van der Heijden, M.G.A., Weedon, J.T., Kowalchuk, G.A. and Roling, W.F.M. (2012) Community Assembly, Species Richness and Nestedness of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Agricultural Soils. Molecular Ecology, 21, 2341-2353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05534.x
[7] Sasvári, Z., Hornok, L. and Posta, K. (2011) The Community Structure of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Roots of Corn Grown in a 50-Year Monoculture. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 47, 167-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-010-0519-z
[8] Borriello, R., Lumini, E., Girlanda, M., Bonfante, P. and Bianciotto, V. (2012) Effects of Different Management Practices on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity in Maize Fields by a Molecular Approach. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 48, 911-922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-012-0683-4
[9] Horton, T.R., and Bruns, T.D. (2001) The Molecular Revolution in Ectomycorrhizal Ecology: Peeking into the Black-Box. Molecular Ecology, 10, 1855-1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01333.x
[10] Mathimaran, N., Ruh, R., Jama, B., Verchot, L., Frossard, E. and Jansa, J. (2007) Impact of Agricultural Management on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Kenyan Ferralsol. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 119, 22-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.06.004
[11] Oehl, F., Sieverding, E., Ineichen, K., Mader, P., Wiemken, A. and Boller, T. (2009) Distinct Sporulation Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities from Different Agroecosystems in Long-Term Microcosms. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 134, 257-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.07.008
[12] van Tuinen, D., Zhao, B. and Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. (1998) PCR in Studies of AM Fungi: From Primers to Application. In: Varma, A., Ed., Mycorrhiza Manual, Springer, Heidelberg, 387-399.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-60268-9_24
[13] van Tuinen, D., Jacquot, E., Zhao, B., Gollotte, A. and Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. (1998) Characterization of Root Colonization Profiles by a Microcosm Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Using 25S rDNA-Targeted Nested PCR. Molecular Ecology, 7, 879-887.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00410.x
[14] da Silva, G.A., Lumini, E., Maia, L.C., Bonfante, P. and Bianciotto, V. (2006) Phylogenetic Analysis of Glomeromycota by Partial LSU rDNA Sequences. Mycorrhiza, 16, 183-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-005-0030-9
[15] Schloss, P.D., Westcott, S.L., Ryabin, T., Hall, J.R., Hartmann, M., Hollister, E.B., et al. (2009) Introducing Mothur: Open-Source, Platform-Independent, Community-Supported Software for Describing and Comparing Microbial Communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75, 7537-7541.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01541-09
[16] Rosselló-Mora, R. and Amann, R. (2001) The Species Concept for Prokaryotes. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 25, 39-67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-6445(00)00040-1
[17] Cericola, F., Portis, E., Toppino, L., Barchi, L., Acciarri, N., Ciriaci, T., et al. (2013) The Population Structure and Diversity of Eggplant from Asia and the Mediterranean Basin. PLoS ONE, 8, e73702.
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[18] Redecker, D., Schüssler, A., Stockinger, H., Stürmer, S.L., Morton, J.B. and Walker, C. (2013) An Evidence-Based Consensus for the Classification of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (Glomeromycota). Mycorrhiza, 23, 515-531.
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[19] Ijdo, M., Schtickzelle, N., Cranenbrouck, S. and Declerck, S. (2010) Do Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Contrasting Life History Strategies Differ in Their Responses to Repeated Defoliation? FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 72, 114-122. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2009.00829.x
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[22] Rosendahl, S. and Stukenbrock, E.H. (2004) Community Structure of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Undisturbed Vegetation Revealed by Analyses of LSU rDNA Sequences. Molecular Ecology, 13, 3179-3186.
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[23] Opik, M., Moora, M., Liira, J. and Zobel, M. (2006) Composition of Root-Colonizing Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Different Ecosystems around the Globe. Journal of Ecology, 94, 778-790.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01239.x                                                           eww141231lx

Species Composition and Diversity of Insects of the Kogyae Strict Nature Reserve in Ghana

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52758

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>Kogyae Strict Nature Reserve, the only one in Ghana, was established to promote scientific research, particularly on how nature revitalizes itself after major disasters, and also to check the southward drift of the savannah grassland. This study presents the first comprehensive inventory of species composition and diversity of insects of the Reserve. Insects were surveyed between September 2011 and June 2012 to capture the end of the rainy season, the dry season and the peak of the wet season. Samples were taken from two sites within the Reserve, Dagomba and Oku using various sampling techniques including pitfall traps, malaise traps and sweep nets. Insect communities were characterized in terms of, 1) species richness estimators, 2) species richness, 3) Shannon-Weiner Index of Diversity, 4) Pielou’s evenness and 5) Bray-Curtis similarity. A total of 8147 individuals representing 135 families from 21 orders were recorded. This included 107 species of butterflies from 9 families and 20 species of dragonflies from 3 families. Oku recorded the highest species numbers (S = 63) and richness (d = 12.16) with a high evenness of species (J = 0.9377) during the peak of the wet season; and the lowest species numbers (S = 58) and Margalef’s index of (d = 10.14) in January. The highest Shannon diversity index of (H = 3.927) was recorded at Dagomba in January.<span “=””>

Cite this paper

Kyerematen, R. , Owusu, E. , Acquah-Lamptey, D. , Anderson, R. and Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. (2014) Species Composition and Diversity of Insects of the Kogyae Strict Nature Reserve in Ghana. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 1061-1079. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.417087.

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From Monoculture to Norfolk System: How the Number of Crops in Rotation Can Influence the Biodiversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Assemblages in the Soil

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52759#.VKISZcCAM4

ABSTRACT

Given the attention drawn since several decades by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as potential biological alternatives to chemicals in a low-input agriculture, much effort has been spent in the investigation of mechanisms influencing the dynamics inside AMF communities. In the present study we evaluated the influence of different crop rotations on the AMF soil community, after a 50 y long-term field experiment established at Martonvásár, Hungary. Four types of crop rotation were chosen for sampling: corn monocropping, corn-alfalfa, corn-wheat, and corn-spring barley-peas-wheat. Community composition of AMF in soil was analyzed with a molecular approach amplifying a portion of 28S rDNA. The crop rotation practice didn’t show an influence on identity of the species composing AMF assemblages, but on the other hand seemed to affect positively the true diversity, defined as number of MOTUs present in the communities.

Cite this paper

Magurno, F. , Sasvári, Z. , Barchi, L. and Posta, K. (2014) From Monoculture to Norfolk System: How the Number of Crops in Rotation Can Influence the Biodiversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Assemblages in the Soil. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 1080-1088. doi: 10.4236/oje.2015.417088.

References

[1] Smith, S.E. and Read, D.J. (2008) Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. 3rd Edition, Academic Press, London.
[2] Jeffries, P., Gianinazzi, S., Perotto, S., Turnau, K. and Barca, J.M. (2003) The Contribution of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Sustainable Maintenance of Plant Health and Soil Fertility. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 37, 1-16.
[3] Wright, S.F., Green, V.S. and Cavigelli, M.A. (2007) Glomalin in Aggregate Size Classes from Three Different Farming Systems. Soil & Tillage Research, 94, 546-549.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2006.08.003
[4] Ruiz-Lozano, J.M., Porcel, R. and Aroca, R. (2008) Evaluation of the Possible Participation of Drought-Induced Genes. In: Varma, A., Ed., The Enhanced Tolerance of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plants to Water Deficit, Mycorrhiza, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 185-205.
[5] Atkinson, D., Baddeley, J.A., Goicoechea, N., Green, J., Sánchez-Díaz, M. and Watson, C.A. (2002) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Low Input Agriculture. In: Gianinazzi, S., Schüepp, H., Barea, J.M. and Haselwandter, K., Eds., Mycorrhizal Technology in Agriculture, Birkhauser, Basel, 211-222.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-8117-3_17
[6] Verbruggen, E., Van der Heijden, M.G.A., Weedon, J.T., Kowalchuk, G.A. and Roling, W.F.M. (2012) Community Assembly, Species Richness and Nestedness of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Agricultural Soils. Molecular Ecology, 21, 2341-2353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05534.x
[7] Sasvári, Z., Hornok, L. and Posta, K. (2011) The Community Structure of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Roots of Corn Grown in a 50-Year Monoculture. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 47, 167-176.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-010-0519-z
[8] Borriello, R., Lumini, E., Girlanda, M., Bonfante, P. and Bianciotto, V. (2012) Effects of Different Management Practices on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Diversity in Maize Fields by a Molecular Approach. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 48, 911-922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00374-012-0683-4
[9] Horton, T.R., and Bruns, T.D. (2001) The Molecular Revolution in Ectomycorrhizal Ecology: Peeking into the Black-Box. Molecular Ecology, 10, 1855-1871. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0962-1083.2001.01333.x
[10] Mathimaran, N., Ruh, R., Jama, B., Verchot, L., Frossard, E. and Jansa, J. (2007) Impact of Agricultural Management on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities in Kenyan Ferralsol. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 119, 22-32.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.06.004
[11] Oehl, F., Sieverding, E., Ineichen, K., Mader, P., Wiemken, A. and Boller, T. (2009) Distinct Sporulation Dynamics of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Communities from Different Agroecosystems in Long-Term Microcosms. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 134, 257-268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2009.07.008
[12] van Tuinen, D., Zhao, B. and Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. (1998) PCR in Studies of AM Fungi: From Primers to Application. In: Varma, A., Ed., Mycorrhiza Manual, Springer, Heidelberg, 387-399.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-60268-9_24
[13] van Tuinen, D., Jacquot, E., Zhao, B., Gollotte, A. and Gianinazzi-Pearson, V. (1998) Characterization of Root Colonization Profiles by a Microcosm Community of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Using 25S rDNA-Targeted Nested PCR. Molecular Ecology, 7, 879-887.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-294x.1998.00410.x
[14] da Silva, G.A., Lumini, E., Maia, L.C., Bonfante, P. and Bianciotto, V. (2006) Phylogenetic Analysis of Glomeromycota by Partial LSU rDNA Sequences. Mycorrhiza, 16, 183-189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00572-005-0030-9
[15] Schloss, P.D., Westcott, S.L., Ryabin, T., Hall, J.R., Hartmann, M., Hollister, E.B., et al. (2009) Introducing Mothur: Open-Source, Platform-Independent, Community-Supported Software for Describing and Comparing Microbial Communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 75, 7537-7541.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01541-09
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2007.01239.x                                                                       eww141230lx

Species Composition and Diversity of Insects of the Kogyae Strict Nature Reserve in Ghana

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52758#.VKISbcCAM4

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>Kogyae Strict Nature Reserve, the only one in Ghana, was established to promote scientific research, particularly on how nature revitalizes itself after major disasters, and also to check the southward drift of the savannah grassland. This study presents the first comprehensive inventory of species composition and diversity of insects of the Reserve. Insects were surveyed between September 2011 and June 2012 to capture the end of the rainy season, the dry season and the peak of the wet season. Samples were taken from two sites within the Reserve, Dagomba and Oku using various sampling techniques including pitfall traps, malaise traps and sweep nets. Insect communities were characterized in terms of, 1) species richness estimators, 2) species richness, 3) Shannon-Weiner Index of Diversity, 4) Pielou’s evenness and 5) Bray-Curtis similarity. A total of 8147 individuals representing 135 families from 21 orders were recorded. This included 107 species of butterflies from 9 families and 20 species of dragonflies from 3 families. Oku recorded the highest species numbers (S = 63) and richness (d = 12.16) with a high evenness of species (J = 0.9377) during the peak of the wet season; and the lowest species numbers (S = 58) and Margalef’s index of (d = 10.14) in January. The highest Shannon diversity index of (H = 3.927) was recorded at Dagomba in January.<span “=””>

Cite this paper

Kyerematen, R. , Owusu, E. , Acquah-Lamptey, D. , Anderson, R. and Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y. (2014) Species Composition and Diversity of Insects of the Kogyae Strict Nature Reserve in Ghana. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 1061-1079. doi: 10.4236/oje.2015.417087.

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Habitat Characterization of Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Tafna Catchment of Western Algeria

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52461#.VJjJecCAM4

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>Physical Habitat characterization of black flies was performed in the Tafna Basin of Algeria, based primarily on stream size, substrate, and aquatic and riparian vegetation. A total of 143 samples were taken between April and October 2009 at 11 sampling sites in the Tafna catchment. Dams exerted an effect through a slowdown of flow and sedimentation of fine particles, eliminating coarse microhabitats favorable for black flies. Stream and substrate characteristics are key parameters that determined the microhabitats of the species. Of 10 species considered, four were widely present with significant plasticity for the stream and substrate. Four other species were more closely associated with faster streams and eroded substrate. A greater rheophilic tendency was found for Simulium bezzii (Corti)<span “=””>, Simulium sergenti Edwards<span “=””>, Simulium quadrifila Grenier, Faure and Laurent <span “=””>and Simulium galloprovincialeGiudicelli,<span “=””> which represents a new record for Algeria.

Cite this paper

Boudghane-Bendiouis, C. , Abdellaoui-Hassaïne, K. , Belqat, B. , Franquet, E. , Hacene, S. and Yadi, B. (2014) Habitat Characterization of Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in the Tafna Catchment of Western Algeria. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 1014-1024. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.416084.

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