Diglossia in the Arab World —Educational Implications and Future Perspectives

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This essay will offer an introduction to the long-debated issue of diglossia in the Arabic-speaking world, together with an overview of some of the effects it brings about within the Arab society against the background of the governing Islamic creed. After a definition of the issue, backed by the most relevant, related academic literature, a brief overview will be offered of the social setting in which this situation has perpetuated itself to this day. The author will then proceed to assess the impact of diglossia on Arab youth, nowadays, with an eye on educational concerns, and will conclude with a tentative speculation on the future of Arabic as a language, in hopes to inspire further academic endeavor.

Cite this paper

Horn, C. (2015) Diglossia in the Arab World
—Educational Implications and Future Perspectives. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 5, 100-104. doi: 10.4236/ojml.2015.51009.

References

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Quality of Moral Judgement in the Nigerian Police Force: Assessing the Mediating Influences of Level of Education and Gender

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The study investigated gender and level of education as factors in quality of moral judgement among the Nigerian Police Force. A total of 167 participants comprising eighty-one (81) males and eighty-six (86) females of the Nigerian Police were drawn from Central Police Station (C.P.S), Uwani, and State CID Head Quarters, all in Enugu State. A 28 items ethical moral self inventory was administered to them to measure their quality of moral judgment. A cross-sectional survey design was used, while a 2-way ANOVA Statistics was applied to analyze the data. The findings revealed no significant influence of the two independent variables (gender and level of education). Gender: F(1,163) = .02 at p < .05; level of education: F(1,163) = .35 at p < .05, and gender interaction level of education: F(1,163) = .07 at p < .05 on quality of moral judgement among the Nigerian Police. The finding was discussed in terms of its relevance to further education, and on-the-job training and counseling.

Cite this paper

Ozor, T. and Okafor, C. (2015) Quality of Moral Judgement in the Nigerian Police Force: Assessing the Mediating Influences of Level of Education and Gender. Open Journal of Political Science, 5, 76-81. doi: 10.4236/ojps.2015.52008.

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A Systematic Review of Literatures on Factors Associated with Educational and Academic Performance in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been shown to impair major life activities including educational functioning. However, there is no consensus on the specific cause for the impact on this worse educational outcome. This systematic review aims to identify factors that have been associated with educational and academic underperformance of children and adolescents with ADHD. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The study focused on articles presenting results of data-based analyses related to ADHD and keywords related to education. The search resulted in 376 records that were screened by title. Of these, 185 articles were screened by abstract and 35 met the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review. These 35 articles were related to seven domains: educational training, educational environment, pharmacological treatment, ADHD symptoms, associations of ADHD with academic outcomes, self-concept, and specific skills. The main source of educational challenges seems to be related to the inattentive symptoms (or subtype) of ADHD. This outcome is different than expected, since hyperactive symptoms are pronounced more prominently and often refer children to clinical practice. Inattentive symptoms amongst others refer to difficulties in organization skills and can lead to decreased self-efficacy and development of depressive symptoms. This decreased self-efficacy and the depressive symptoms were also found to be related to influence the relation between ADHD and academic performance. Educational outcomes were shown to be improved using small group work, learning via a computer-based service and as a result of coaching and pharmacological treatment. To help children and adults achieve educational goals that now are out of reach, more attention should be spent to the inattentive symptoms of ADHD and possibilities to overcome experienced problems.

Cite this paper

Kolk, A. , Agthoven, M. , Buitelaar, J. and Roijen, L. (2015) A Systematic Review of Literatures on Factors Associated with Educational and Academic Performance in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Creative Education, 6, 164-180. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.62015.

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Contribution of Education and Innovation to Productivity among Mexican Regions: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53727#.VNB3aSzQrzE

ABSTRACT

A dynamic panel data (DPD) model is estimated to assess the contribution of the average schooling years, the education expenditure and the inventive coefficient—as an approximation for innovation—to the increased productivity of the Mexican states. The potential difficulties of endogeneity and serial correlation are controlled by adopting system General Method of Moments (GMM) procedures. The findings are compatible with the theory. The importance of the lags is confirmed and the positive and significant impacts on productivity tend to vary according to the income level and the geographical location of the regions. Innovation is an important contributor to northern, central and richer states’ productivity, but education expenditure is important for the poorer states and scholarly attainment stands out in the southern states. The analysis emerging from the model concludes that these regional differences should be seen as a potential opportunity for designing customized policies capable of increasing the productivity and not as a weakness.

Cite this paper

German-Soto, V. and Flores, L. (2015) Contribution of Education and Innovation to Productivity among Mexican Regions: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis. Theoretical Economics Letters, 5, 44-55. doi: 10.4236/tel.2015.51008.

References

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Distance Learning and Administrators Training in Basic Education: The Importance, Principles and Meanings in Contemporaneity

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53607#.VMnt1CzQrzE

Author(s)

Naura Syria Carapeto Ferreira

Affiliation(s)

Tuiuti University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

ABSTRACT

This article addresses three fundamental elements in contemporaneity for Brazilians and worldwide people: The Distance Learning, the Administrators Training and the Basic Education. It is necessary to understand them within the relation that links them and demonstrates responsibility from the principles and meanings committed with citizen human formation of all the Brazilian and worldwide population. Therefore, I will point at re-signifying those elements in this relation, opening ways to purposeful ideas.

KEYWORDS

Distance Learning, Education, Technology Education, Administrators, Management

Cite this paper

Ferreira, N. (2015) Distance Learning and Administrators Training in Basic Education: The Importance, Principles and Meanings in Contemporaneity. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 15-19. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.32003.

References

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Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery Development at the Hospital Clinic: Our 4-Year Experience

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53201#.VLck_snQrzE

ABSTRACT

Background: Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) has still not replaced conventional laparoscopic surgery in many centers because of its special instruments requirements and training needs. In our Institution we introduced SILS procedures in a procedural stepwise manner, with progression to more difficult procedures only allowed if complete proficiency in low-complexity ones is achieved. Methods: We studied the evolution of performed SILS procedures in our Institution from the beginning of the program (mainly appendectomies, cholecystectomies, left adrenalectomies) and the results from these techniques. Results: Among 328 SILS procedures there were 148 appendectomies (24 by suprapubic access), 141 cholecystectomies, 32 left adrenalectomies, 6 diagnostic laparoscopies and 1 resection of Meckel’s diverticulum. The majority of appendectomies accounted for non-perforated appendicitis cases and there were no significant differences between transumbilical and suprapubic access groups. In cholecystectomies the majority of patients were elective cases and oral intake could be resumed within the 6 postoperative hours. In left adrenalectomies no conversion to open surgery was required and there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Conclusions: Procedural stepwise approach in SILS is a valid, feasible and safe option that can be applied at any institution starting a SILS program.

Cite this paper

Martí, J. , Vidal, O. , Valentini, M. , Ginestà, C. , Espert, J. , Rodriguez, M. , Benarroch, G. and García-Valdecasas, J. (2015) Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery Development at the Hospital Clinic: Our 4-Year Experience. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 6, 26-32. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.61004.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-010-1328-z
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[12] Vidal, O., Valentini, M., Ginestà, C., Benarroch, G. and García-Valdecasas, J.C. (2009) Single Incision Laparoscopic Appendectomy (SILS): Initial Experience. Cirugía Española, 85, 317-319.
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[13] Vidal, O., Valentini, M., Ginestà, C., Martí, J., Espert, J.J., Benarroch, G. and García-Valdecasas, J.C. (2010) Laparoen-doscopic Single-Site Surgery Appendectomy. Surgical Endoscopy, 24, 686-691.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-009-0661-6
[14] Vidal, O., Valentini, M., Ginestà, C., Espert, J.J., Martinez, A., Benarroch, G., Anglada, M.T. and García-Valdecasas, J.C. (2011) Single-Incision Versus Standard Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Comparison of Surgical Outcomes from a Single Institution. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques A, 21, 683-686.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lap.2011.0047
[15] Vidal, O., Pavel, M., Valentini, M., Ginesta, C., Martí, J., Espert, J.J., Benarroch, G. and García-Valdecasas, J.C. (2012) Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Day Surgery Procedure: Are We Prepared? The American Surgeon, 78, 436-439.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2006.01.014                                                                       eww150115lx

The Biological and Social Determination of Man’s Psychic Development

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52655#.VKCoTcCAM4

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Throughout the history of education research, certain views were expressed which considered that the main determining force in an individual’s personality development was the biological factor. On the other hand, there were other experts who underestimated the biological factor and concentrated on the social factor. The struggle between these contradictory views was of long duration. In this article, the author tries to discuss about both the biological determination of personality development and the training of man, and the influence of the social environment on personality development and the training of man.

Cite this paper

Wang, F. (2014) The Biological and Social Determination of Man’s Psychic Development. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 2, 79-83. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.212011.

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