Quality of Moral Judgement in the Nigerian Police Force: Assessing the Mediating Influences of Level of Education and Gender

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The study investigated gender and level of education as factors in quality of moral judgement among the Nigerian Police Force. A total of 167 participants comprising eighty-one (81) males and eighty-six (86) females of the Nigerian Police were drawn from Central Police Station (C.P.S), Uwani, and State CID Head Quarters, all in Enugu State. A 28 items ethical moral self inventory was administered to them to measure their quality of moral judgment. A cross-sectional survey design was used, while a 2-way ANOVA Statistics was applied to analyze the data. The findings revealed no significant influence of the two independent variables (gender and level of education). Gender: F(1,163) = .02 at p < .05; level of education: F(1,163) = .35 at p < .05, and gender interaction level of education: F(1,163) = .07 at p < .05 on quality of moral judgement among the Nigerian Police. The finding was discussed in terms of its relevance to further education, and on-the-job training and counseling.

Cite this paper

Ozor, T. and Okafor, C. (2015) Quality of Moral Judgement in the Nigerian Police Force: Assessing the Mediating Influences of Level of Education and Gender. Open Journal of Political Science, 5, 76-81. doi: 10.4236/ojps.2015.52008.

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Gender Differences in Comorbidities and Sleep Patterns of Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the comorbidities and sleep patterns most commonly associated with each gender in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of obese individuals with OSA. The polysomnographies were carried out in a sleep laboratory environment, using a 15-channel polysomnography setup. Airflow was measured using a nasal pressure cannula/thermistor combination. A standard handbook was used for interpretation of PSG findings. Results: A total of 284 subjects were included in the study, (147 females). The mean age, body mass index and neck circumference were similar between females and males (p = 0.9579, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.0001, respectively). On polysomnography, females exhibited longer latency to REM sleep (146.50 ± 85.93 vs. 122.3 ± 68.28, p = 0.0210) and a higher percentage of delta sleep (10.09 ± 7.48 vs. 7.55 ± 6.57, p = 0.0037); males had more frequent microarousals (38.37 ± 27.44 vs. 28.07 ± 21.23, p = 0.0017) and a higher AHI score (30.56 ± 27.52 vs. 17.31 ± 21.23, p < 0.0001). The comorbidities most commonly associated with female gender were diabetes (29% vs. 9.49%, p = 0.0132), hypothyroidism (20% vs. 2.19%, p < 0.0001), and depression (81.63% vs. 51.22%, p < 0.0001). Male gender was associated with myocardial infarction (6.57% vs. 1.38%, p = 0.0245) and alcohol intake (33.88% vs. 11.34%, p < 0.0001). Obese males with OSA have a larger neck circumference and higher AHI and arousal indices than females. Conclusions: There are genderdifferences both in the sleep patterns and in the comorbidities of patients with OSA. Men had a larger neck circumference, higher apnea and sleep fragmentation scores, were more likely to consume alcohol, and were more likely to have a history of myocardial infarction than women.

Cite this paper

Valadares, R. , Sousa, K. , Espindola, M. , dos Santos, C. and Viegas, C. (2015) Gender Differences in Comorbidities and Sleep Patterns of Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. World Journal of Neuroscience, 5, 49-57. doi: 10.4236/wjns.2015.51006.

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Gender Crisis in Poland, Catholic Ideology and the Media

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52942#.VK3YEMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

The author discusses the “anti-gender” debate initiated by the Catholic Church in Poland, which has proclaimed a deepening crisis of family and society and has accused gender ideology of being responsible. At the end of 2013, a campaign emerged within the Church to undermine gender theories and to put blame on gender theorists for societal flaws. The discourse has been elaborated on in the media and has created an atmosphere of friction and unrest between academics involved in gender studies and church representatives. The nation has been divided in its understanding and acceptance of gender, with people heavily influenced by sermons in local churches and by the Catholic press. This paper contains a critical analysis of the Church’s stand point on gender issues in Poland and the results of a survey of public opinion carried out by the author. Denial and rejection of gender theories by the Polish Catholic Church should not be ignored. This denial may have a negative impact on women’s rights and their position in Polish society and undermine the work of multiple generations of researchers, suffragettes and feminists. Moreover it is highly offensive to diverse communities and therefore should be highlighted and addressed in the wider context. The article should be treated as a viewpoint based on media discourse analysis and a small scale empirical research, based on interpretative paradigm.

Cite this paper

Odrowąż-Coates, A. (2015) Gender Crisis in Poland, Catholic Ideology and the Media. Sociology Mind, 5, 27-34. doi: 10.4236/sm.2015.51004.

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Gender Does Not Have a Potential Predictive Value for the Presence of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Lung Adenocarcinoma

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52372#.VJODucCAM4

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>Background: Previous studies reported that non-small cell carcinoma patients characterized by female gender, never-smoking status and adenocarcinoma histology were more likely to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. However, some studies failed to find the relationship between EGFR mutation and gender. <span “=””>Methods: One hundred and eighty-four consecutive patients (90 men and 94 women) of resected lung adenocarcinoma were studied retrospectively. Since the smoking rate is significantly higher in men, we assumed that gender difference might be a seeming factor affected by smoking. Therefore we subdivided the patients into 2 groups: never- and ever-smokers. Results: The number of ever-smokers was 94.44% in men, whereas 8.51% in women. EGFR mutation was positive in 48.9%. For overall patients, EGFR mutation status was associated with gender, pStage, pT status, lepidic dominant histologic subtype, pure/mixed groundglass opacity (GGO) on computed tomography (CT) and smoking status. However, in ever-smokers, EGFR mutation status was associated with lepidic histologic subtype and GGO on CT, but not others including gender. Similar results were also found in never-smokers, and gender was not also related to EGFR mutation in never smokers.<span “=””> <span “=””>Conclusion: The EGFR mutational frequency among men and women was not significantly different when lung adenocarcinoma patients were stratified into never- and ever-smokers.

Cite this paper

Tomita, M. , Ayabe, T. , Chosa, E. , Kawagoe, K. and Nakamura, K. (2014) Gender Does Not Have a Potential Predictive Value for the Presence of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Lung Adenocarcinoma. Advances in Lung Cancer, 3, 82-87. doi: 10.4236/alc.2014.34012.

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Conformity to Traditional Gender Norms in a Feminized Occupation: The Influence on Health Behaviors

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52226#.VIo_L8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

The object of this study is to examine the relationships between conformity to traditional gender norms and health in a special group of the Spanish population, male/female nurses. Nursing is a particularly good example of feminized occupation. Spanish male (n = 98) and female (n = 98) nurses matched in diverse sociodemographic variables complete measures of gender norms and health behavior variables. Measures of conformity to gender norms in female and male nurses are compared with those of the general population. The analysis of the inter-gender relationships and health highlights a clearly masculine pattern for men and a clearly feminine one for women. A detailed analysis of the scores in each of the scales reveals a pattern of illness in male nurses that is still masculine despite their lower conformity, as a group, to masculine norms, and a clearly feminine illness pattern in female nurses. The consideration of gender from a multidimensional perspective (the different factors that make up Masculinity and Femininity, as assessed in this work) has allowed us to study the relations between gender norms and health in more detail. Limitations and implications are discussed.

Cite this paper

Sánchez-López, M. , Saavedra, A. , Dresch, V. and Limiñana, R. (2014) Conformity to Traditional Gender Norms in a Feminized Occupation: The Influence on Health Behaviors. Health, 6, 2775-2789. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.620317.

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Gestational Weight Gain in Obese Patients and Adverse Pregnancy Events

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47108#.VGFsrGfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Aim: To determine the prevalence and risk of anemia in type-2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, the incidence and risk of anemia in these patients were assessed according to gender and glycemic control status. Methods: The study group comprised 200 patients with type-2 diabetes. Patients were divided into groups according to glycemic control and gender. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose level, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) of subjects were evaluated. The presence of anemia was defined by a hemoglobin level <13.0 g/dl for men and <12.0 g/dl for women. The patients were considered as diabetic if he/she had glycated hemoglobin >6.5%, fasting blood glucose >126 mg/dl and random blood glucose >200 mg/dl. Result: 63% of diabetic patients had anemia. There was higher incidence and risk of anemia in females (36%) as compared to males (27%) (p < 0.05) and in poorly controlled diabetes HbA1C >7.5% (49.5%) compared to those with controlled diabetes HbA1C < 7.5% (13.5%) (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study indicated that poor glycemic control and gender difference are associated with the incidence of anemia in type II diabetes. Our findings suggest the need of screening for anemia in diabetes out-patient clinics. Routine hematological tests along with blood glucose level should be mandatory in order to make therapeutic decisions for the treatment of anemia in type II diabetes mellitus.

Cite this paper

Sharif, A. , Younus, S. , Baig, K. and Ali, N. (2014) Prevalence and Risk of Anemia in Type-2 Diabetic Patients. Health, 6, 1415-1419. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.612173.

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Manager Characteristics and the Choice of Firm “Low Leverage”: Evidence from China

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50664#.VEhWXlfHRK0

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we analyze the low-leverage phenomenon of firms and examine the question of why some firms have low leverage in China. We find Low-leverage firms are smaller, have higher profitability and hold more cash balances than control firms chosen by industry and size. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that these firms are operated by risk-aversion manager. Firms with older Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and higher first shareholder ownership are more likely to have low debt. Also, CEO gender is one of the determinants of low-leverage choice.

Cite this paper

Chen, Y. , Zhang, X. and Liu, Z. (2014) Manager Characteristics and the Choice of Firm “Low Leverage”: Evidence from China. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 4, 573-584. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.410062.

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