Green Energy: Examining Their Effects on Heritage Sites and Climate Change Mitigation

Read  full  paper  at:http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53916#.VNsO9yzQrzE

The damage which brought about global warming and climate change to heritage sites is more or less immutable. However, further deterioration could be slowed, if not stopped, with the patronization of green energy. Three sources of green energy, namely solar power, wind power, and hydropower were discussed in this research. Their indirect role in preserving heritage sites was examined and their cumulative effects on mitigating climate change were also cited. Results showed that the climate might have been continually changing for the past thousands of years. The effects of climate change and global warming on the arctic ice, carbon dioxide concentration, sea levels, global surface temperature and land ice status were undeniable. These factors greatly contributed to the deterioration of the preservation of world heritage sites.

Cite this paper

Al-Zubaidy, M. (2015) Green Energy: Examining Their Effects on Heritage Sites and Climate Change Mitigation. Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 5, 39-52. doi: 10.4236/ojce.2015.51005.

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http://www.nasa.gov/topics/Earth/features/2012-temps.html                    eww150211lx

Emergent Macrophytes Alter the Sediment Composition in a Small, Shallow Subtropical Lake: Implications for Methane Emission

Read  full  paper  at:http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53887#.VNr2-CzQrzE

Aquatic macrophytes in shallow lakes emit high levels of methane. We hypothesize that the presence of emergent aquatic macrophytes in an artificial shallow lake promotes important input of autochthonous organic matter (OM) in sediment and higher levels of methane emission via bubbles. Samplings were performed at three sites in a small, shallow subtropical lake: (1) one station in the limnetic region and (2) – (3) two stations in the littoral region ((2) inside and (3) outside aquatic macrophyte stands). A higher concentration of OM was observed at the macrophyte station, and within this site, a higher methane concentration was observed in the sediment. These results could explain the methane ebullition values at macrophyte sites. At the macrophyte station, methane emission via bubbles contributed 17% to 56% of the total methane emission; however, at the other stations, its contribution via bubbles, was lower than 1%. This research confirmed the importance of emergent macrophytes at Polegar Lake as a source of OM in sediment and methane emission via bubbles. Further, we could confirm the positive effects of temperature on methane emission, mainly by bubbles.

Cite this paper

Marinho, C. , Palma-Silva, C. , Albertoni, E. , Giacomini, I. , Barros, M. , Furlanetto, L. and Esteves, F. (2015) Emergent Macrophytes Alter the Sediment Composition in a Small, Shallow Subtropical Lake: Implications for Methane Emission. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 315-322. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.62036.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533-011-9573-3
[7] Furtado, A.L.S. and Casper, P. (2000). Factors Influencing Methane Production in an Oligotrophic and in a Eutrophic German Lake. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 27, 1441-1445.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842009000200007
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2012.07.007                                      eww150211lx

Emergent Macrophytes Alter the Sediment Composition in a Small, Shallow Subtropical Lake: Implications for Methane Emission

Read  full  paper  at:http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53887#.VNnDoSzQrzE

Aquatic macrophytes in shallow lakes emit high levels of methane. We hypothesize that the presence of emergent aquatic macrophytes in an artificial shallow lake promotes important input of autochthonous organic matter (OM) in sediment and higher levels of methane emission via bubbles. Samplings were performed at three sites in a small, shallow subtropical lake: (1) one station in the limnetic region and (2) – (3) two stations in the littoral region ((2) inside and (3) outside aquatic macrophyte stands). A higher concentration of OM was observed at the macrophyte station, and within this site, a higher methane concentration was observed in the sediment. These results could explain the methane ebullition values at macrophyte sites. At the macrophyte station, methane emission via bubbles contributed 17% to 56% of the total methane emission; however, at the other stations, its contribution via bubbles, was lower than 1%. This research confirmed the importance of emergent macrophytes at Polegar Lake as a source of OM in sediment and methane emission via bubbles. Further, we could confirm the positive effects of temperature on methane emission, mainly by bubbles.

Cite this paper

Marinho, C. , Palma-Silva, C. , Albertoni, E. , Giacomini, I. , Barros, M. , Furlanetto, L. and Esteves, F. (2015) Emergent Macrophytes Alter the Sediment Composition in a Small, Shallow Subtropical Lake: Implications for Methane Emission. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 315-322. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.62036.

References

[1] Bastviken, D., Tranvik, L.J., Downing, J.A., Crill, P.M. and Enrich-Prast, A. (2011) Freshwater Methane Emissions Offset the Continental Carbon Sink. Science, 331, 50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1196808
[2] Solomon, S., Quin, D. and Manning, M., Eds. (2007) IPCC. Fourth Assessment Report-Climate Change 2007. The Physical Science Basic Cambridge University Press, New York.
[3] Conrad, R. (1989) Control of Methane Production in Terrestrial Ecosystems. In: Andreae, M.O. and Schimel, D.S., Eds., Exchange of Trce Gases between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere, Wiley, Chichester, 39-58.
[4] Reddy, K.R. and Delaune, R.D. (2008) Biogeochemistry of Wetlands: Science and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9780203491454
[5] Bastviken, D., Cole, J.J., Pace, M.L. and van de Bogert, M. (2008) The Fates of Methane from Different Lake Habitats-Connecting Whole Lake Budgets and CH4 Emissions. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, Article No. G02024.
[6] Inglett, K.S., Inglett, P.W., Reddy, K.R. and Osborne, T.Z. (2011) Temperatue Sensitivity of Greenhouse Gas Production in Wetland Solis of Different Vegetattion. Biogeochemistry, 108, 77-90.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533-011-9573-3
[7] Furtado, A.L.S. and Casper, P. (2000). Factors Influencing Methane Production in an Oligotrophic and in a Eutrophic German Lake. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Vereinigung für Theoretische und Angewandte Limnologie, 27, 1441-1445.
[8] Fierer, N., Craine, J.M., Mclauchlan, K. and Schimed, J.P. (2005) Litter Quality and the Temperature Sensitivity of Decomposition. Ecology, 86, 320-326.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/04-1254
[9] Duc, N.T., Crill, P. and Bastivken, D. (2010) Implications of Temperature and Sediment Characteristics on Methane Formation and Oxidation in Lake Sediments. Biogeochemistry, 100, 185-196.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10533-010-9415-8
[10] Marinho, C.C., Palma Silva, C., Albertoni, E.C., Trindade, C.R. and Esteves, F.A. (2009) Seasonal Dynamics of Methane in the Water Column of Two Subtropical Lakes Differing in Trophic Status. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 69, 281-287.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842009000200007
[11] Bastviken, D., Cole, J., Pace, M. and Tranvik, L. (2004) Methane Emissions from Lakes: Dependence of Lake Characteristics, Two Regional Assessments, and a Global Estimate. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 18, No. 4.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004GB002238
[12] Palma-Silva, C., Marinho, C.C., Albertoni, E.F., Giacomini, I.B., Barros, M.P.F., Furlaneto, L.M., Trindade, C.R. and Esteves, F.A. (2013) Methane Emissions in Two Small Shallow Neotropical Lakes: The Role of Temperature and Trophic Level. Atmospheric Environment, 81, 373-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.09.029
[13] Downing, J.A., Prairie, Y.T., Cole, J.J., Duarte, C.M., Tranvik, L.J., Striegl, R.G., McDowell, W.H., Kortelainen, P., Caraco, N.F., Melack, J.M. and Middelburg, J.J. (2006) The Global Abundance and Size Distribution of Lakes, Ponds, and Impoundments. Limnology and Oceanography, 51, 2388-2397.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4319/lo.2006.51.5.2388
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2012.07.007         eww150210lx

Do Increasing Contents of Metane and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Cause Global Warming?

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51443#.VGqiemfHRK0

ABSTRACT

In the Earth atmosphere, methane gradually converts into carbon dioxide which, according to the conventional anthropogenic theory of global warming, is the main driver of global climate change. The authors investigated the greenhouse effect of methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere using their tested adiabatic model, which relates the global temperature of troposphere to the atmospheric pressure and solar activity. This model allows one to analyze the global temperature changes due to variations in mass and chemical composition of the atmosphere. Even significant releases of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and methane into the atmosphere do not change average parameters of the Earth’s heat regime and have no essential effect on the Earth’s climate. Thus, petroleum production and other anthropogenic activities resulting in accumulation of additional amounts of methane and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have practically no effect on the Earth’s climate.

Cite this paper

Chilingar, G. , Sorokhtin, O. , Khilyuk, L. and Liu, M. (2014) Do Increasing Contents of Metane and Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Cause Global Warming?. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 819-827. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.45072.

References

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Measures for Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change on Crop Production in Nigeria

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47218#.VFwlUWfHRK0

Author(s)

  1. A. Alawa, V. C. Asogwa, C. O. Ikelusi

Affiliation(s)

Department of Vocational and Special Education, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
Department of Agricultural Education, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.
Department of Vocational Teacher Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT

This paper examined the causes, effects and measures for mitigating climate change to ensure adequate supply of food through crop production to address the food insecurity which has occupied a central focus of the Nigerian economy. Unfortunately, crop production is fraught with many ecological challenges including climate change. This climate change which occurs as a result of the buildup of Green House Gases (GHGs) occasioned by industrialization, technological modeling and agriculture, exert significant effects on crop yield, water availability, ecosystem disequilibrium resulting in cases of drought, flood earthquake among others. For crop production to be scaled-up to meet the food requirement of the ever growing Nigerian population amidst these challenges, there is need to mitigate these adverse effects of climate change through the adoption of sustainable land management practices that can reduce the atmospheric stock of GHGs such as zero-tillage, appropriate use of fertilizers, avoidance of bush burning, graze land management, improved water management among others. Achieving great success in these areas requires that Nigerian government should be more proactive in their policies that hold promise for sustainable cultures in agricultural production as well as evolving global partnerships on ecological issues.

KEYWORDS

Climate Change, Green House Gases, Global Warming, Mitigation, Crop Production, Food Insecurity

Cite this paper

Alawa, D. , Asogwa, V. and Ikelusi, C. (2014) Measures for Mitigating the Effects of Climate Change on Crop Production in Nigeria. American Journal of Climate Change, 3, 161-168. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.32015.

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Fair Plan 4: Safeguarding the Climate of “This Island Earth”

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=48168#.VEXDDVfHRK0

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>Earth is the only habitable planet in the solar system and beyond in interstellar space for a distance that would take us at least 80,000 years to traverse at the speed of Voyager 1. Thus our home planet is “This Island Earth”. Here we use our Simple (engineering-type) Climate Model to calculate the change in global-mean near-surface air temperature from 1765 through the third millennium for historical emissions and two scenarios of future emissions of greenhouse gases: (1) a Reference scenario of unabated emissions, and (2) our Fair Plan scenario wherein emissions are phased out to zero from 2020 to 2100. The temperature change for the Reference cases increases to 5.2°C (9.4°F) in 2225 and remains there for at least 40 human generations. By design, the temperature change for the Fair Plan increases only to 2°C (3.6°F)—the limit adopted by the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change “to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”—in 2082 and thereafter decreases through the remainder of the millennium. Accordingly, we need to adopt the Fair Plan to safeguard the climate of “This Island Earth”.

Cite this paper

Schlesinger, M. , Ring, M. , Lindner, D. , Cross, E. and Prince, V. (2014) Fair Plan 4: Safeguarding the Climate of “This Island Earth”. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 431-436. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.43041.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/acs.2012.24035                                                                            eww141021lx

Tidal Heights in Hyper-Synchronous Estuaries

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=48895#.VDc4olfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Inconsistencies between datasets are examined with reference to flood tidal elevations in the Tamar River estuary, Tasmania Australia. Errors in a 30-year-old commonly cited dataset have been perpetuated in subsequent publications and datasets, and a clarification is herein provided. Elevation of the flood tidal wave as it propagates the estuary is evident in mean tide level and mean sea level, although the analysis is compromised by the temporal differences of the datasets. As sea levels rise due to global warming, the importance of accurate on-going sea level data in any estuary will become more acute.

Cite this paper

Kidd, I. , Chai, S. and Fischer, A. (2014) Tidal Heights in Hyper-Synchronous Estuaries. Natural Resources, 5, 607-615. doi: 10.4236/nr.2014.511053.

References

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