Stable Isotopes Studies in the Urucu Oil Province, Amazon Region, Brazil

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The study area is the Urucu Oil Province, Municipality of Coari, State of Amazonas, Brazil. This research represents a contribution to the hydrogeological knowledge in the northern region of Brazil, particularly in the central part of the Amazon rainforest, where researches on isotopic are still incipient. The primary goal was to determine, by stable isotopes 18O and 2H measurements, interrelationships between surface water and groundwater, in order to understand the origin and mechanisms of groundwater recharge and discharge. For this, samples of rainwater, superficial water and groundwater were collected between June 2008 and May 2009 for stable isotopic analyzes. This understanding is important in cases of eventual contaminations of the area, which could degrade the water resources. The results show that the superficial waters are typically light waters and have meteoric origin, and the groundwater recharge is by direct rainfall infiltration with primary evaporation before reaching the groundwater table in the Icá-Solimoes Aquifer System. The isotopic signatures similarities between groundwater and superficial waters indicate both waters’ contributions in the streams and, therefore, in the Urucu river.

Cite this paper

Souza, E. , Galvao, P. , Almeida, R. , Pinheiro, C. , Baessa, M. and Cabral, M. (2015) Stable Isotopes Studies in the Urucu Oil Province, Amazon Region, Brazil. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 7, 131-142. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.73011.

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Sanitation Mapping of Groundwater Contamination in a Rural Village of India

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ABSTRACT

Availability of clean water and adequate sanitation facilities are of prime importance for limiting diarrheal diseases. We examined the spatial information on the groundwater quality and sanitation facilities of a village in southern India using Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. Place of residence, position of wells and latrines were mapped and well water samples were tested for microbial contamination (Total Coliform Counts (TCC), Fecal Coliform Counts (FCC) and Fecal Streptococcal Counts (FSC)). A well structured questionnaire was administered to 50 residents of the selected areas to elicit information on water collection, handling and storage. The location and distances of wells from latrines were determined using the Global Positioning System (GPS) device and a tape rule respectively. Data on 170 cases of various water-borne diseases were collected from primary health centers in the study area. Groundwater in the village was found to be microbiologically unfit for consumption. Analysis using direct observations supplemented by GIS maps revealed poor planning, design of the wells and improper siting of wells from latrines which were found to be the possible reasons of groundwater contamination. There was a significant difference in TCC between covered and uncovered wells (p < 0.01) but no significant differences were observed in the FCC, FSC and well covering. The mean distance (6.44 ± 2.37 m) of wells from the latrines in the study area was below the limit (15.24 m or 50 ft) set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). TCC and FCC increased with a decrease in distance between the wells and latrines with a significance (p < 0.01). A moderate negative correlation (r = -0.593, r = -0.470) was ensued between the distance from latrine and coliform count. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from latrines and need for treatment.

Cite this paper

Megha, P. , Kavya, P. , Murugan, S. and Harikumar, P. (2015) Sanitation Mapping of Groundwater Contamination in a Rural Village of India. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 34-44. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.61005.

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Chemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Dindefello Plain Area in South-Eastern Senegal

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52793#.VKNnOcnQrzE

ABSTRACT

This study was to clarify the main mechanisms of shallow groundwater mineralization in the Dindefello Plain Area. Water composition data obtained in this study were subjected to aqueous speciation calculations together with data plotting on key diagrams so as to create work assumptions. Hypothesized reaction models of the processes of chemical weathering of carbonates and silicate minerals under the carbon dioxide regime were proposed and tested by selecting two water sample analyses interpreted as “starting” and “ending” water composition along a hydrologic flow line, and then running the PHREEQC (version 2) batch modeling procedure, to simulate chemical balances and compositional variations of groundwater within the geochemical system. For the flow path data discussed here, there was close agreement between the model results and the observed hydrochemistry, and so the proposed geochemical evolution model was deemed reliable.

Cite this paper

Diop, S. and Tijani, M. (2014) Chemical Evolution of Groundwater in the Dindefello Plain Area in South-Eastern Senegal. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 1793-1815. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.619160.

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Multivariate Geostatistical Model for Groundwater Constituents in Texas

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52697#.VKDGDcCAM4

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Although many studies have explored the quality of Texas groundwater, very few have investigated the concurrent distributions of more than one pollutant, which provides insight on the temporal and spatial behavior of constituents within and between aquifers. The purpose of this research is to study the multivariate spatial patterns of seven health-related Texas groundwater constituents, which are calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), nitrate (NO3), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), sulfate (SO4), and potassium (K). Data is extracted from Texas Water Development Board’s database including nine years: 2000 through 2008. A multivariate geostatistical model was developed to examine the interactions between the constituents. The model had seven dependent variables—one for each of the constituents, and five independent variables: altitude, latitude, longitude, major aquifer and water level. Exploratory analyses show that the data has no temporal patterns, but hold spatial patterns as well as intrinsic correlation. The intrinsic correlation allowed for the use of a Kronecker form for the covariance matrix. The model was validated with a split-sample. Estimates of iteratively re-weighted generalized least squares converged after four iterations. Matern covariance function estimates are zero nugget, practical range is 44 miles, 0.8340 variance and kappa was fixed at 2. To show that our assumptions are reasonable and the choice of the model is appropriate, we perform residual validation and universal kriging. Moreover, prediction maps for the seven constituents are estimated from new locations data. The results point to an alarmingly increasing levels of these constituents’ concentrations, which calls for more intensive monitoring and groundwater management.

Cite this paper

Anderson, F. (2014) Multivariate Geostatistical Model for Groundwater Constituents in Texas. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 1609-1617. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.513132.

References

[1] Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) (2007) Water for Texas 2007. Volume II, p. 161.
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[3] Westlake, K. (1995) Landfill Waste Pollution and Control. Horwood Publishing.
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[6] Wackernagel, H. (2003) Multivariate Geostatistics: An Introduction with Applications. 3rd Edition, Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-05294-5
[7] Waller, L.A. and Gotway, C.A. (2004) Applied Spatial Statistics for Public Health Data. Wiley-IEEE.
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[9] United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2014) Drinking Water Contaminants. http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.03.033                                                                               eww141229lx

A Sensor Web for Real-Time Groundwater Data Monitoring in Morocco

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52156#.VIZNYWfHRK0

ABSTRACT

This article presents research and development of an interoperable platform to facilitate, monitor and coordinate groundwater data sharing. This system was orchestrated by a number of services described by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) such as Sensor Observation Service (SOS) and other services for the use of mapping data, Web Feature Services (WFS), Web Map Service (WMS), and catalogue services (CSW). An important activity for our project was the establishment of a portal for geographic data and services. Geoportal developed for this project will promote and facilitate access to groundwater data and share theme more openly. Otherwise our system has been designed to provide a powerful tool that enhances the ability of regional staff to monitor near real-time groundwater data (i.e. piezometric level) and as a result will help provide a more effective response to environmental upsets.

Cite this paper

Moumen, A. , Oulidi, H. , Agadi, M. , Nehmadou, M. , Ben-Daoud, M. , Barich, A. , Mridekh, A. , Mansouri, B. , Boutaleb, S. , Mohammed, K. , Essahlaoui, A. and Eljaafari, S. (2014) A Sensor Web for Real-Time Groundwater Data Monitoring in Morocco. Journal of Geographic Information System, 6, 613-623. doi: 10.4236/jgis.2014.66051.

References

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Fresh Groundwater Resources in Georgia and Management Problems

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=48789#.VDdUFFfHRK0

Author(s)

George Gaprindashvili, Merab Gaprindashvili

Affiliation(s)

1Department of Geology, National Environmental Agency, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection, Tbilisi, Georgia 2Vakhushti Bagrationi Institute of Geography, Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi, Georgia.
Department of Geology, National Environmental Agency, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources Protection, Tbilisi, Georgia.

ABSTRACT

As it is known fresh water represents conditioned factor for human body’s life. That’s why the superiority of drinking water is recognized as human body’s priority according to the international declarations. World is experiencing deficit of quality water. Natural Disasters caused by the pollution of the fresh ground water is also very painful and acute, because it needed more time, more material and financial means for the liquidation of their results, and what the most important practically is, it is impossible to renew the initial natural conditions completely. All these conditions that the rational use of fresh ground water passed by the interests of separate countries and became worldwide, international problem-fresh water became as considerable raw material for the worlds import and export. Future prognosis is disturbing—according to the data of UN for 2025 year 2/3 of world population will be under the water deficit conditions. Above-mentioned shows how important fresh water is for humanity. Below we present briefly review about the situation of fresh ground water resources and the analysis of the problems in transboundary artesian basins of Georgia.

KEYWORDS

Groundwater, Transboundary, Artesian Basins, Georgia, Quality Drinking Water, Hydrogeology

Cite this paper

Gaprindashvili, G. and Gaprindashvili, M. (2014) Fresh Groundwater Resources in Georgia and Management Problems. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 877-881. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.59077.

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A Modified Pareto Dominance Based Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Groundwater Management Model

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A Modified Pareto Dominance Based Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Groundwater Management Model.

 

A Modified Pareto Dominance Based Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Groundwater Management Model

Author(s)

Abstract

This study proposes a groundwater management model in which the solution is performed through a combined simulation-optimization model. In the proposed model, a modular three-dimensional finite difference groundwater flow model, MODFLOW is used as simulation model. This model is then integrated with an optimization model, in which a modified Pareto dominance based Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm (mPRCGA) is adopted. The performance of the proposed mPRCGA based management model is tested on a hypothetical numerical example. The results indicate that the proposed mPRCGA based management model is an effective way to obtain good optimum management strategy and may be used to solve other type of groundwater simulation-optimization problems.

Cite this paper

Li, F. (2014) A Modified Pareto Dominance Based Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm for Groundwater Management Model. Journal of Water Resource and Protection6, 1051-1059. doi:10.4236/jwarp.2014.612100.

References

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