Comparison of the Effect of Vermicompost and Inorganic Fertilizers on Vegetative Growth and Fruit Production of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

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This study attempted to compare the effect of cow manure vermicompost and inorganic fertilizers on the vegetative growth and fruits of tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.). An air dried sandy loam soil was mixed with five rates of vermicompost equivalent to 0 (control), 5, 10, 15 and 20 t ha-1 and three rates of NPK fertilizer equivalent to 50% (N-P-K = 69-16-35 kg ha-1), 100% (N-P-K = 137-32-70 kg ha-1) and 200% (N-P-K = 274-64-140 kg ha-1). The treatments were replicated three times. The data revealed that shoot length, number of leaves, dry matter weight of shoots and roots, fruit number and fruit weight were influenced significantly (P < 0.05) by the application of vermicompost and NPK fertilizer in the growth media. The highest dose of vermicompost of 20 t ha-1 increased dry weight of shoot of 52 folds and root of 115 folds, number of fruit(s)/plant of 6 folds and mean fruit weight of 29 folds while the highest rate of NPK fertilizer of 200% increased dry weight of shoot of 35 folds and root of 80 folds, number of fruit(s)/plant of 4 folds and mean fruit weight of 18 folds over the control treatment. The growth performance of tomato was better in the vermicompost amended soil pots than the plants grown in the inorganic fertilizer amended soil pots. This study suggested that the vermicompost served as a potential source of nutrients for plant growth.

Cite this paper

Kashem, M. , Sarker, A. , Hossain, I. and Islam, M. (2015) Comparison of the Effect of Vermicompost and Inorganic Fertilizers on Vegetative Growth and Fruit Production of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Open Journal of Soil Science, 5, 53-58. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2015.52006.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.133                                            eww150206lx
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Culture Mixed-Sex and Monosex of Tilapia in Ponds in Mexico City

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In this study, the growth of Oreochromis niloticus both mixed sex and males sexually reversed were analyzed in concrete ponds in the FES Zaragoza, UNAM, under the environmental conditions of the Mexico City. The experiment was carried from May to November 2013, in two concrete ponds of 50 m2. Similar feeding regime and stocking density of fish were maintained for the culture systems. Different growth parameters like body weight, length, daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion rate (FCR), Fulton’s condition index (K) and survival were analyzed during six months culture period. It was found that culture with monosex males tilapias yielded the highest weight, length, DWG and SGR compared to mixed sex populations tilapias. Water quality was monitored along the experiment. Based on the results, there were statistically significant differences in size (W = 20942.5, p < 0.05) and weight (W = 21413.0, p < 0.05) between the divisions of the pond. The initial total length used was 1.2 cm and ended with 20.4 cm for monosex males, higher than mixed-sex population. The initial average body weight of the fish was 0.21 g and they recorded 192.2 g at the end of culture for monosex males. The weight-length relationship for both populations of fish was positive allometric. The percentage gain in body weight and total length averaged were 150% and 31.8% respectively. Specific growth rates in weight and length for monosex males were higher than mixed-sex population. Daily weight gain and size was similar in both populations. The FCR had a mean value of 1.9:1 for monosex males and condition factor (K) had an average of 1.45 for mixed-sex population. Water quality indicated good oxygenation (>5 mg/L), warm water (>20°C), productive (<100 mg/L CaCO3) and slightly basic (pH > 8). Acceptable growth of fish and a yield of 3 ton/ha/6 months were obtained in both two ponds; therefore, the culture of tilapia under conditions of Mexico City was recommended.

Cite this paper

Gómez-Márquez, J. , Peña-Mendoza, B. , Alejo-Plata, M. and Guzmán-Santiago, J. (2015) Culture Mixed-Sex and Monosex of Tilapia in Ponds in Mexico City. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 187-194. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.62017.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2095.2010.00827.x                                                                eww150204lx

Effect of Homoeopathic Drugs to Control Growth and Production of A. flavus

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ABSTRACT

Five common homoeopathic drugs viz., Belladonna, Bryonia, Colchicum, Colocynth and Lathyrus sat were selected and tested against growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus. The result indicates that all five drugs suppressed the growth of A. flavus. The lower concentration of all the tested drugs induced maximum growth of fungi and maximum production of aflatoxin. However, the growth as well as aflatoxin production potentiality was considerably decreased when the concentration of the drug was increased. Out of all the five drugs, Bryonia was comparatively less effective with respect to inhibition in aflatoxin production. But Belladonna was found to be most effective drug on growth and aflatoxin production.

Cite this paper

Singh, H. , Kumari, S. and Prasad, M. (2015) Effect of Homoeopathic Drugs to Control Growth and Production of A. flavus. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 6, 18-21. doi: 10.4236/abb.2015.61003.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1472-765X.1992.tb00745.x
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Morpho-Physiological Characterization of Glyphosate-Resistant and -Susceptible Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) Biotypes of US Midsouth

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53030#.VLSCz8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

Horseweed is traditionally considered a non-cropland weed. However, populations resistant to glyphosate have eventually become established in no-till agronomic cropping systems. Growth chamber and greenhouse experiments were conducted to compare selected biological and physiological parameters of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) horseweed biotypes from Mississippi with a broader goal of fitness characterization in these biotypes. Vegetative growth parameters (number of leaves, rosette diameter and area, shoot and root fresh weights) were recorded weekly from 5 to 11 wk after emergence and reproductive attributes [days to bolting (production of a flowering stalk) and flowering] and senescence were measured for both GR and GS biotypes under high (24°C/20°C) and low (18°C/12°C) temperature regimes, both with a 13-h light period. Physiological traits such as net photosynthesis, phenolic content, and cell membrane thermostability, all in the presence and absence of glyphosate, and leaf content of divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+ were assayed in the two biotypes under the high temperature regime. All horseweed vegetative growth parameters except root fresh weight were higher in the high temperature regime compared to that in low temperature regime in both biotypes. Number of leaves, rosette diameter and area, shoot and root fresh weight were 40 vs. 35, 9.3 vs. 8.7 cm, 51 vs. 43 cm2, 3.7 vs. 3.2 g, and 3.5 vs. 4.2 g under high and low temperature conditions, respectively, when averaged across biotypes and weekly measurements. All growth parameters listed above were higher for the GR biotype compared to the GS biotype. Number of leaves, rosette diameter and area, shoot and root fresh weight were 38 vs. 37, 9.1 vs. 8.9 cm, 50.2 vs. 44 cm2, 3.9 vs. 3.1 g, and 4.3 vs. 3.5 g for GR and GS biotypes, respectively, averaged across the temperature treatments and weekly measurements. Reproductive developmental data of these biotypes indicated that the GS biotype bolted earlier than the GR biotype. The GS biotype had more phenolic content and exhibited higher cell membrane thermostability, but less net photosynthetic rate compared to the GR biotype. At 48 h after treatment with glyphosate, there was no change in phenolic content of both GR and GS biotypes. However, glyphosate reduced cell membrane thermostability and net photosynthetic rate more in the GS biotype than that in the GR biotype. Chemical analysis of GR and GS leaf tissue did not reveal any differences in levels of divalent cations such as Ca2+ and Mg2+. Further studies are needed to determine if some of the differences between the two biotypes observed above relate to fitness variation in a natural environment.

Cite this paper

Nandula, V. , Poston, D. , Koger, C. , Reddy, K. and Reddy, K. (2015) Morpho-Physiological Characterization of Glyphosate-Resistant and -Susceptible Horseweed (Conyza canadensis) Biotypes of US Midsouth. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 47-56. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61006.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3180.1999.00168.x                                                      eww150113lx

Enrichment of Artemia (Leach) nauplii with Canola Oil: Effect on Heros severus (Heckel) Larvae Performance and Environmental Stress

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52776#.VKNa88nQrzE

ABSTRACT

The effect of canola oil enriched Artemia (Leach) nauplii on growth, survival, resistance to environmental stresses of temperature and oxygen deficiency and fatty acid composition in severum fish, Heros severus (Heckel), larvae were investigated. The larvae (average weight 3 mg ± 0.83) were fed 4 times daily starting at the onset of exogenous feeding for 18 days. Triplicate groups of fish were offered one of two treatments: 1) newly hatched Artemia (Leach) nauplii (unenriched) and 2) canola oil enriched Artemia (Leach) nauplii. Then all groups of fish were switched to the commercial diet for an additional period of 18 days. Statistical analysis of growth after 18 days and at the end of the experiment (36 days), showed that the highest specific growth rates (9.65% ± 0.3), (17.44% ± 0.31) the average weight (17 mg ± 0.95), (65.2 mg ± 0.53) were observed in treatment 2 respectively, but there was no significant difference in survival rate between treatments. The best result of resistance to oxygen deficiency (5 min) was observed in larvae reared on treatment 2 with 75.67% ± 0.66 after 36 days. Result of temperature stress showed no significant difference between treatments. The larvae were also found to convert n-3 fatty acids to EPA and DHA.

Cite this paper

Tehrani, J. , Dorche, E. , Goli, S. and Akbary, P. (2014) Enrichment of Artemia (Leach) nauplii with Canola Oil: Effect on Heros severus (Heckel) Larvae Performance and Environmental Stress. Advances in Microbiology, 4, 1242-1249. doi: 10.4236/aim.2014.416134.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(98)00386-X                                                              eww141231lx

The Co-Involvement of Light and Air Temperature in Regulation of Sex Expression in Monoecious Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=48960#.VJjgNcCAM4

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>The combination effects of light and air temperature, which were expressed as photothermal ratio (PTR), on the growth and sex expression of three monoecious cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L. cv. “Xintaimici”, “Jinyan 3” and “Jinyan 4”) were studied with hydroponics in this research. The results showed that with the increase of PTR, different growth responses were observed in the three cucumber cultivars. In contrast, high PTR (H-PTR, 0.86 mol·m2·degree-day1) significantly increased the total number of female nodes and decreased the total number of male nodes of the three monoecious cucumber cultivars compared with cucumbers grown under low PTR (L-PTR, 0.64 mol·m2·degree-day1). More photoassimilate was partitioned to fruits of three cucumber cultivars with the increase of PTR, indicating that PTR-mediated femaleness of monoecious cucumber might be attributed to the enhancement of photoassimilate translocation from source organs to sink organs.

Cite this paper

Wang, L. , Yang, X. , Ren, Z. and Wang, X. (2014) The Co-Involvement of Light and Air Temperature in Regulation of Sex Expression in Monoecious Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Agricultural Sciences, 5, 858-863. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.510092.

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Effect of Using Two Different Types of Carbon Nanotubes for Blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) in Vitro Plant Rooting, Growth and Histology

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51851#.VHfOE2fHRK0

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticles are able to interact with biomolecules, creating functional nanosystems for transportation within in vivo cells, and leading to the study of their potential applications in the field of plant biotechnology. The<span “=””>refore, the aim of this research was to determine the growth and rooting effect of functionalized (SWCNTs-COOH) and non-functionalized nanoparticles with iron residue inner particles (SWCNTs-Fe) in blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) in vitro plants. Two types of SWCNTs were used, both of them characterized in a solid sample through Raman spectroscopy (λ = 532 nm) showing differences in the G band between SWCNT + Fe and SWCNT + COOH. The in vitro plants (approximately 15 mm len<span “=””>gth) were inoculated in a rooting medium. Six treatments were established: 4, 8, 12 μg/ml for each type of SWCNTs and a control without nanotubes. The assessed variables consisted of the average number of days for root emergence, average number of roots per plant, average root length per plant and the average stem length. This study determined that, in general, the SWCNTs-COOH promoted the growth of the in vitro plants under this assay, when compared to the SWCNTs-Fe trials. The lowest SWCNTs-COOH dose evidenced the best results for the assessed variables. Additionally, the histological analysis also evidenced that the plants treated with SWCNTs-COOH nanotubes (4 μg/ml) increased their cellular metabolism when compared to the control group.

Cite this paper

Flores, D. , Chacón, R. , Alvarado, L. , Schmidt, A. , Alvarado, C. and Chaves, J. (2014) Effect of Using Two Different Types of Carbon Nanotubes for Blackberry (Rubus adenotrichos) in Vitro Plant Rooting, Growth and Histology. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3510-3518. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.524367.

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