The Impact of Za’atari Refugee Camp on the Water Quality in Amman-Zarqa Basin

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53231#.VLh0psnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Za’atari camp is the largest refugee camp in Jordan. It was first established in 2012 to host Syrian refugees. Currently the camp hosts more than 81,000 refugees, with no proper sanitary system which might pose a major threat to surface resources in the area. An investigation was done at Za’atari refugees’ camp to find the impact of refugees settling on surface and groundwater quality. Surface water quality of surface runoff generated from thirty rain fall events were collected during the winter season of 2013/2014 from the major Wadi that passes through the camp and small ponds within the camp after the rainfall event. The collected samples were analyzed for acidity (pH), the electrical connectivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), nutrients (NO3 and PO43-) and selected heavy metals (Mn, Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni) in addition to biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and intestinal worms (Total Coliform, E. cali). The results showed that there are significant variations in the EC as well as with TDS between the sites due to fluctuating amounts of water used for different activities within the camp as it was highest in the center of the camp where most of the refugees settle decreasing away from the center. The pH values were within the specifications of the World Health Organization and the Jordanian Standards. For nutrients, nitrate concentration was low with high phosphate ions which are most probably from detergents origin.

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Al-Harahsheh, S. , Al-Adamat, R. and Abdullah, S. (2015) The Impact of Za’atari Refugee Camp on the Water Quality in Amman-Zarqa Basin. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 16-24. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.61003.

References

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Heavy Metals in Some Fish Species and Bivalves from the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52967#.VK3xXsnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Biota samples were collected seasonally during three consecutive years from the Egyptian costal region along the Mediterranean Sea for analysis of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Hg. In addition to bivalve Donax, seven commercially important species of fish were examined to provide a comprehensive assessment for the concentrations of these metals in the Mediterranean coastal region of Egypt. Despite of the presence of several land-based sources of contamination, particularly at El-Mex Bay and El-Maadiya, the results showed very weak increase in the concentration of copper, lead and mercury revealing no accumulation of these metals in the biological material, even in non-migrant bivalve species such as Donax. However, an increase in the concentration of zinc and cadmium in fish tissues was measured from 1993 to 1995. Regardless of the fish species, no significant differences were observed in concentrations of most metals between different locations and from season to season. Regarding concentrations of most metals, no interspecies differences could be also measured in either fish tissues or in bivalve Donax. The study indicated that the concentration of these heavy metals were well below the documented toxic levels for human consumption and represent baseline levels against which possible future heavy-metal contamination can be measured.

Cite this paper

Shreadah, M. , Fattah, L. and Fahmy, M. (2015) Heavy Metals in Some Fish Species and Bivalves from the Mediterranean Coast of Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.61001.

References

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Marine Invertebrates as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Pollution

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52298#.VI-gkMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Atmosphere, earth and water compose the environment. The presence of heavy metals in the environment has grown because of their large employment in some industrial and agricultural activities. Although these metals are terrestrial products, they flow into the sea through effluents and sewage or are directly discharged from industries placed on the seawater front. It should be considered that metals concentrations vary widely according to different seawater latitudes and depths and can be strongly influenced by fresh water discharges from heavily polluted rivers. In this review recent studies on heavy metal pollution in marine ecosystems and their organisms will be presented. Metal speciation, bioaccumulation in biota, as well as abiotic and biotic factors affecting their bioavailability will be reviewed. Moreover, the use of bioindicator organisms for the biomonitoring of heavy metal toxicity and their ecological effects will be defined. Many marine invertebrate species fulfill the following criteria: Sensitivity to a wide range of chemicals (especially to heavy metals), cost-effectiveness for repeatable tests, readily interpretable biological consequences of pollution. Among the most important marine invertebrates used as bioindicators, the sea urchin embryo is one of the most suitable, especially to assess metal/heavy metal pollution.

Cite this paper

Chiarelli, R. and Roccheri, M. (2014) Marine Invertebrates as Bioindicators of Heavy Metal Pollution. Open Journal of Metal, 4, 93-106. doi: 10.4236/ojmetal.2014.44011.

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Evaluation of Some Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in Marine Environment of Alexandria Coastline, Egypt

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52281#.VI-Mv8nQrzF

ABSTRACT

The present work is carried out to obtain quantitative information of some natural radioactive materials and heavy metals in water and sediment samples along the Alexandria Coastline, as a step to construct the baseline map of the background radioactivity level in the Egyptian environment and also as a base data to assess the future physicochemical changes of surface coastal water and sediment in the studied area. The distribution of natural gamma emitting radionuclides such as 238U, 232Th and 40K has been established by gamma spectrometry. The results show that the area of Alexandria coast is affected by the existence of high back-ground radiation from the Rashid coast at the eastern side which has high levels of radioisotope concentrations due to black sand deposits which are dominant in this area. The absorbed dose rate (D, nGy·h-1), annual effective dose equivalent, external hazard index (Hex) and representative level index (Ir) of the investigated radioactive materials were calculated. The concentration of Pb2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions has been determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The total dissolved solids (TDS) in water samples ranged from 33,000 mg/l to 42,000 mg/l, the salinity ranged from 37.9% to 40.5% and pH ranged from 7.6 to 7.9. Some of the sediment quality guidelines are calculated and they are the metal pollution index (MPI), the contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cdeg), and Pollution load index (PLI).

Cite this paper

Atta, E. and Zakaria, K. (2014) Evaluation of Some Radioactive Materials and Heavy Metals in Marine Environment of Alexandria Coastline, Egypt. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1618-1629. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.517153.

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Cations and Anions in Sewage Sludge from Gaza Waste Water Treatment Plant

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47889#.VEdE4lfHRK0

ABSTRACT

This paper determined cations and anions concentrations, Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and heavy metals content in sewage sludge collected from the drying beds of wastewater treatment plant in Gaza. The aim was to test the possibility of using this sewage sludge as an alternative source of mineral fertilizers. Many instruments were used in this work: flame photometry (K, Na), EDTA titration (Ca, Mg), the turbidity method () , spectrophotometer (turbidity), ascorbic acid method (orthophosphate), titrimetric method (Cl), inductive coupled plasma analyzer (ICP, heavy metals). All the processes of experiments and analyses were described clearly for reference. Results showed that concentrations of Na, K, Ca2﹢ and Mg2﹢ were 28.93, 2.53, 271 and 177 mg/kg respectively whereas  were 0.434, 18.59, 0.87 and 0.026 g/kg respectively. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn and Mn were 125.12, 172.56, 76.88, 218.73 and 157.56 mg/kg respectively. These results indicate that sewage sludge from Gaza contained high fractions of most plant nutrients accordingly, and it may be advantageous to use the sludge as a natural source of plant fertilizers.

Cite this paper

El-Nahhal, I. , Al-Najar, H. and El-Nahhal, Y. (2014) Cations and Anions in Sewage Sludge from Gaza Waste Water Treatment Plant. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 5, 655-665. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2014.510073.

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Atmospheric Deposition Study in the Area of Kardzhali Lead-Zinc Plant Based on Moss Analysis

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50436#.VD8nC1fHRK0

ABSTRACT

For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique was used to assess the environmental situation in the area affected by a lead zinc plant as one of the most hazardous enterprises in Bulgaria. 77 Hypnum cupressiforme moss samples were collected in the Kardzhali municipality, in the summer and autumn of 2011. The concentrations of a total of 47 elements were determined by means of instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Multivariate statistics was applied to characterize the sources of elements detected in the samples. Four groups of elements were found. In comparison to the data averaged for the area outside of the town, the atmospheric deposition loads for the elements of industrial origin in Kardzhali, where the smelter chimney is located, were found to be much higher. Median levels of the measured concentrations for the most toxic metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Cu, In, Sb) were extremely high in this hot spot when compared to the median Bulgarian cross-country data from the 2010/2011 European moss survey. GIS technology was used to produce element distribution maps illustrating deposition patterns of element pollutants in the study area. The results obtained contribute to the Bulgarian environmental research used to study and control the manufacturing processes of a lead-zinc smelter in the town of Kardzhali<span “=””>.

Cite this paper

Hristozova, G. , Marinova, S. , Strelkova, L. , Goryainova, Z. , Frontasyeva, M. and Stafilov, T. (2014) Atmospheric Deposition Study in the Area of Kardzhali Lead-Zinc Plant Based on Moss Analysis. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 5, 920-931. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2014.514100.

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Application of Electrocoagulation and Electrolysis on the Precipitation of Heavy Metals and Particulate Solids in Washwater from the Soil Washing

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50328#.VDc9NlfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Soil washing, ex situ mechanical technique, is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives to remove metal contaminants from soils by employing physical separation based on mineral processing technologies to remove discrete particles or metal-bearing particles and/or chemical extraction based on leaching or dissolving process to extract the metals from the soils into an aqueous solution. However, washwater remained from soil washing process contains discrete particulate particles along with heavy metals as solution phase to be treated separately, as well as this process can produce large amount of sludge that requires further treatment, slow metal precipitation, poor settling, the aggregation of metal precipitates. Electrical treatments including electrocoagulation and electrolysis can be effective in removing these substances from washwater. This paper reviews the theoretical models in applying electrocoagulation and electrolysis to remove heavy metals and discrete particulate particles in washwater by examining and comparing the status of washwater treatment technologies which have been undertaken, mostly in the US and EU for the period 1990-2012.

Cite this paper

Shim, H. , Lee, K. , Lee, D. , Jeon, D. , Park, M. , Shin, J. , Lee, Y. , Goo, J. , Kim, S. and Chung, D. (2014) Application of Electrocoagulation and Electrolysis on the Precipitation of Heavy Metals and Particulate Solids in Washwater from the Soil Washing. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 3, 130-138. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2014.34015.

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