The Impact of Za’atari Refugee Camp on the Water Quality in Amman-Zarqa Basin

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ABSTRACT

Za’atari camp is the largest refugee camp in Jordan. It was first established in 2012 to host Syrian refugees. Currently the camp hosts more than 81,000 refugees, with no proper sanitary system which might pose a major threat to surface resources in the area. An investigation was done at Za’atari refugees’ camp to find the impact of refugees settling on surface and groundwater quality. Surface water quality of surface runoff generated from thirty rain fall events were collected during the winter season of 2013/2014 from the major Wadi that passes through the camp and small ponds within the camp after the rainfall event. The collected samples were analyzed for acidity (pH), the electrical connectivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), nutrients (NO3 and PO43-) and selected heavy metals (Mn, Cd, Zn, Pb and Ni) in addition to biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and intestinal worms (Total Coliform, E. cali). The results showed that there are significant variations in the EC as well as with TDS between the sites due to fluctuating amounts of water used for different activities within the camp as it was highest in the center of the camp where most of the refugees settle decreasing away from the center. The pH values were within the specifications of the World Health Organization and the Jordanian Standards. For nutrients, nitrate concentration was low with high phosphate ions which are most probably from detergents origin.

Cite this paper

Al-Harahsheh, S. , Al-Adamat, R. and Abdullah, S. (2015) The Impact of Za’atari Refugee Camp on the Water Quality in Amman-Zarqa Basin. Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 16-24. doi: 10.4236/jep.2015.61003.

References

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The Relationship between Time Pressure and Burnout Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Jordanian Nurses

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ABSTRACT

Burnout among nurses is well documented in literature. Precursors of burnout such as time pressure need further study for better understanding. In Jordan literature, studies regarding time pressure and burnout among Jordanian nurses are scarce. This study aimed to 1) evaluate the relationship between time pressure and burnout, and 2) identify participants’ characteristics that may have relationship with time pressure and burnout. A descriptive correlational design was utilized using a self-reported cross-sectional survey to collect data from 175 Jordanian nurses. Participants reported high level of time pressure (24.8 out of 126) and burnout (72.9 out of 126). Time pressure was correlated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (r = 0.561, 0.491, P < 0.01, respectively). Burnout was highest on the emotional exhaustion (72%) compared to 53.9% for depersonalization and 49.2% for personal achievement. Depersonalization showed the most frequent correlation with participants’ characteristics. Burnout was found to be common among Jordanian nurses, and time pressure is a precursor of this phenomenon, giving rise to the consequences on both patients’ and nurses’ health. Healthcare administrators have to modify the nursing work environment to be less stressful and more appealing to overcome the causes of nurses’ burnout.

Cite this paper

Darawad, M. , Nawafleh, H. , Maharmeh, M. , Hamdan-Mansour, A. and Azzeghaiby, S. (2015) The Relationship between Time Pressure and Burnout Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Jordanian Nurses. Health, 7, 14-22. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.71003.

References

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Uncommon and Impact-Suspicious Geologic Phenomena across Jordan and Adjacent Areas, Arabian Plate

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52905#.VKyUiMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

For the discovery and analysis of Jebel Waqf as Suwwan (JWS) Impact Crater, Jordan pushed the authors to consequently focusing on other unusual geologic phenomena such as circular/oval structures (some of “crypto-volcanic” origin), disharmonic folding, horizontal stylolites, and a broad stripe of Sanidine-Hornfels-Facies, all of them hosted in Upper Cretaceous/Paleogene carbonate rocks exposed across Jordan and adjacent areas. Shatter cones are the most useful tools during field work in the realm of circular structures. In addition to the impact-geologic data of JWS Impact Structure hitherto available, the cooling process of melted Lower Cretaceous Kurnub-Sandstone could be verified by microscopically identified SiO2-modifications between the melting point (1714°C) and low temperatures. In comparison with the Suffield 500 tons explosion tests [20] and with the Ries Impact Crater, Germany, excavation and vaporization processes of target rocks demand drilling between Central Uplift and Inner Ring of the JWS Impact Structure (“Chert-Carbonate-Impact-Chess Game”). In a scenario: “Impacting meets Plate Tectonics”, phenomena like disharmonic folding, horizontal stylolites, and an abundance of circular/oval structures of high diameter variation through northwest Jordan are discussed under aspects of gravitational gliding, effects of seismic surface waves (Love-), transpressional structures related to Jordan Rift-Tectonics, and possible impact processes of unknown number occurred on the Arabian Plate in southeastern direction with northwest-directed impulse. The so-called “Mottled Zone” of Jordan and Palestine owning a high number (~100) of mineral neoformations with formation temperatures up to ~1120°C(pseudo-wollastonite = β-CaSiO3), is to be interpreted as of “Sanidine-Hornfels-Impact Facies” under ricochet conditions along an “Avenue of Ricochet-Impact-Thermo-Cataclysm”. Marble-related travertines represent a low temperature facies of the impact event. The temporal projection of patterns like Rapid Climate Change (RCC), astrophysical data [Hoyle’s Comet: 47], acid events in ice-cores, tektite fall, Rise and Fall of Neolithic/Bronze Age Cultures, reveals an amazing “Ensemble” of coincidences among all of these parameters since the Middle/Upper Pleistocene boundary throughout Holocene. Ten short Interval Cases are discussed as being “Rare Event”- suspicious. Myths like the “Gilgamesch Epos” and “John’s Apocalypse” surprisingly provide realistic hints on impact events comparable with modern observations and experiments, which are: approach of extraterrestrial bodies, impact cratering, earthquakes and faulting, supercyclonic whirl-storms (wildfires), effects of hot ejecta, destruction of fauna, flora, and cities, long-lasting flooding, darkness caused by ashes and dust circulating in atmosphere and stratosphere (sintwinter), and environmental pollution. Such hints were handed down in myths of ~180 ethnic peoples around the globe. “High probability Cases” focus on impact events on ~9600 yr B.P and on ~6000 yr B.P. Other “Rare Events” may have possibly occurred about ~8000 yr B.P. and on ~3200 yr. B.P. (all radiocarbon yr.cal.). Core-drilling in the pull-apart basins of the Jordan Rift System (Dead Sea, Lake Tiberias) as traps having possibly preserved volcanic and impact ejecta would be a challenging international and interdisciplinary project.

Cite this paper

Schneider, W. and Salameh, E. (2014) Uncommon and Impact-Suspicious Geologic Phenomena across Jordan and Adjacent Areas, Arabian Plate. Open Journal of Geology, 4, 680-717. doi: 10.4236/ojg.2014.412051.

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Website Search Engine Optimization: Geographical and Cultural Point of View

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52393#.VJOTKcCAM4

ABSTRACT

The concept of Webpage visibility is usually linked to search engine optimization (SEO), and it is based on global in-link metric [1]. SEO is the process of designing Webpages to optimize its potential to rank high on search engines, preferably on the first page of the results page. The purpose of this research study is to analyze the influence of local geographical area, in terms of cultural values, and the effect of local society keywords in increasing Website visibility. Websites were analyzed by accessing the source code of their homepages through Google Chrome browser. Statistical analysis methods were selected to assess and analyze the results of the SEO and search engine visibility (SEV). The results obtained suggest that the development of Web indicators to be included should consider a local idea of visibility, and consider a certain geographical context. The geographical region that the researchers are considering in this research is the Hashemite kingdom of Jordan (HKJ). The results obtained also suggest that the use of social culture keywords leads to increase the Website visibility in search engines as well as localizes the search area such as google.jo, which localizes the search for HKJ.

Cite this paper

Rababah, O. , Al-Shboul, M. , Al-Zaghoul, F. and Ghnemat, R. (2014) Website Search Engine Optimization: Geographical and Cultural Point of View. Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 7, 1087-1095. doi: 10.4236/jsea.2014.713096.

References

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[15] Joachims, T. (2002) Optimizing Search Engines Using Click-Through Data. Proceedings of the Eighth ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Alberta, 23-25 July 2002, 133-142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/775047.775067
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Predicting Depression among Jordanian Patients Diagnosed with Physical Illnesses

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52122#.VIkFx8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

Depression is associated with increased medical morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic medical illnesses. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial predictors of depression among patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses in Jordan. A cross sectional survey using 806 patients diagnosed with chronic illnesses has been used to collect data in regards to depressive symptoms, psychological distress, coping, optimism, life satisfaction, and perceived social support. 27.5% of the patients reported that they had moderate to severe depressive symptoms, and about 31% of them had mild level of depression. Psychological distress, perceived social support from family, life satisfaction and optimism were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R2 = .29; F 11, 803 = 29.7, p < .001). Male and female patients were significantly different in their depressive scores (t = -2.57, p = .01). Implication for clinical practice and research are discussed.

Cite this paper

Hamdan-Mansour, A. , Ghannam, B. , Abeiat, D. , Badawi, T. , Thultheen, I. & Shamali, I. (2014). Predicting Depression among Jordanian Patients Diagnosed with Physical Illnesses. Psychology, 5, 2120-2130. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.519214.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5201_2                                                                           eww141211lx

Health-Promoting Behaviours of University Nursing Students in Jordan

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51919#.VHu8OWfHRK0

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine health-promoting behaviours of university nursing students in Jordan. This descriptive cross-sectional study used convenient sampling technique to recruit 167 undergraduate nursing students in Jordan. Data were collected by using an Arabic version of Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II. The study results revealed that the mean item score for total Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II was (127.24 ± 21.03). The students obtained highest scores in spiritual growth (25.04 ± 4.70) and lowest in physical activity subscales (16.27 ± 5.21). Significant difference was found between Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II subscales (stress management, health responsibility, and interpersonal relations) and students’ age and gender.

Cite this paper

Nassar, O. and Shaheen, A. (2014) Health-Promoting Behaviours of University Nursing Students in Jordan. Health, 6, 2756-2763. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.619315.

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Biphasic Insulin Aspart 30 Therapy in Insulin-Naïve and Insulin-Experienced Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Jordanian Subgroup of the A1chieve Study

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51841#.VHfJaWfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyse the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in a Jordanian subgroup of the 24-week, non-interventional A1chieve study. Methods: A total of 509 Jordanian patients with type 2 diabetes (392 insulin-naive and 117 insulin-experienced) starting BIAsp30, alone or in combination with oral glucose-lowering drugs, were included. Safety and effectiveness outcomes were analysed over 24 weeks. Results: Patients had a mean age of 55.8 years, body mass index of 28.8 kg/m2 and diabetes duration of 9.4 years at baseline. Two serious adverse drug reactions of hypoglycaemia were reported. The proportion of patients who reported major hypoglycaemic events decreased (2.4% at baseline vs. 0.2% at Week 24, p = 0.0039). The proportion of patients reporting overall hypoglycaemia increased marginally (6.3% at baseline vs. 9.9% at Week 24, p = 0.0378), primarily attributed to a rise in minor and nocturnal hypoglycaemia reported in insulin-naive patients. From baseline to Week 24, the mean ± SD glycated haemoglobin A1c level decreased from 9.8% ± 1.4% to 7.4% ± 0.9% (p < 0.001). Significant reductions after 24 weeks were also noted in the mean fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure and quality of life (all p < 0.001), while the mean body weight increased by 1.8 ± 6.5 kg (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Overall, BIAsp 30 therapy was well-tolerated and resulted in improved glycaemic control in this Jordanian subgroup over 24 weeks.

Cite this paper

Haddad, J. , Haddad, F. , Nasser, R. , Al-Shudifat, A. , Annabi, F. , Sandalci, L. and Al-Kilani, M. (2014) Biphasic Insulin Aspart 30 Therapy in Insulin-Naïve and Insulin-Experienced Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Jordanian Subgroup of the A1chieve Study. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 4, 379-387. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2014.44051.

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