Tuberculosis: Awareness among Students in a Saudi University

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Background: Knowledge plays a vital role in influencing the behavior and practices of individuals. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. Our objective is to identify the extent of awareness about TB among King Saud University students, and to compare knowledge about tuberculosis amongst different University tracks. Methods: This study was conducted using a cross-sectional approach including 530 students in three different academic tracks: Health, Scientific, and Humanitarian tracks. For data collection, a structured questionnaire was developed through revision of the literature which contained three different parts; demographic data of subjects, knowledge about TB and attitude toward TB. Results: The established scoring system revealed a poor grade of knowledge at 51.4%. Tuberculosis knowledge was significantly higher amongst the track of Health colleges (46.7% compared with 27.2% for the track of Science and 26% for the track of Humanitarian studies). However, some of the issues were answered fittingly in higher magnitude by the two other non-health tracks; there was no significant difference in gender-specific awareness level (48% for both). Conclusion: Although the Health track had better knowledge in general (46.7%), the level of awareness of Tuberculosis is poor among King Saud University students. Moreover, the level of awareness differs among the three tracks, which are health, humanitarian, and science. The health track showed the highest level of awareness.

Cite this paper

AlSalem, S. , AlEisa, A. , Raslan, I. , BinJawhar, A. , Khouqeer, A. and Gad, A. (2015) Tuberculosis: Awareness among Students in a Saudi University. Health, 7, 175-182. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.72020.

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Knowledge and Attitude of School Teachers towards Promoting Healthy Lifestyle to Students

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53318#.VLyl68nQrzE

ABSTRACT

Teachers play an important role in delivering health education to empower students with skills for healthy living to prevent non-communicable diseases. One of the common non-communicable diseases is hypertension that its development is highly associated with unhealthy lifestyle. A survey was administered to assess 130 pre-service teachers and 54 in-service teachers who were taking the health education course to prepare them for teaching the content of healthy living in Hong Kong. The assessment included their knowledge level of hypertension, attitudes towards lifestyle modification education to students, perception of knowledgeable to give health education. It was found that the knowledge level related to hypertension was generally below average among the teachers. Although they considered that lifestyle modification was an effective way to enhance students’ well-being, both pre-service and in-service teachers were reluctant to take responsibility for lifestyle modification education to their students. Lack of skill training was perceived as a problem. Teachers’ perception on health education should not be limited to the provision of simple information and advice. There is a need to improve teachers’ health literacy on some common non-communicable diseases.

Cite this paper

Cheng, N. and Wong, M. (2015) Knowledge and Attitude of School Teachers towards Promoting Healthy Lifestyle to Students. Health, 7, 119-126. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.71014.

References

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Indigenous Knowledge, Practices, Beliefs and Social Impacts of Porcine Cysticercosis and Epilepsy in Iringa Rural

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52544#.VJtmIcCAM4

ABSTRACT

Porcine Cysticercosis (PCC) and Human Cysticercosis (HCC)/Neurocysticercosis (NCC) are a burden to the community owing to the reduced value of animals, associated costs of treatment, decreased labour productivity and social discrimination. There is limited knowledge on the management and prevention of PCC and epilepsy in Iringa rural. Therefore, the present study aimed at assessing indigenous knowledge, practices, attitudes and social impacts of PCC and epilepsy in Iringa rural district. A total of 588 people participated in the survey whereby 306 were pig farmers, 223 non-pig farmers and 59 families with epileptic individuals. It was found that 49.8% (χ2 = 0.003, DF = 1, p = 0.954) of pig keepers were aware of PCC, whereas the remaining 50.2% were not aware (χ2 = 25.5, DF = 1, p < 0.001). The prevalence of late onset epilepsy was significantly higher (62.7%) than that of those who manifested seizures and convulsions in childhood 37.3% (χ2 = 3.814, DF = 1, p = 0.51). People in Iringa rural believe epilepsy is caused by evil spirits, witchcraft and/or inheritance. It was concluded that there was limited knowledge on T. solium cysticercosis and epilepsy. This ignorance is the cause of poor practices, negative beliefs and attitudes that negatively affect the social life of People with Epilepsy (PWE) in communities. This study recommends that health education to raise awareness on cysticercosis/taeniosis and epilepsy should be one of the intervention measures for elimination of cysticercosis and epilepsy in Iringa rural district.

Cite this paper

Chacha, M. , Yohana, C. and Nkwengulila, G. (2014) Indigenous Knowledge, Practices, Beliefs and Social Impacts of Porcine Cysticercosis and Epilepsy in Iringa Rural. Health, 6, 2894-2903. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.621328.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1157.2000.tb00185.x                                                                 eww141225lx

Assessing the Potential to Change Stakeholders Knowledge and Practices on Fertilizer Recommendations in Africa

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52252#.VIpO0cnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Africa’s fertilizer use averages only 8 kg per hectare per year. Available fertilizer recommenda-tions in Africa are high, and vary between countries. The recommendations are generally out dated, and/or “blanket” recommendations that are not site, or crop specific. Recommendation developed for one crop is often used for another and possibly unrelated crop. CABI and AGRA designed a project whose goal is “to help improve the capacity of National Research Institutions in developing fertilizer recommendations for efficient and profitable fertilizer use in 13 sub-Saharan African countries within the framework of ISFM practices under smallholder farming by the end of March 2016”. Baseline survey conducted in May 2014 targeted scientists, policy makers, extension workers, agro-dealers, fertilizer companies and farmers/farmer organization. Snowballing and convenience sampling techniques were used to get the sample and emails were used to reach the respondents. A total of 416 respondents were targeted but only 219 responded from 12 countries. Out of the 219, 148 were extension workers and researchers. About half (51%) of the scientists are aware of fertilizer optimization tool, and a lesser proportion have used the tool across all countries (31%). Fewer extension workers (31%) were aware of the fertilizer optimization tool and none reported to have used the tool. On average about 5% of the study participants reported that other stakeholders were involved in the development of fertilizer recommendations including farmers, farmer organizations, policy makers, researchers, extension workers, agro dealers, fertilizer companies and donor organizations. Stakeholder involvement was highest in Nigeria at 15%, followed by Ethiopia (13%) and Malawi (10%) but most of the countries reported <5%. There is a general understanding that development of fertilizer recommendations is a multi-stakeholder initiative and therefore need for involving many stakeholders in the development of fertilizer recommendations across Africa that will fosters greater ownership and sustainability.

Cite this paper

Rware, H. , Wairegi, L. , Oduor, G. , Macharia, M. , Romney, D. , Tarfa, B. , Maria, R. , Ley, G. , Tetteh, F. , Makumba, W. , Dicko, M. , Nouri, M. , Leon, N. , Gondwe, B. , Kaizzi, K. , Negash, D. , Kibunja, C. , Alawy, A. , Wartmann, C. and Rutsimba, E. (2014) Assessing the Potential to Change Stakeholders Knowledge and Practices on Fertilizer Recommendations in Africa. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1384-1391. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.514149.

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[12] Rware, H., Wairegi, L., Oduor, G., Romney, D., Alawy, A. and Macharia, M. (2014) Optimization of Fertilizer Recommendations for Africa Project. Baseline Study Report.                                            eww141212lx

Medical Students’ Knowledge of Clinical Practical Procedures: Relationship with Clinical Competence

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51846#.VHfLpmfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Clinical competence is an attribute expected of every practicing doctor while proficiency in procedural skills is a requirement by certifying bodies. To attain competency in the performance of procedural/psychomotor skills, possession of conceptual knowledge has been documented as a fundamental pre-requisite in reference to medical education literature. At the University Of Zambia School Of Medicine, the matter of cognitive knowledge in relation to competence in clinical practical skills for undergraduate medical students was investigated in a project which was conducted in 2013. Fifty-six (56) students from a class of 60 (93% response rate) of the final year medical students’ class of 2012/2013 completed a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) knowledge test which was administered to ascertain the level of knowledge on 14 selected clinical practical procedures. Knowledge levels of clinical practical procedures of the final year medical students were found to be inadequate represented by a 39% pass rate with students’ scores lower than the Angoff determined pass mark on most items. Expectedly, students were more knowledgeable in those procedures where they were formally taught and those where there was a high likelihood of being assessed. The correlation between knowledge and self-perceived competence was positive Spearman rho of 0.360, while a negative correlation was recorded between knowledge and manifest competence (objectively measured competence) Pearson r <span “=””>–.116. The positive correlation between knowledge and self-perception of competence is an indication of the role of knowledge in improving self-concept about a skill, which may consequently lead to improved performance.

Cite this paper

Katowa-Mukwato, P. and Banda, S. (2014) Medical Students’ Knowledge of Clinical Practical Procedures: Relationship with Clinical Competence. Creative Education, 5, 1895-1904. doi: 10.4236/ce.2014.521212.

References

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Enhancing Students’ Learning about Healthy Living through Community Participation

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50673#.VEhbalfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The Health Enhancement Module (HEM) is taught as a core curriculum for all medical students at Monash University since 2002. In 2012 we moved the year three content of the program into a community setting, calling it the Health Enhancement Carnival (HEC). At the carnival, our undergraduates interacted with school students, their teachers, and their parents, involving them in a mix of discussions, poster presentations, and video presentations. In this paper we present our experience with the HEC. Specifically, we looked at the following two measures: how did the HEC influence the knowledge, attitude, and practice of healthy living among medical students? And, what were the learning experiences of the students during the HEC? Methods: Five themes (exercise, food, healthy sleep, workplace stress and ageing) were divided among students. They were asked to develop those themes with the help of posters, power point presentations, community talks as well as video presentations. The carnival was held in the setting of two nearby children’s schools. Students were evaluated by a panel of examiners with regards to learning objectives as well as preparation and presentation. As part of evaluation, we developed 2 questionnaires. The HEP Healthy Living Questionnaire provided feedback on how the program had improved students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice of healthy living. The HEP Learning Style Questionnaire covered twelve areas, including collegiality, environment, leadership, community interaction and other facets of learning style. Analyses were performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics version 20 software in the Clinical School Johor Bahru. Results: 1) Influence of HEC on the knowledge, attitude, and practice of healthy living among medical students. From the interviews, the judges gave the students mean ratings of 4.0/5. We also received 77 out of 127 feedback questionnaires (response rate: 60.6%) from the students. Most students (range: 49.35% to 55.84%) were “satisfied/totally satisfied”, “achieved/totally achieved”, or “improved/totally improved” to 5 questions of the Healthy Living Questionnaire. Correlation coefficients between knowledge of healthy living, attitude towards healthy living, and practice of healthy living were large (exceeding 0.8) suggesting that these three measures were highly and positively inter-correlated. Most students (range: 60.28% to 71.43%) scored “a lot/almost all”, to 5 questions regarding achievement of learning objectives. 2) Learning experiences of the students during the HEC. Responding to the HEP Learning Style Questionnaire, most students (range: 66.24% to 85.72%) agreed or strongly agreed that the program provided an optimal environment for learning, encouraging students to assume leadership responsibilities and promoting self-directed learning. A correlation matrix of the 12 items showed medium to large correlations between all twelve variables. Conclusions: The Health Enhancement Program (HEP) is an innovative approach that has enabled students to learn about healthy living within the context of the local community.

Cite this paper

Gandhi, A. , Darnal, H. , Qureshi, A. , Sood, S. and Nordin, R. (2014) Enhancing Students’ Learning about Healthy Living through Community Participation. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, 771-778. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.410087.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/msj.20128                                                                                           eww141023lx

The Pillars of Learning, Understanding, Studying and Explaining

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50639#.VEcXeFfHRK0

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

This paper is based on the hypothesis that intelligent persons have a high capacity to understand and learn effectively, because processes involving study and explanation allow them to develop the capacity to construct a system of coherent models that can be quickly updated. The first part of the paper will highlight the logic and power of systemic understanding and learning that is founded in Systems Thinking. It is clear that understanding and learning represent different mental activities: We understand when we form a coherent model of a concept, but we learn only when that model becomes stable and permanent; when it is memorized so that we can repeat and apply it. There is no learning without studying. For this reason, the second part of the paper proposes ten steps for studying effectively (which permits understanding) and efficiently (using minimum effort). But how do we attain understanding? Often we reach understanding through personal experience; in most cases, however, we are helped by a professor, a teacher or a textbook that provides us with an explanation. The explanation process represents the topic of the third part of the paper, where the author considers the five most important structures of the explanation process—the common, classical, procedural, systemic and teleological structures. In this sense, Understanding, Studying and Explaining can be considered the three pillars on which are based learning and knowledge.

Cite this paper

Mella, P. (2014) The Pillars of Learning, Understanding, Studying and Explaining. Creative Education, 5, 1615-1628. doi: 10.4236/ce.2014.517179.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195126167.001.0001                                            eww141022lx