Expression of the Genes OsNRT1.1, OsNRT2.1, OsNRT2.2, and Kinetics of Nitrate Uptake in Genetically Contrasting Rice Varieties

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Four genetically contrasting rice varieties (IAC-47, Bico Ganga, Arroz de Revenda and Manteiga) according to Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis were assessed regarding expression of the genes OsNRT1.1, OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2 and the nitrate uptake kinetics parameters (Km and Vmax). Up to 250-fold increases in the induction of gene expression after nitrate resupply were observed for the high-affinity transporter (OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2). However, no significant variations in Vmax among the varieties were obtained. The lower value of Km of the IAC-47 cultivar in relation to the Arroz de Revenda variety suggests a greater role of high-affinity transporter genes. These results indicate that closer attention should be paid to the expression levels of these genes in selecting varieties aiming to enhance nitrogen uptake efficiency.

Cite this paper

Araújo, O. , Pinto, M. , Sperandio, M. , Santos, L. , Stark, E. , Fernandes, M. , Santos, A. and Souza, S. (2015) Expression of the Genes OsNRT1.1, OsNRT2.1, OsNRT2.2, and Kinetics of Nitrate Uptake in Genetically Contrasting Rice Varieties. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 306-314. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.62035.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200800028                                                               eww150210lx

Phosphorous and Foliar Applied Nitrogen Improved Productivity and Quality of Potato

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ABSTRACT

Growth, yield and quality of potato are greatly affected by its nutritional management. Foliar application of urea reduces nitrogen losses and increases plant nitrogen use efficiency. This study was therefore planned to evaluate the effect of soil applied phosphorus (DAP) and foliar application of nitrogenous fertilizer (urea) on growth, yield and quality of potato. Experiment was comprised of four different treatments of phosphorus (DAP, 46% P) and nitrogen (urea, 46% N) including a control. Treatments were T0 (DAP 160 + Urea 300 kg/acre), T1 (DAP 160 + Urea 5 kg/acre), T2 (DAP 100 + Urea 6 kg/acre) and T3 (DAP 120 + Urea 8 kg/acre). DAP fertilizer was given as basal dressing at the time of sowing. Foliar applications of nitrogenous fertilizer (urea) were given after 30 of sowing with one week interval in five split doses. Results indicated that T3 remained better regarding productivity and quality of potato. The overall fertilizer efficacy regarding yield and quality was: T3 > T2 > T1 > T0. However, Vitamin C was found maximum in T0.

Cite this paper

Qadri, R. , Khan, I. , Jahangir, M. , Ashraf, U. , Samin, G. , Anwer, A. , Adnan, M. and Bashir, M. (2015) Phosphorous and Foliar Applied Nitrogen Improved Productivity and Quality of Potato. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 144-149. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61016.

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Spatio-Temporal Variability of Shallow Groundwater Quality in a Hilly Red-Soil Agricultural Catchment in Subtropical Central China

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Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Groundwater quality varies not only in space but also in time. In order to analyze the spatiotemporal variety of ground water quality, the concentration of ammonium nitrogen (NH4N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in very shallow groundwater were investigated in a red-soil catchment in subtropical central China, based on a three-dimensional kriging method. The spatio-temporal analysis demonstrated that NH4N, NO3N and TP presented strong spatio-temporal autocorrelation (with a nugget-to-sill ratio of <25%) and that TN presented a moderate spatio-temporal autocorrelation (with a nugget-to-sill ratio between 25% and 75%). According to the Chinese Groundwater Quality Standards, the ratio of areas contaminated by NH4N, NO3N, TN and TP to the whole catchment was 20.05%, 1.46%, 5.07%, 5.98%, respectively. The 3D delineation of continuously dynamic variation of contaminated area indicated that the catchment’s very shallow groundwater had a moderate contamination by NH4N, slight by TN and TP, and almost non by NO3N. Although the contaminated area was very small, only occurring in small dispersed patches, a close attention should be paid to the shallow groundwater quality because local farmers obtain their domestic drinking water directly from this shallow groundwater without any treatment prior to consuming and the potential health hazard is considerable. The findings from this study highlight the importance of surveillance of the contaminated area over time for decision making to protect public health and maintain sustainable development of the catchment.

Cite this paper

Luo, Q. , Li, Y. , Li, Y. , Liu, X. , Xiao, R. and Wu, J. (2015) Spatio-Temporal Variability of Shallow Groundwater Quality in a Hilly Red-Soil Agricultural Catchment in Subtropical Central China. International Journal of Geosciences, 6, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.61001.

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The Position of Mineral Nitrogen Fertilizer in Efficient Use of Nitrogen and Land: A Review

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ABSTRACT

Our attitude towards mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers is ambivalent. N fertilizers have on one hand increased our supply of food, feed and other bio-based raw materials tremendously and also improved the use efficiency of land and labor, but have on the other hand a negative impact on the quality of the environment and contributed to the depletion of fossil fuel reserves. This awareness has resulted in strong pleas to spend much more attention to the recycling of N containing downstream “wastes”. It is, however, naive to assume that even perfect recycling suffices to offer the same number of people the same diet without inputs of “new” N, as inevitable losses of N make compensations indispensable. “New” N can be derived from either biological N fixation (“legumes”) or from industrially fixed N (“fertilizer”). The existing literature provides no evidence that the use of N fertilizers is per se unsustainable, as these fertilizers can also be made from renewable forms of energy. Besides, soil health and human health appear sensitive for the dosage but not for the form of N. It is yet imperative to reduce the input of “new” N as much as possible, so as to minimize adverse environmental effects. Measures to this end are a more precise assessment of crop N requirements, a better timing and positioning of N inputs, and any measure supporting the acceptance of “wastes” by farmers. The present paper elaborates the above aspects.

Cite this paper

Schröder, J. (2014) The Position of Mineral Nitrogen Fertilizer in Efficient Use of Nitrogen and Land: A Review. Natural Resources, 5, 936-948. doi: 10.4236/nr.2014.515080.

References

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Effect of Nitrogen Deficiency and Toxicity in Two Varieties of Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum L.)

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52189#.VIei-WfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Tomato is one of the most important vegetables cultivated in Mexico. Nitrogen-based fertilizers have greatly contributed to the increase in tomato production; however, the excessive application of this fertilizer may affect yield and fruit quality. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing in rates of nitrogen from deficiency to toxic levels. Five N-treat- ments (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 mM of N) were applied in two tomato varieties, Caballero and Victoria The optimum N doses for leaf growth in both varieties was 30 mM reaching 13.0 and 13.5 cm in Caballero and Victoria respectively. At low toxic levels leaf growth was recovered more easily in Caballero than Victoria. Nitrate concentration for the low toxicity treatment was greater in leaf and stems for Caballero than Victoria; conversely nitrate in fruits was higher in Victoria. Final yield per plant was not statistically different between varieties except at the low toxic treatment where Caballero had a yield of 780 g per plant compared to that of 330 g per plant of Victoria. Tomato quality was also affected by the applied N-doses, where treatment 30 mM reached the maximum fruit firmness in both varieties while high toxic N-levels decreased significantly this parameter. Soluble solids and titratable acidity increased with increased N-Doses. Caballero variety seems to be more tolerant than Victoria at low levels of N-toxicity.

Cite this paper

Frias-Moreno, N. , Nuñez-Barrios, A. , Perez-Leal, R. , Gonzalez-Franco, A. , Hernandez-Rodriguez, A. and Robles-Hernandez, L. (2014) Effect of Nitrogen Deficiency and Toxicity in Two Varieties of Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum L.). Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1361-1368. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.514146.

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Application of High Carbon:Nitrogen Material Enhanced the Formation of the Soil A Horizon and Nitrogen Fixation in a Tropical Agricultural Field

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51013#.VFGeCFfHRK0

ABSTRACT

It is known that cropping causes soil carbon loss, which is a critical issue, especially in tropical agriculture. Nitrogen input generally increases net primary production but does not increase soil carbon content because nitrogen input enhances soil organic carbon mineralization by microorganisms. A farmer conducted a trial in which he applied material with a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio without additional nitrogen fertilizer, and achieved a higher productivity than that of conventional farms. Based on his results, we conducted a survey to evaluate the effects of high C:N ratio organic material on the productivity, soil profile, microbial activity, and carbon and nitrogen balance of soil. Results demonstrate that high C:N ratio organic material enhanced the formation of the soil A horizon and increased soil carbon and nitrogen content. Approximately, 15 – 20 t·ha-1·crop-1 of fresh waste mushroom bed was applied to 15 crops over 4.5 years, and the total input of carbon and nitrogen were 5014 and 129 g·m-2, respectively. The soil nitrate nitrogen concentration was the same as that of the neighboring forest soil, which was lower than the standard limit for conventional agriculture; however, the average productivity of crops was approximately four times that of the national average. The soil Ap horizon increased in thickness by 7 cm, and aggregates reached a thickness of 29 cm in 4.5 years. The output/input ratios of total soil nitrogen and carbon were approximately 2.68 – 6.00 and 1.30 – 2.35, respectively, indicating that this method will maintain the carbon and nitrogen balance of the system. The observed soil microbial activity was one order of magnitude higher than that of a fallow field. The results indicate that this agricultural method remediates soil degradation, and improves food production.

Cite this paper

Oda, M. , Tamura, K. , Nakatsuka, H. , Nakata, M. and Hayashi, Y. (2014) Application of High Carbon:Nitrogen Material Enhanced the Formation of the Soil A Horizon and Nitrogen Fixation in a Tropical Agricultural Field. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1172-1181. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.512127.

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Ecophysiological Effects of Nitrogen on Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50597#.VEW0TlfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is a leguminous plant with high nutritional and medicinal value. The goal of this research was to determine the optimal concentration of nitrogen, using Hoagland nutrient solution, which will enhance the productivity of soybeans. The specific objective of the study was to assess the effect of variation of nitrogen concentration on soybean growth and leaf chlorophyll concentrations. Soybeans were grown under three soil nitrogen amendments: low, medium, and high concentration of Hoagland nutrient solution and a control group. Soybeans were grown under controlled environmental conditions in the Biotronette<span “=””>® environmental chamber. Temperature of the environmental chamber was regulated at 27℃ and the photoperiod was set to 10 L: 14D. Soybeans grown in the low treatment group had the highest growth rate (1.03 ± 0.03 cm/day) compared to the control, medium, and high treatment groups. During the first chlorophyll analyses, the control group had the highest total chlorophyll concentration (216.25 ± 4.09 μg/mL/g). During the second chlorophyll analyses, the low treatment group had the highest total chlorophyll concentration (102.81 ± 14.54 μg/mL/g). Although no finding was statistically significant between groups, the low nitrogen treatment conditions had a trend towards producing more favorable physiological outcomes on soybeans.

Cite this paper

Onor, I. , Onor, G. and Kambhampati, M. (2014) Ecophysiological Effects of Nitrogen on Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 357-365. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.410036.

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