3D Numerical Simulation of Hair Formation Process Using a Particle Model

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Hair is very important in determining human appearance. Although there are numerous observed data and experimental recordings for hair, a detailed mechanism of hair formation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, in this study, a simulation of the method of formative process of hair roots was done using a 3D particle model. The model contains details of the cell growth from the hair matrix cells and changes from spherical to non-spherical oval shape. Simulation results were able to exhibit the hair formation process from the base of the hair follicle. Furthermore, at the surface opening of the follicle, the hair structure was recorded. Therefore, this model can be used to clarify the mechanism of hair root formation.

Cite this paper

Nagayama, K. , Matsuoka, S. , Morisaki, N. and Taguchi, H. (2015) 3D Numerical Simulation of Hair Formation Process Using a Particle Model. Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine, 4, 1-5. doi: 10.4236/ojrm.2015.41001.

References

[1] Kobori, T. (1987) Hair Medicine. Bunkodo Co., Japan, 21-27.
[2] Ohyama, M., Terumura, A., Tock, C.L., Radonovich, M.F., Pise-Masison, C.A., Hopping, S.B., Brady, J.N., Udey, M.C. and Vogel, J.C. (2006) Characterization and Isolation of Stem Cell-Enriched Human Hair Follicle Bulge Cells. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 116, 249-260.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI26043
[3] Matsuzaki, T. (2008) Technologies for Hair Reconstruction and Their Applicability for Pharmaceutical Research. Yakugaku Zasshi, 128, 11-20.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.128.11
[4] Rogers, G. (2004) Hair Follicle Differentiation and Regulation. International Journal of Developmental Biology, 48, 163-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.15272381
[5] Hashiguchi, S. and Nagayama, K. (2011) Construction of a Hair Formation Analysis Method Using the Particle Model. Bioengineering Conference, 23th Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 9D-01, 355-356.
[6] Matsuoka, S., Nagayama, K., Taguchi, H. and Morisaki, N. (2012) Analysis of the Formation of the Hair Using a Particle Model. 2012 Biomedical Engineering Symposium Proceedings, 47-48.                 eww150209lx

Numerical Modeling of the Time Evolution of Super-Small-Scale Irregularities in the Near-Earth Rarefied Plasma

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53568#.VMnUESzQrzE

ABSTRACT

The time evolution of the magnetic field aligned super-small-scale irregularities in the concentration of charged particles, existing in the near-Earth rarefied plasma, is studied with the help of the model simulation. A new version of the two-dimensional mathematical model, developed earlier in the Polar Geophysical Institute, is utilized to investigate the temporal history of the irregularity with circular cross section, created initially in the near-Earth plasma. The utilized model is based on a numerical solution of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations, with the Vlasov equations describing the distribution functions of charged particles and the Poisson equation governing the self-consistent electric field. The results of simulation indicate that the mobility of the positive ions ought to influence essentially on the time evolution of the super-small-scale irregularities in the concentration of charged particles, existing in the near-Earth rarefied plasma.

Cite this paper

Mingalev, O. , Melnik, M. and Mingalev, V. (2015) Numerical Modeling of the Time Evolution of Super-Small-Scale Irregularities in the Near-Earth Rarefied Plasma. International Journal of Geosciences, 6, 67-78. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2015.61005.

References

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Effects of a Low-Head Dam Removal on River Morphology and Riparian Vegetation: A Case Study of Gongreung River

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52470#.VJoNDcCAM4

ABSTRACT

The long term existence of a low-head dam in the river channel significantly affects river geomorphology and river ecosystem. Because more and more low-head dam structures have deteriorated in recent years, the attention for low-head dam removal is increasing as one of alternatives for river restoration. Thus, this study intends to investigate the impacts of low-head dam removal on river geomorphology and riparian vegetation with developing a quantitative method to predict the changes of river morphology as well as invasion, growth, expansion and destruction of riparian vegetation after a low-head dam removal. To verify the numerical simulation model, the low-head dam removal case in Gongreung River was employed with investigation of low-head dam removal responses on river geomorphology and riparian vegetation. Following the low-head dam removal, the results of monitoring and numerical simulation indicated that new sand bars has formed as well as increasing the extent of existing sand bars in the upstream of the low-head dam. The sand bars have been colonized in a year after the low-head dam removal by grass type plants. After a decade to several decades, the riparian vegetation in sand bars often developed to tree type plants in several low-head dam removal cases. As other cases, Gongreung River also showed the growth of tree type plants in 5 years after the removal.

Cite this paper

Kim, S. , Toda, Y. and Tsujimoto, T. (2014) Effects of a Low-Head Dam Removal on River Morphology and Riparian Vegetation: A Case Study of Gongreung River. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 1682-1690. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.618151.

References

[1] Doyle, M.W., Stanley, E.H., Orr, C.H., Selle, A.R., Sethi, S.A. and Harbor, J.M. (2005) Stream Ecosystem Response to Small Dam Removal: Lessons from the Heartland. Geomorphology, 71, 227-244.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2004.04.011
[2] Sawaske, S.R. and Freyberg, D.L. (2012) A Comparison of Past Small Dam Removals in Highly Sediment-Impacted Systems in the US. Geomorphology, 151, 50-58.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.01.013
[3] Pizzuto, J. (2002) Effects of Dam Removal on River form and Process. BioScience, 52, 683-691.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052%5B0683:EODROR%5D2.0.CO;2
[4] Doyle, M.W., Stanley, E.H. and Harbor, J.M. (2003) Channel Adjustments Following Two Dam Removals in Wisconsin. Water Resources Research, 39, 1011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2002WR001714
[5] Shafroth, P.B., Friedman, J.M., Auble, G.T., Scott, M.L. and Braatne, J.H. (2002) Potential Responses of Riparian Vegetation to Dam Removal. BioScience, 52, 703-712.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052%5B0703:PRORVT%5D2.0.CO;2
[6] Orr, C.H. and Stanley, E.H. (2006) Vegetation Development and Restoration Potential of Drained Reservoirs Following Dam Removal in Wisconsin. River Research and Applications, 22, 281-295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rra.891
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2005)131:11(950)                                                  eww141224lx

A Computational Study of the Transformation of Global Gas Flows in the Earth’s Atmosphere over the Course of a Year

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52383#.VJN2NcCAM4

ABSTRACT

A mathematical model, developed earlier in the Polar Geophysical Institute, is applied to investigate the transformation of global gas flows in the Earth’s atmosphere over the course of a year. The model is based on the numerical solution of the system of gas dynamic equations. The mathematical model produces three-dimensional distributions of the gas dynamic parameters of the atmosphere in the height range from 0 to 126 km over the Earth’s surface. To investigate the seasonal transformation of the global circulation of the lower and middle atmosphere, simulations are performed for conditions corresponding to twelve dates, which belong to twelve different months. Results of simulations indicate that the variations of the solar illumination of the Earth’s atmosphere, conditioned by different positions of the Earth along its trajectory around the Sun, influence considerably the transformation of the planetary circulation of the lower and middle atmosphere over the course of a year.

Cite this paper

Mingalev, I. , Orlov, K. and Mingalev, V. (2014) A Computational Study of the Transformation of Global Gas Flows in the Earth’s Atmosphere over the Course of a Year. Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, 4, 379-402. doi: 10.4236/ojfd.2014.44029.

References

[1] Manabe, S. and Hahn, D.G. (1981) Simulation of Atmospheric Variability. Monthly Weather Review, 109, 2260-2286.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6826(02)00193-1
[10] Harris, M.J., Arnold, N.F. and Aylward, A.D. (2002) A Study into the Effect of the Diurnal Tide on the Structure of the Background Mesosphere and Thermosphere Using the New Coupled Middle Atmosphere and Thermosphere (CMAT) General Circulation Model. Annales Geophysicae, 20, 225-235.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/angeo-20-225-2002
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[12] Smith, A.K., Garcia, R.R., Marsh, D.R. and Richter, J.H. (2011) WACCM Simulations of the Mean Circulation and Trace Species Transport in the Winter Mesosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, Article ID: D20115, 17 p.
[13] Mingalev, I.V. and Mingalev, V.S. (2005) The Global Circulation Model of the Lower and Middle Atmosphere of the Earth with a Given Temperature Distribution. Mathematical Modeling, 17, 24-40. (In Russian)
[14] Mingalev, I.V., Mingalev, V.S. and Mingaleva, G.I. (2007) Numerical Simulation of Global Distributions of the Horizontal and Vertical Wind in the Middle Atmosphere Using a Given Neutral Gas Temperature Field. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 69, 552-568.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2006.10.005
[15] Picone, J.M., Hedin, A.E., Drob, D.P. and Aikin, A.C. (2002) NRLMSISE-00 Empirical Model of the Atmosphere: Statistical Comparisons and Scientific Issues. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107, Article ID: 1468, 16 p.
[16] Mingalev, I.V., Mingalev, O.V. and Mingalev, V.S. (2008) Model Simulation of Global Circulation in the Middle Atmosphere for January Conditions. Advances in Geosciences, 15, 11-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/adgeo-15-11-2008
[17] Mingalev, I.V., Mingalev, V.S. and Mingaleva, G.I. (2012) Numerical Simulation of the Global Neutral Wind System of the Earth’s Middle Atmosphere for Different Seasons. Atmosphere, 3, 213-228.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/atmos3010213
[18] Mingalev, I.V. and Mingalev, V.S. (2012) Numerical Modeling of the Influence of Solar Activity on the Global Circulation in the Earth’s Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere. International Journal of Geophysics, 2012, Article ID: 106035, 15 p.
[19] Mingalev, I., Mingaleva, G. and Mingalev, V. (2013) A Simulation Study of the Effect of Geomagnetic Activity on the Global Circulation in the Earth’s Middle Atmosphere. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 3, 8-19.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/acs.2013.33A002
[20] Wardill, P. and Jacka, F. (1986) Vertical Motions in the Thermosphere over Mawson, Antarctica. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, 48, 289-292.
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[22] Ishii, M. (2005) Relationship between Thermospheric Vertical Wind and the Location of Ionospheric Current in the Polar Region. Advances in Polar Upper Atmosphere Research, 19, 63-70.
[23] Mingalev, V.S. (1993) Transport Equations for the Upper Atmosphere in a Rotating Reference Frame. Geomagnetizm i Aeronomiya, 33, 106-112. (Russian Issue)
[24] Obukhov, A.M. (1988) Turbulence and Dynamics of Atmosphere. Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad. (In Russian)
[25] Mingalev, V.S., Mingalev, I.V., Mingalev, O.V., Oparin, A.M. and Orlov, K.G. (2010) Generalization of the Hybrid Monotone Second-Order Finite Difference Scheme for Gas Dynamics Equations to the Case of Unstructured 3D Grid. Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, 50, 877-889.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S0965542510050118                                                                          eww141219lx

Numerical Study on the Impact of GongJi Road Rain Pump on the Waterlogging in Huinan, Pudong District

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52380#.VJN2NcCAM4

Author(s)

Jing Huang, Shanzhu Wang, Shuzhao Deng, Xiaobin Yang, Quan Zhou

Affiliation(s)

Shanghai Pudong New Area Hydrology and Water Resources Administration, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT

To study the rainstorm waterlogging disaster in Huinan, Pudong District, an urban waterlogging model coupled with the rainfall runoff sub-model, underground network sub-model and the overland flow sub-model has been set up by MIKE FLOOD. After the validation with the actual reports of the waterlogging in Huinan on Oct. 8th, 2013, the model is adopted to simulate the overland flood before and after Gongji Road Rain Pump works to study the impact of Gongji Road Rain Pump on the waterlogging disaster. The results are analyzed and the conclusions are obtained: when Gongji Road Rain Pump runs, the total flooded area will significantly decrease to .49 km2, about 21%, meanwhile, the drowned duration will be shortened in 6 hours, ahead 10 hours. Therefore, Gongji Road Rain Pump can alleviate the waterlogging, but some other measures are still needed to be taken to solve the waterlogging disaster.

KEYWORDS

Rainfall Runoff, Rainstorm Waterlogging Disaster, Overland Flood, Pump, Numerical Simulation

Cite this paper

Huang, J. , Wang, S. , Deng, S. , Yang, X. and Zhou, Q. (2014) Numerical Study on the Impact of GongJi Road Rain Pump on the Waterlogging in Huinan, Pudong District. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 2, 52-58. doi: 10.4236/gep.2014.25008.

References

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Numerical Modeling of the Initial Formation of Cyclonic Vortices at Tropical Latitudes

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52299#.VI-gkcnQrzE

ABSTRACT

To investigate the initial formation of large-scale vortices at tropical latitudes a regional non-hydrostatic mathematical model of the wind system of the lower atmosphere, developed earlier in the Polar Geophysical Institute, is utilized. Three-dimensional distributions of the atmospheric parameters in the height range from 0 to 15 km over a limited region of the Earth’s surface are produced by the utilized model. Simulations are performed for the case when the limited three-dimensional simulation domain is intersected by an intertropical convergence zone in the west-east direction. Simulation results indicated that the origin of two convexities in the north direction in the configuration of the intertropical convergence zone can lead to the formation of three distinct tropical cyclones during the period of about four days.

Cite this paper

Mingalev, I. , Astafieva, N. , Orlov, K. , Mingalev, V. , Mingalev, O. and Chechetkin, V. (2014) Numerical Modeling of the Initial Formation of Cyclonic Vortices at Tropical Latitudes. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 899-906. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.45079.

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Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of a Capillary Evaporator in a Loop Heat Pipe with Liquid-Saturated Wick

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52090#.VIT2d2fHRK0

ABSTRACT

Heat transfer of a capillary evaporator in a loop heat pipe was analyzed through 3D numerical simulations to study the effects of the thermal conductivity of the wick, the contact area between the casing and the wick, and the subcooling in the compensation chamber (CC) on the thermal performance of the evaporator. A pore network model with a distribution of pore radii was used to simulate liquid flow in the porous structure of the wick. To obtain high accuracy, fine meshes were used at the boundaries among the casing, the wick, and the grooves. Distributions of temperature, pressure, and mass flow rate were compared for polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE) and stainless steel wicks. The thermal conductivity of the wick and the contact area between the casing and the wick significantly impacted thermal performance of the evaporator heat-transfer coefficient and the heat leak to the CC. The 3D analysis provided highly accurate values for the heat leak; in some cases, the heat leaks of PTFE and stainless steel wicks showed little differences. In general, the heat flux is concentrated at the boundaries between the casing, the wick, and the grooves; therefore, thermal performance can be optimized by increasing the length of the boundary.

Cite this paper

Nishikawara, M. , Nagano, H. , Mottet, L. and Prat, M. (2014) Numerical Study of Thermal Performance of a Capillary Evaporator in a Loop Heat Pipe with Liquid-Saturated Wick. Journal of Electronics Cooling and Thermal Control, 4, 118-127. doi: 10.4236/jectc.2014.44013.

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