Systemic Inflammatory Markers and Disease Severity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease—The Effect of Acute Exercise and Pulmonary Rehabilitation

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ABSTRACT

Background: Decreased physical capacity and increased systemic inflammatory response are frequently observed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The relationship between the inflammatory response and disease severity and the immunological response to exercise were addressed in COPD. Objective: The first objective was to identify systemic biomarkers and their relationship with COPD severity. The second objective was to examine the effect of both acute exercise and pulmonary rehabilitation on these biomarkers. Methods: Forty subjects participated in the study. Thirty-two patients with moderate or severe COPD and 8 healthy non-smokers completed the study. Spirometry was preformed. Physical capacity was determined by a progressive symptom-limited cycle ergo meter (incremental) test. Blood samples were analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α), pro-fibrotic cytokines (TGF-β) and oxidative burst in circulating leukocytes before and after exercise, and before and after pulmonary rehabilitation. Results: IL-6, CRP, WCC and TGF-β were higher in COPD (p < 0.05) than eight healthy controls. WCC, IL-6, TNF-α, CRP and TGF-β were negatively related to forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (r = 0.4054, 0.3221, 0.1528, 0.1846 and 0.1187, respectively). Acute exercise increased circulating leucocytes and oxidative stress in both groups (p = 0.000, 0.0049 respectively), while IL-6 was increased in COPD group ((p = 0.0115) and circulating TNF-α in healthy control (p = 0.0369). Pulmonary rehabilitation didn’t modify the levels of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions: Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers and acute exercise can further increase this inflammatory response. However pulmonary rehabilitation is unlikely to exacerbate systemic inflammation in COPD.

Cite this paper

El Gammal, A. , O’Farrell, R. , O’Mahony, L. , Shanahan, F. , Killian, K. and O’Connor, T. (2015) Systemic Inflammatory Markers and Disease Severity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease—The Effect of Acute Exercise and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases, 5, 19-31. doi: 10.4236/ojrd.2015.51003.

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Protective Effects of Combined Therapy of Rutin with Silymarin on Experimentally-Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Rats

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Author(s)

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>The management of diabetic neuropathy (DN) is still a challenge for physicians. Hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress involves in the development of diabetic neuropathy, which could be reversed by supplementation of antioxidants. In the present study, it has targeted the oxidative stress mediated nerve damage in DN by using combined therapy of rutin (RT) and silymarin (SM). Diabetes was induced by single streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg i.p.) injection. The diabetic rats were treated daily with RT (100 mg/kg), SM (60 mg/kg) and RT (50 mg/kg) + SM (30 mg/kg) for 6 consecutive weeks. Pain-related behavior tests were performed including tail flick, paw-pressure analgesia and Rota-rod treadmill performance. Serum glucose, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and interleukine-1β (IL-β) levels were estimated. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured. Diabetic rats that developed neuropathy were revealed by decreased tail-flick latency, paw-withdrawal latency and motor coordination. RT (100 mg/kg/day) and SM (60 mg/kg/day) dosed to diabetic rats, ameliorated hyperalgesia, analgesia and led to improved motor coordination. However, the combined therapy of RT (50 mg/kg/day) with SM (30 mg/kg/day) showed more significant effects in these parameters. STZ significantly increased TBARS and decreased GSH levels in sciatic nerve whereas combined therapy of RT and SM produced higher significant protection compared to individual. Similarly, combined therapy showed more significant amelioration in decreased levels of SOD, CAT, GST, GS and GPx activities in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Present results concluded that the combined therapy of phenolic compounds such as RT and SM had higher protective effects than their individual supplementations against DM.

Cite this paper

Al-Enazi, M. (2014) Protective Effects of Combined Therapy of Rutin with Silymarin on Experimentally-Induced Diabetic Neuropathy in Rats. Pharmacology & Pharmacy, 5, 876-889. doi: 10.4236/pp.2014.59098.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00227543                                                                                     eww141230lx

The Protective Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Cardiotoxicity Induced by Doxorubicin Drug in Male Rats

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52565#.VJt07cCAM4

ABSTRACT

Objective: This work was designed to determine the productive effect of grape seed proanthocynadine extract (GSPE) and Vitamin E against Doxorubicin (DOX) induced myocardial toxicity in 50 male. Wister rates were divided in five groups. The 1st group was untreated and served as a control. The 2nd group was treated with DOX only, the 3rd group was pretreated with GSPE, the 4th group was pretreated with Vitamin E, and the 5th group was pretreated with GSPE and Vitamin E. DOX was administered by single i.p (Intraperitonial) injection of 15 mg/kg/body weight to induce cardio toxicity and Vitamin E was administered at a dose of 400 IU/kg/bodyweight/day, p.o (per oral) for 10 days prior to DOX administration [1]. GSPE was given at a dose of 150 mg/kg/bodyweight/ day, p.o (per oral) for 10 days before treatment with DOX. After 2 weeks experimental period, blood samples and heart tissues were taken from all groups. The general observations, mortality, histopathology, biomarker enzymes like Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Antioxidants such as Glutathione (GSH), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were monitored after 2 weeks of the last dose. Results: Administration of DOX caused cardiomyopathy associated with an antioxidant deficiency. Pretreatment with GSPE and Vitamin E significantly (P < 0.01) protected the myocardium from the toxic effects of DOX by reducing the elevated level of biomarkers and diagnostic enzymes like LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT to normal levels. GSPE and Vitamin E increased the GSH, SOD and CAT levels and decreased the MDA levels in cardiac tissue. Conclusion: These results suggest a cardioprotective effect of GSPE and Vitamin E due to its antioxidant properties.

Cite this paper

Al-Sowayan, N. and Mahmoud, N. (2014) The Protective Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Cardiotoxicity Induced by Doxorubicin Drug in Male Rats. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 5, 1078-1089. doi: 10.4236/abb.2014.514123.

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Isolated Soy Protein-Based Diet Ameliorates Glycemia and Antioxidants Enzyme Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51573#.VG6LFmfHRK0

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes induced by isolated soy protein (ISP)-based diet on glycemia and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (35 ± 4 g, aged 21 days) were assigned to three groups: Casein (C group), which received casein-based diet during experimental protocol; Diabetic treated with Casein (D + C group) that received casein-based diet before and after diabetes induction; Diabetic treated with ISP (D + S group) that received casein-based diet before diabetes induction and after received ISP-based diet for the experimental protocol. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight i.v.). After three weeks of dietary treatment, total nitrates, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were measured in heart homogenates. ISP-based diet promoted an improvement in the glycemic levels of diabetic rats compared with casein-based diet (362 ± 25 vs 461 ± 30 mg/dL). CAT activity demonstrated a significant decrease in D + C and D + S groups. D + S group presented a significant increase in SOD and GST activities. Lipid peroxidation was not different among experimental groups. The overall results suggested the potential benefits of ISP-based diet consumption to improve the life quality of diabetic patients.

Cite this paper

Mendes, R. , Hagen, M. , Barp, J. , de Jong, E. , Moreira, J. , Reischak-Oliveira, Á. , Irigoyen, M. and Belló-Klein, A. (2014) Isolated Soy Protein-Based Diet Ameliorates Glycemia and Antioxidants Enzyme Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 5, 2089-2096. doi: 10.4236/fns.2014.521221.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.032045                                                                                 eww141121lx

Curcumin Protects SK-N-MC Cells from H2O2-Induced Cell Death by Modulation of Notch Signaling Pathway

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47479#.VFmIImfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress has been implicated to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Currently, it is known that numerous signaling pathways involved in neurodegenerative disorders are activated in response to oxidative stress. Recent directions on AD treatments have focused on the use of antioxidants including Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa, to augment the intracellular antioxidant defences. In the present study, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on apoptotic SK-N-MC cells death with focus on changes in activity of Notch signaling pathway. The extent of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and intracellular ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) levels was investigated as oxidative stress biomarkers. Here, we showed that H2O2 reduced GSH levels and activity of antioxidant enzymes and also influenced Notch signaling activation. The present data concluded that Curcumin protected cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

Cite this paper

Kamarehei, M. , Yazdanparast, R. and Aghazadeh, S. (2014) Curcumin Protects SK-N-MC Cells from H2O2-Induced Cell Death by Modulation of Notch Signaling Pathway. CellBio, 3, 72-86. doi: 10.4236/cellbio.2014.32008.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80754-0                                                                        eww141105lx

MINS, a Novel Naphthalimide-Polyamine Conjugate, Induced Apoptosis Depending on p53 Status in Human Colon Cancer Cells

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50849#.VE2opFfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Natural polyamine is an ideal antitumor drug carrier because of the great requirement difference between cancer cells and normal cells. Previous data demonstrated that many cytotoxic drugs conjugated with natural or synthetic polyamines have potent antitumor effects. Up to now, the antitumor mechanism of conjugates of naphthalimides with polyamine remains poorly understood in human colon cancer cells. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of MINS (a novel naph-thalimide-polyamine conjugate) and mechanism of MINS in human colon cancer cells. Mitochondrial toxicity, which was generated by ROS from mitochondria electron transport chain, might be a major factor in MINS-inducted apoptosis. Our data also demonstrated that MINS-mediated cell apoptosis depend on p53 status, for MINS induced Caco-2 cells (p53 null) only necrosis but not apoptosis. Furthermore, the apoptotic effect of MINS is stronger than that of Amonafide, the parent drug of MINS. Our data suggested that the MINS-mediated cell apoptosis depend on p53 in human colon cancer cells.

Cite this paper

Li, M. , Yang, T. , Dai, F. , Li, Q. , Zhang, Y. , Xie, S. and Wang, C. (2014) MINS, a Novel Naphthalimide-Polyamine Conjugate, Induced Apoptosis Depending on p53 Status in Human Colon Cancer Cells. Open Journal of Apoptosis, 3, 59-69. doi: 10.4236/ojapo.2014.34007.

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The Effect of Oral Melissa officinalis on Serum Oxidative Stress and Second Degree Burn Wounds Healing

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50634#.VEcNJVfHRK0

ABSTRACT

For this aim, this study conducted in order to assess the effect of lemon balm as an antioxidant on second degree wound healing and oxidative stress serum of burning patients. To meet the aim, 60 patients with 15 to 50 burn percent with the age range of 18 to 50 were invited after considering to inclusion criteria by the researchers. First they have been put by non-probable method and then random method in two groups of experiment (30 people) and control (30 people). After that, experiment group in addition to ordinary treatment has been used Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) plant two times a day for two weeks (1.5 g in 100 cc). Oxidative stress parameters included serum total antioxidant and the rate of malondialdehyde (MDA) that is one of total production of lipid peroxidation have been measured in patients’ blood sample in first and last parts of the study. The wound position has been studied by using standard wound BATES-JENSEN assessment tool in first, seventh and fifteenth days of study. In order to analyze data, independent sample t-test, paired sample t-test and repeated measurement variance have been used. These results indicated that the state of wound healing in experimental group was better than that in control group. Results indicated that mean of serum total antioxidant had been increased in both groups. The index of lipid peroxidation at the end of period has been increased in experiment group than control group, whether this index is significantly decreased at the end of 15 days in experimental group. According to the results of this study, the effect of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) plant was effective in increasing lipid peroxideative in better states of second degree burn wound healing.

Cite this paper

Arbastan, M. , Rahzani, K. , Hekmatpou, D. , Alizadeh, S. , Rafiei, M. and Malekirad, A. (2014) The Effect of Oral Melissa officinalis on Serum Oxidative Stress and Second Degree Burn Wounds Healing. Health, 6, 2517-2524. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.618290.

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