Patterns of Health-Risk Behaviors among Jordanian Adolescent Students

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Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Little information exists about health-risk behaviors in Jordanian adolescents especially among 15 – 19 years olds. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns of three of health-risk behaviors, namely, diet, physical activity, and tobacco use of the Jordanian adolescent students aged 15 to 19 years old, and to compare the patterns of these behaviors between male and female adolescents. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. A multi-stage stratified random sample was obtained from the public school educational directorate, which is affiliated to Amman governorate. A random sub sample of eight public comprehensive secondary schools was selected, four schools for females and four schools for males. A total of 750 students (375 boys and 375 girls), their ages between 15 – 19 years were included in the analysis. Data were collected by using two tools: students’ profile structured questionnaire (tool 1), and a modified version of the General School Health Survey questionnaire (tool 2). The findings of this study showed that 10.7% of students were overweight and 4.9% were obese. The majority of students had eaten less than the daily requirements of fruits, vegetables, and milk daily, while the intake of soft drinks was higher than recommended. One-fifth of students had been physically active at least 60 minutes daily. Overall, (55.5%) had tried smoking and 44.0% had smoked any other form of tobacco such as water pipe. Moreover, 62.4% had tried to quit smoking cigarettes. Furthermore, there were significant differences between males and females regarding these risk behaviors. In conclusion, there are problems with Jordanian adolescents relating to diet, physical activity, and tobacco use. The results highlight the need for effective school health program that combines education, counseling and behavioral skill building along with environmental support to enhance students’ efforts, intentions, and strategies to overcome these risk behaviors. In addition, the findings could help policy makers to strength strategies and policies to maintain healthy adolescents and schools.

Cite this paper

Malak, M. (2015) Patterns of Health-Risk Behaviors among Jordanian Adolescent Students. Health, 7, 58-70. doi: 10.4236/health.2015.71008.

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Being Old Does Not Necessarily Mean Being Inactive: Health Profile of Elderly Athletes versus Community-Dwelling Older Adults

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ABSTRACT

Introduction: According to the records of the Hong Kong Athletic Gala for the Elderly, some sports events have been won by the same group of elderly participants for several consecutive years. What made these elderly athletes different from others? Method: This was a retrospective quantitative study. The health profile data on a total of 125 elderly participants were collected. 36 and 29 were the winners and losers of the Hong Kong Athletic Gala for the Elderly between 2008 and 2010, respectively. The remaining 60 were non-participants. The non-participants came from six elderly centers in different districts in Hong Kong. Health profile parameters were measured using the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, which is used to measure healthy behaviors such as physical activity level, nutrition, stress management, health responsibility, interpersonal relations and spiritual growth. Results: About 41.7% (n = 15) and 80.0% (n = 48) of the elderly (mean age = 74 ± 9.0) in the winner and non-participant groups with chronic diseases. There were significant (p < 0.05) differences in fat percentage, mobility, and body mass index among the three groups of elderly. Five out of six domains in the HPLP-II: physical activity, nutrition, interpersonal relations, spiritual growth and health responsibility, were siginificantly different among two groups. Conclusion: It could be concluded that elderly people who had better health status and lifestyle, and who undertook regular exercise, fared better than others in sports events.

Cite this paper

Tse, M. , Wong, A. and Wan, V. (2014) Being Old Does Not Necessarily Mean Being Inactive: Health Profile of Elderly Athletes versus Community-Dwelling Older Adults. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 5, 1442-1451. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.521182.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464809341470                                                                       eww141231lx

Physical Fitness Level and Its Relationship with Self-Concept in School Children

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ABSTRACT

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between general self-concept and health-related physical fitness in primary school children. Design: Cross-sectional design and descriptive court. Method: A total of 216 schoolchildren (9.26 ± 1.26 years) participated in the measurement of the speed-agility, muscle strength and aerobic capacity as physical fitness components. Six dimensions of self-concept (intellectual, behavioral, physical, lack of anxiety, social and life satisfaction) were assessed by the Self-Concept Scale Piers-Harris. Results: No significant differences were found among the self-concept dimensions between men and women. Males showed higher scores on the test of 4 × 10 m (p < 0.05), manual dynamometry (p < 0.005) and Course-Navette (p < 0.005). An increased fitness level was positively and significantly related with higher values of overall self-concept (p < 0.005) in both genres. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that those students with a higher overall fitness level show higher levels of general self-concept. More investigation is needed to know which physical fitness parameters are more related with the self-concept.

Cite this paper

García, P. , Marcos, L. , Guillamón, A. , García-Cantó, E. , Pérez-Soto, J. , Casas, A. & Lopez, P. (2014). Physical Fitness Level and Its Relationship with Self-Concept in School Children. Psychology, 5, 2009-2017. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.518204.

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Reliability and Validity of a Chinese Version of the Students’ Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale and Its Related Factors

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51160#.VFgkYWfHRK0

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of a Chinese version of the Students’ Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale (SPEA), and to ascertain the associations between student attitudes toward physical education and gender, grade levels, school, and area. In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted in eight middle schools in Beijing, China. A sample of 1793 students was enrolled. Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were performed to evaluate the scale’s internal and test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Linear mixed models were used to examine the associations of attitude scores with gender, grade, school, and area (urban and suburban). Our results showed high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.90, ICC = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92 – 0.96) of the SPEA. For the construct validity, results of confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable model fit. Overall, the mean of the attitude scores was 75.5 ± 13.4 out of 100. The attitude scores were found to be statistically different between grade levels, schools, and areas. No differences were found for gender. This study provides evidence that the SPEA is acceptable for the assessment of the attitude toward physical education in Chinese students. The school plays a more important role in the student attitudes than school locations (urban or suburban) in our study. For better understanding of students’ attitudes toward physical education, further studies that focus on the environment of physical education in schools, and use more representative samples of schools from various locations are warranted.

Cite this paper

Hu, H. , Duan, J. , Wang, G. and Arao, T. (2014) Reliability and Validity of a Chinese Version of the Students’ Attitudes toward Physical Education Scale and Its Related Factors. Advances in Physical Education, 4, 181-189. doi: 10.4236/ape.2014.44022.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016647407161                                                                         eww141104lx

A Comparison of Children’s Fitness in the Northwest and Southwest of England

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51158#.VFghq2fHRK0

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

The data from this paper was gathered from a larger cross-sectional study examining children’s physical activity participation in the Northwest and the Southwest of England. The purpose of this study was to carry out a battery of health and fitness tests with children in both areas to examine possible differences in various aspects of fitness or health by area. Heart rate recovery, flexibility, body fat, hand grip strength, upper body strength, explosive strength and agility were all measured using youth fitness tests endorsed by EUROFIT and YMCA with 59 boys and 57 girls across both areas. There were no statistically significant differences in both groups of children in hand grip strength, flexibility and agility. Statistically significant differences were noted between both groups of children in explosive strength, upper body strength and measured body fat percentage. Overall the study showed mixed results that may indicate area of residence influences aspects of fitness or activity. Further study is recommended to assess whether physical activity could play a role in the associated fitness characteristics.

Cite this paper

Boyle, S. (2014) A Comparison of Children’s Fitness in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Advances in Physical Education, 4, 165-174. doi: 10.4236/ape.2014.44020.

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Is the Walking Campaign Effective for Depressive Symptoms?

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50965#.VFBgv1fHRK0

ABSTRACT

Aim: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of walking 10,000 steps per day on depressive symptoms for the company employees and their spouses in Japan. Method: Subjects were recruited from the participants of a walking campaign carried out by a Japanese company where the goal was to achieve 600,000 steps in 60 days. Among 221 subjects who participated in the campaign, 176 subjects (79.6%) agreed to participate in the present study. Sociodemographics and other information including depressive symptoms were assessed using a questionnaire. Result: Out of the 171 participants, 125 achieved the goal (73.1%). In the achiever’s group, the GHQ-12 score was significantly reduced at the end of the campaign compared with the non-achiever’s group. Exercise habit and the less overtime work (<45 hours past 1 month) at the baseline were significantly associated with the achievement of the goal. Conclusion: The achievement of 600,000 steps in 60 days is correlated with the improvement of depressive symptoms and the achievement of this goal might be related with the exercise habit and less overtime work before the campaign.

Cite this paper

Taneichi, S. , Tougou, F. and Sasaki, T. (2014) Is the Walking Campaign Effective for Depressive Symptoms?. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 405-409. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.44047.

References

[1] Robertson, R., Robertson, A., Jepson, R. and Maxwell, M. (2012) Walking for Depression or Depressive Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 6, 66-75.
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Incidence of Stroke among Swedish-Born and Migrant Women —The Role of Socio-Economic Status, Smoking, and Physical Activity

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50844#.VE2lp1fHRK0

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The incidence of stroke has decreased in Sweden as well as in most developed countries, but a high number of migrants have arrived in Sweden, during the last decades, which may have influenced the incidence. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the incidence of stroke in women, born outside as well as in Sweden. Furthermore, the aim was to examine how socio-economic factors, smoking, and physical activity could modify the risk for stroke. Method: Data from the “Malmö Diet and Cancer Study” was used for the analysis. In total, 16,857 women were included (14,849 of them born in and 2,008 born outside Sweden), aged 45 – 73 years with a mean age of 57.4 years. Result. A significantly increased relative risk (RR) was found for the incidence of stroke for current smokers in both Swedish-born and migrant women. In Swedish-born women the RR was 1.98 (CI: 1.66 – 2.36) and for migrant women the RR was 1.83(CI: 1.13 – 2.96). The adjusted relative risk for the incidence of stroke in Swedish-born women performing moderate/high physical activity was RR 0.71 (CI: 0.61 – 0.84) and for migrant women it was RR 0.77 (CI: 0.49 – 1.20). The relative risk in relation to low socio-economic circumstances (SES) was significant only for Swedish-born women (RR 0.85 [CI: 0.73 – 0.99]). Among currently smoking Swedish-born women with a low SES the RR was 1.27 (CI: 1.03 – 1.57) in comparison with smoking migrant women, whose RR was 1.68 (CI: 0.92 – 3.09). Conclusion: No differences were found indicating that migrant women in this population had a higher risk as compared to Swedish-born women. However, migrant smoking women were more vulnerable to stroke compared to Swedish-born women. Physical activity was effective in reducing the risk of stroke among the total population and especially in the Swedish-born women. To increase physical activity in middle-aged women, in both migrant and Swedish-born women, is a highly recommended public health strategy.

Cite this paper

Nayak, R. , Kahn, M. and Janzon, E. (2014) Incidence of Stroke among Swedish-Born and Migrant Women
—The Role of Socio-Economic Status, Smoking, and Physical Activity. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 4, 556-566. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.411067.

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