Development of a Universal Internet-Based Prevention Program for Ecstasy and New Psychoactive Substances

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ABSTRACT

In recent years, the Internet has received increasing recognition as an effective means of facilitating public health interventions. In particular, delivering prevention for substance use to school students via the Internet appears to be an area of great potential. The Climate Schools: Ecstasy and Emerging Drugs Module, a school-based prevention program, facilitated by the Internet, was developed to address the use of ecstasy and new and emerging drugs (Emerging Psychoactive Substances or Novel Psychoactive Substances). This four-lesson course was designed to be delivered to Australian adolescents (aged 15 to 16 years) during their standard health education classes at school, and is based on a harm-minimisation and social influence approach. The program was developed in response to the important public health challenge of new and emerging drugs as well as to address the prevention of ecstasy use among young people. To our knowledge, this will be the first school- and Internet-based prevention program specifically targeting these substances. This paper describes the process involved in developing this new Internet-based substance use prevention program.

Cite this paper

Champion, K. , Teesson, M. and Newton, N. (2015) Development of a Universal Internet-Based Prevention Program for Ecstasy and New Psychoactive Substances. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5, 23-30. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.51003.

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Dengue: An Escalating Problem of Our Society

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53379#.VMBrLCzQrzE

ABSTRACT

Dengue virus infection is more and more acknowledged as one of the world’s major escalating problems. Dengue is prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries. To solve this problem, pharmacists need to understand the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical spectrum, diagnosis, management, prevention, and novel avenues of dengue.

Cite this paper

Naseer, F. , Nazish, A. , Khan, R. , Sadiq, S. , Perveen, N. , Kaleem, Z. , Kausar, S. and Ashraf, M. (2015) Dengue: An Escalating Problem of Our Society. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 5, 9-13. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.51002.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/0470058005.ch8                                                                   eww150122lx

Osteoarthritis and Articular Cartilage: Biomechanics and Novel Treatment Paradigms

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Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Background: Osteoarthritis is a widespread highly painful disabling age-related disease with no known cure. Although novel strategies for ameliorating osteoarthritic damage abound, it is likely that none will be successful over time if the entire spectrum of the disease and the effects of joint biomechanics on joint tissues are not carefully considered. Objectives: 1) To detail the structure of healthy articular cartilage, the key tissue affected by osteoarthritis. 2) To detail what aspects of cartilage damage best characterize osteoarthritis. 3) To consider the role of biomechanical factors in developing solutions to treat osteoarthritic joint damage. Methods: Literature sources from 1980 onwards that have contributed to our knowledge of the topics relevant to this paper were accessed and retrieved. The data were categorized into four predominant themes and conclusions about the state of our knowledge and future directives were formulated. Conclusions: Osteoarthritis prevalence remains high, and a cure appears elusive. A rich body of data has helped us to better understand the key tissue involved, and suggests a repair process might be feasible, if the basic collective information on the role of biomechanics in mediating or moderating articular cartilage integrity and function is forthcoming.

Cite this paper

Marks, R. (2014) Osteoarthritis and Articular Cartilage: Biomechanics and Novel Treatment Paradigms. Advances in Aging Research, 3, 297-309. doi: 10.4236/aar.2014.34039.

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HIV and Other Sexual Transmitted Infections—Challenges for Liberal Prevention Strategies

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47470#.VFmRymfHRK0

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>Many countries use similar strategies in prevention campaigns, but despite that the spread of HIV is unabated. The basic messages of the current liberal prevention strategies aim to promote changes in individual behaviour so as to prevent HIV transmission. The strategies avoid any kind of regulation, prescription and controls, and trust solely on the readiness of the sexually active part of the general population, and in particular the “at-risk populations” to cooperate with those messages. However, only a small number of people have cooperated. The increase in the incidence of HIV over the past decade in the countries listed discloses the failures of the current prevention strategies. With respect to the goal of trying to influence those people prone to high-risk sexual lifestyles, and the injecting drug users, the prevention strategies have not had a meaningful effect in the long term. This is also reflected in the increase of other STIs such as hepatitis C, syphilis, and the human papilloma virus, which are worse when there is co-infection with HIV. The liberal prevention strategies turned out to be inadequate for the goal, and must be adjusted to real life situations to counteract their misuse. Meanwhile there are ample evidence-based measures which must be implemented into concerted efforts by complementing the current strategies with respect to a person-to-person bound infection. Medical care policies have to consider the non-adherence behaviour of those in need.

Cite this paper

Dennin, R. , Lafrenz, M. and Gesk, G. (2014) HIV and Other Sexual Transmitted Infections—Challenges for Liberal Prevention Strategies. World Journal of AIDS, 4, 258-279. doi: 10.4236/wja.2014.42031.

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10.1371/journal.pone.0089611                                                                                             eww141105lx

HIV and Other Sexual Transmitted Infections—Challenges for Liberal Prevention Strategies

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47470#.VFmBbmfHRK0

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>Many countries use similar strategies in prevention campaigns, but despite that the spread of HIV is unabated. The basic messages of the current liberal prevention strategies aim to promote changes in individual behaviour so as to prevent HIV transmission. The strategies avoid any kind of regulation, prescription and controls, and trust solely on the readiness of the sexually active part of the general population, and in particular the “at-risk populations” to cooperate with those messages. However, only a small number of people have cooperated. The increase in the incidence of HIV over the past decade in the countries listed discloses the failures of the current prevention strategies. With respect to the goal of trying to influence those people prone to high-risk sexual lifestyles, and the injecting drug users, the prevention strategies have not had a meaningful effect in the long term. This is also reflected in the increase of other STIs such as hepatitis C, syphilis, and the human papilloma virus, which are worse when there is co-infection with HIV. The liberal prevention strategies turned out to be inadequate for the goal, and must be adjusted to real life situations to counteract their misuse. Meanwhile there are ample evidence-based measures which must be implemented into concerted efforts by complementing the current strategies with respect to a person-to-person bound infection. Medical care policies have to consider the non-adherence behaviour of those in need.

Cite this paper

Dennin, R. , Lafrenz, M. and Gesk, G. (2014) HIV and Other Sexual Transmitted Infections—Challenges for Liberal Prevention Strategies. World Journal of AIDS, 4, 258-279. doi: 10.4236/wja.2014.42031.

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The Acquisition and Utility of the Family Medical History in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50668#.VEhYlVfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Background: Acquisition of family medical history (FMH) is emphasized as a part of obtaining a complete medical history, but whether FMH is consistently documented and utilized in primary care, as well as how it can affect patient care in this context, remains unclear. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine: 1) if FMH is regularly acquired in a representative primary care practice (the Queen’s Family Health Team, QFHT); 2) what is included in the FMH obtained; 3) what the utility of FMH is with regards to patient management in primary care; and 4) to utilize healthcare practitioners’ perspectives in order to elucidate any findings regarding the acquisition and utility of FMH at the QFHT. Methods: Patients were interviewed in order to obtain their FMH. For each patient, the FMH obtained was compared to the FMH documented in the patient’s record to determine the record’s completeness. Each patient’s FMH was analyzed for significant history of coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus type II (DMII), substance abuse (SA) and colorectal cancer (CRC). Participants were patients scheduled for appointments at the QFHT between May and July 2011. Any patient of the QFHT older than 25 years was eligible to participate. Clinical staff of the QFHT completed an online questionnaire to determine healthcare practitioners’ perspectives regarding the acquisition and utility of FMH. Results: 83 patients participated in the study. Participants ranged in age from 25 – 86 years (median: 63 years); 69% were female. FMH present in patients’ records was often either incomplete (42% of charts reviewed) or not documented at all (51% of charts reviewed). Knowledge of FMH can affect patient management in primary care for the diseases assessed (CAD, DMII, SA and CRC). HCP do consider FMH to be important in clinical practice and 86% of respondents stated that they regularly inquired about patients’ FMH. Interpretation: Despite the belief by HCP that FMH is important, there is a disparity between this belief and their practices regarding its documentation and utilization. Finally, analysis of the FMH of the representative population studied shows that information commonly missing in patients’ FMH can affect patient management at a primary care level.

Cite this paper

Abate, A. and Hall-Barber, K. (2014) The Acquisition and Utility of the Family Medical History in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study. Open Journal of Preventive Medicine, 4, 760-770. doi: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.410086.

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Prospectively Recording Errors Is Valuable in Reducing Complications

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50523#.VERZtVfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Errors have traditionally been a less commonly discussed topic but are becoming increasingly examined due to a trend towards expanded awareness about the high human and financial cost of errors in medicine. Recording and reporting of errors has been a difficult issue in the health sector due to fear of litigation from patients, complaint to governing bodies, and embarrassment from colleagues. In this article we examine the advantages of prospective error recording. The studies on this subject report that the culture of prospective error recording is of high value in improving most parameters of errors and may indeed reduce complications.

Cite this paper

Gunaratnam, C. , Oremakinde, A. and Bernstein, M. (2014) Prospectively Recording Errors Is Valuable in Reducing Complications. Health, 6, 2388-2391. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.618274.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02688697.2011.633642                                                                        eww141020lx