Vision-Related Quality of Life in Ocular Hypertension Patients: Effects of Treatment

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Purpose: To evaluate the quality of life related to vision (QoL) in patients with ocular hypertension under treatment. Methods: The study included two groups. The first one consisted of 60 ocular hypertension patients under topical hypotensive medications and the second one of 60 healthy persons. The Greek language version of the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI VFQ-25) was completed by all patients. Results: The median scores of the total score and also for almost all the NEI VFQ-25 subscales were significantly decreased for the first group of ocular hypertension patients (OHT) under topical therapy. Females presented higher QoL than that of males. The patients who used one medication presented higher QoL than that of the patients who used more than one. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the intraocular pressure (IOP) were significantly correlated with QoL. The index of the visual fields, pattern standard deviation (PSD), was significantly related to the quality of life of OHT. The age, the cup to disk ratio and the central corneal thickness had also significant correlations with subscales of the QoL. Conclusions: The quality of life OHT patients under topical treatment is significantly decreased than healthy persons. Male sex and the number of medications affect QoL more. BCVA and IOP represent the clinical findings that best correlate with several subscales of QoL. PSD is a significant index that correlates well with the quality of life of OHT patients.

Cite this paper

Kazaki, M. , Georgalas, I. , Damanakis, A. , Labiris, G. , Taliantzis, S. , Koutsandrea, C. and Papaconstantinou, D. (2015) Vision-Related Quality of Life in Ocular Hypertension Patients: Effects of Treatment. Open Journal of Ophthalmology, 5, 31-40. doi: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.51006.

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Assessing Domains in Quality of Life―A Case Study

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Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Mining in India has developed haphazardly with a significant part of mining activities being informal or unauthorised. Open cast quarries, coal washeries, thermal power plants, coke-oven plants, etc., contribute to serious air and water pollution. The aim of this paper is to assess the QoL of residents living in Jharia coalfield. In this study, QoL domains are analysed considering the social, cultural, environmental, health and economic condition of the study areas. A path model has been developed to analyse the cascading effect on domains. The purpose of investigating path model with overall quality of life was to contribute to the subjective wellbeing literature by analyzing the predictors of OQoL in the sample population. Therefore, OQoL was used as the dependent variable of a regression analysis using four domains as variables and leveraging path analysis method to arrive at the causal model.

Cite this paper

Sen, S. and Sen, G. (2014) Assessing Domains in Quality of Life―A Case Study. Open Journal of Statistics, 4, 945-963. doi: 10.4236/ojs.2014.411089.

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Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of Tuberculosis (TB) Patients in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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ABSTRACT

Background: Efforts to combat tuberculosis in Nigeria focus on evaluation of strategies for treatment and prevention, with little attention paid to the impact of the burden of illness and its therapy on the HRQoL of TB patients. This study evaluated the quality of life (QoL) of TB patients in relation to their financial, psychological and social well-being. Method: In 2011, following an active case finding for TB in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria, a structured questionnaire for evaluating HRQoL was distributed to TB patients who had been on treatment in four DOTs centres of the state for at least three months. The questions were to elicit responses that conveyed the respondents’ perspective of the disease. One hundred and eight TB patients (54 males and 54 females) aged 15 – 80 years were studied. Results: Negative emotions including fear, frustration and worry characterized the reactions of all subjects following news of their diagnosis with TB. However, following treatment, 62% of subjects expressed high expectation of being cured. Inability to continue functioning in their roles at home or as heads of households was recorded in 48.1% (52/108) and 59% (23/39) of respondents respectively and contributed to the negative emotions expressed above. Lack of basic supplies such as food and finances to meet personal and family needs constituted the most important socio-economic challenges. Socio-economic status of respondents revealed that 61% had no regular means of income with at least 94% earning less than $50 (8000 naira) a month. Subsistent farmers and petty traders constituted more than 66% of the respondents: 98% obtained less than or equivalent of high school education. Socially, all health workers and 87% of family members were sympathetic and supportive compared to friends, with 42% exhibiting stigmatization. The most frequent forms of support from family members were financial (25%) and provision of food (37%). Up to 28% were regularly prompted by family to take their medication. Conclusion: In the midst of obvious socio-economic challenges confronting TB patients in this study, the initial negative emotions declined following the supportive roles of mainly health care workers and family members. Patients were optimistic of achieving cure at the end of the treatment.

Cite this paper

Asuquo, A. , Pokam, B. , Adindu, A. , Ibeneme, E. and Obot, V. (2014) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of Tuberculosis (TB) Patients in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 2, 199-206. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2014.24024.

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An Index of Socio-Economic Well-Being of U.S. Farm Households

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51528#.VG1ClzRATyQ

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ABSTRACT

The primary purpose of the paper is to construct a combined index of quality-of-life and economic wellbeing based on national data from the 2004 Agricultural Resource Management Survey. Additional objective is to assess the role of increased utilization of various types of Federal farm programs in the context of the life-cycle on socioeconomic wellbeing. A central finding, which has implication for rural development and the continuity of the family farm, shows a positive relationship between increased intensity of farm program participation and higher likelihoods of socioeconomic wellbeing, particularly among elderly farmers.

Cite this paper

El-Osta, H. (2014) An Index of Socio-Economic Well-Being of U.S. Farm Households. Modern Economy, 5, 1120-1131. doi: 10.4236/me.2014.512104.

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Application of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) to Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51244#.VGAN5WfHRK0

ABSTRACT

The COPD Assessment Test was recently developed to assess health status in patients with COPD. However, little was known about its application to patients with interstitial lung disease, so we examined the relationship between the COPD Assessment Test score and respiratory impairment including the clinical picture in subjects with interstitial lung disease. Data were collected retrospectively from 52 consecutive subjects with interstitial lung disease on admission to our facility. All subjects completed the COPD Assessment Test, in which a higher score represented a worse health status. They were also assessed by pulmonary function test, SpO2 during 6-min walk test, and arterial blood gases. The COPD Assessment Test score was negatively correlated with the percentage of predicted forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and PaO2 (p = 0.0005, 0.005, 0.0002, 0.0005, and 0.002, respectively). Breathlessness was detected as the high scoring item, while phlegm and sleep were the last affected items. The COPD Assessment Test score was higher in subjects with oxygen desaturation in SpO2 (≥4%) during 6-min walk test (p = 0.0001) and in subjects on home oxygen therapy (p = 0.0007). More than 75% of subjects with oxygen desaturation during walking were classified into a medium or severer impact level of the COPD Assessment Test score, and subjects on home oxygen therapy were classified into a high or severer impact level. PaCO2 in room air and SpO2 at rest did not correlate with the COPD Assessment Test score. The reliability of items in the COPD Assessment Test was 0.87 by Cronbach’s α coefficient. Our results suggest that the COPD Assessment Test may be a candidate for evaluating the health status and impact of disease on patients with interstitial lung disease.

Cite this paper

Someya, F. and Nakagawa, T. (2014) Application of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) to Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease. Health, 6, 2562-2569. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.619295.

References

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Changes in Attitudes toward Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Treatment

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47214#.VFwjKGfHRK0

ABSTRACT

As the environment surrounding healthcare continues to evolve, there is a need to revise outcome assessment criteria. A shift is being demanded in diagnosis and treatment outcome assessment practices from objective to subjective assessment and from evaluation by doctors to assessment that is based on the patient’s own perspective. Therefore, lumbar diseases must now be assessed from multiple perspectives. Some major indices for evaluation are pain and numbness, functional status, general health status, disability, and patient satisfaction. An effective assessment method for lumbar spinal stenos is that examines symptoms, quality of life, and healthcare economics as key assessment factor is reviewed.

Cite this paper

Konno, S. and Sekiguchi, M. (2014) Changes in Attitudes toward Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Treatment. Open Journal of Orthopedics, 4, 161-168. doi: 10.4236/ojo.2014.46027.

References

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Smoking and Health-Related Quality of Life (SF-36). A Population-Based Study in Campinas, SP, Brazil

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=47435#.VFnACWfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Smoking persists as a global and relevant health problem being one of the major risk factors to non-communicable diseases and early death. Studies on the association between smoking and health related quality of life (HRQL) are scarce in Brazil and Latin America. The aim of this study was to analyze the HRQL according to smoking status on adults aged 20 to 59 years, living in Campinas, Brazil. Method: It is a population-based cross-sectional study, carried out with data from the Campinas Health Survey developed in 2008/2009. The dependent variables were the eight scales and the two components—physical (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the instrument SF-36, version 2. Means and confidence intervals of the SF-36 scale scores and components were estimated according to smoking (never smokers, former smokers, current smokers) and nicotine dependence (mild, moderate, heavy). Results: The sample comprised 957 individuals (mean age of 37.5 years). Comparing with never smokers, smokers had lower score means in all SF-36 scales, except in physical functioning and role-physical; among the former smokers, lower scores were observed in vitality and mental health. A reduction of the MCS score was observed among smokers and former smokers among men; but in the female population, this reduction was observed only in smokers compared with never smokers. According to the nicotine dependence, it was observed an increasing reduction in MCS scores from mild, to moderate and heavy smokers. Conclusion: Smoking is significantly and negatively associated with HRQL in the studied population. The results point out the importance of the strategic policies against smoking, to reduce morbidity and premature death, but also to increase the quality of life and well-being. It is also important to consider the mental health dimension, since that best mental health can be relevant to promote healthier behaviors.

Cite this paper

Lima, M. , Borim, F. and de Azevedo Barros, M. (2014) Smoking and Health-Related Quality of Life (SF-36). A Population-Based Study in Campinas, SP, Brazil. Health, 6, 1539-1548. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.612189.

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