Compost and Compost Tea Management of Mini Watermelon Cultivations Affects the Chemical, Physical and Sensory Assessment of the Fruits

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53314#.VLyl48nQrzE

ABSTRACT

Compost, rich in plant nutrients, is a readily available fertilizer with beneficial effects on physical, chemical, biochemical and biological properties of the soils. Moreover compost-based treatments can exert protective effects against plant diseases occurrence and/or stimulate an enhanced plant physiological status with improvements in quantity and quality of crop productions. In this study the effects of three different compost-based cropping managements on the productive response and main quality parameters of watermelon fruits were investigated. Treatments, in comparison with the conventional cultivation method, were: soil amendment with an agricultural waste compost (AWC), a municipal waste compost (MWC) and a foliar treatment with a compost tea blend (CTB). The productive responses and colour parameters related to compost treatments did not show significant differences compared to control ones, which reached a total yield of about 10.22 kg·m-2 with a mean weight of 2.74 kg. AWC caused a higher ascorbic acid content with an increase of 50% than conventional treatment, while fruits obtained by CTB showed higher values in firmness and Quality Index than control samples. The analysis of main sugars highlighted that the application of compost as biofertilizer influenced the ratio among fructose, glucose and sucrose with respect to those observed for control fruits.

Cite this paper

Liguori, L. , Pane, C. , Albanese, D. , Celano, G. , Zaccardelli, M. and Matteo, M. (2015) Compost and Compost Tea Management of Mini Watermelon Cultivations Affects the Chemical, Physical and Sensory Assessment of the Fruits. Agricultural Sciences, 6, 117-125. doi: 10.4236/as.2015.61009.

References

[1] Pane, C., Villecco, D. and Zaccardelli, M. (2013) Short-Time Response of Microbial Communities to Waste Compost Amendment of an Intensive Cultivated Soil in Southern Italy. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 44, 2344-2352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2013.803566
[2] Zaccardelli, M., Pane, C., Scotti, R., Palese, A.M. and Celano, G. (2012) Use of Compost-Tea as Bio-Agrochemicals and Bio-Stimulants in Horticulture. Italus Hortus, 19, 17-28.
[3] Pane, C., Piccolo, A., Spaccini, R., Celano, G., Villecco, D. and Zaccardelli, M. (2013) Agricultural Waste-Based Composts Exhibiting Suppressivity to Diseases Caused by the Phytopathogenic Soil-Borne Fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia minor. Applied Soil Ecology, 65, 43-51.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2013.01.002
[4] Scheuerell, S.J. and Mahaffee, W.F. (2002) Compost Tea: Principles and Prospects for Plant Disease Control. Compost Science and Utilization, 10, 313-338.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.2002.10702095
[5] Masarirambi, M.T., Hlawe, M.M., Oseni, O.T. and Sibiya, T.E. (2010) Effects of Organic Fertilizers on Growth, Yield, Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Red Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) “VenezaRoxa”. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1, 1319-1324.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5251/abjna.2010.1.6.1319.1324
[6] Wszelaki, A.L., Delwiche, J.F., Walker, S.D., Ligget, R.E., Scheerens, J.C. and Kleinhenz, M.D. (2005) Sensory Quality and Mineral and Glycoalkaloid Concentrations in Organically Grown Redskin Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 85, 720-726.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2051
[7] Haglund, A., Johansson, L., Berglund, L. and Dahlstedt, L. (1999) Sensory Evaluation of Carrots from Ecological and Conventional Growing Systems. Food Quality and Preference, 10, 23-29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(98)00034-2
[8] Gilsenan, C., Burke, R.M., Barry, R.C., O’Sullivan, G. and Pierce, E. (2008) An Evaluation of the Sensory Properties of Irish Grown Organic and Conventional Carrots (Daucus carota L.) and Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus). School of Culinary Arts and Food Technology, Dublin.
[9] Zaccardelli, M., Villecco, D., Pane, C., Ragosta, G., Palese, A.M. and Celano, G. (2012b) “On Farm” Composting of Vegetable Residues. Proceeding of the ISWA World Solid Waste Congress, Firenze, 17-19 September.
[10] Pane, C., Celano, G., Villecco, D. and Zaccardelli, M. (2012) Control of Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata and Pyrenochaeta lycopersici on Tomato with Whey Compost-Tea Applications. Crop Protection, 38, 80-86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2012.03.012
[11] AOAC (1990) Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edition, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington.
[12] Cinquanta, L., Albanese, D., Cuccurullo, G. and Di Matteo, M. (2010) Effect on Orange Juice of Batch Pasteurization in an Improved Pilot-Scale Microwave Oven. Journal of Food Science, 75, 46-50.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01412.x
[13] Cuccurullo, G., Giordano, L., Albanese, D., Cinquanta, L. and Di Matteo, M. (2012) Infrared Thermography Assisted Control for Apples Microwave Drying. Journal of Food Engineering, 112, 319-325.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2012.05.003
[14] Albanese, D., Cinquanta, L., Cuccurullo, G. and Di Matteo, M. (2013) Effects of Microwave and Hot-Air Drying Methods on Colour, β-Carotene and Radical Scavenging Activity of Apricots. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48, 1327-1333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijfs.12095
[15] Harker, F.R., Stec, M.G.H., Hallett, I.C. and Bennett, C.L. (1997) Texture of Parenchymatous Plant Tissue: A Comparison between Tensile and Other Instrumental and Sensory Measurements of Tissue Strength and Juiciness. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 11, 63-72.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0925-5214(97)00018-5
[16] Mao, L., Karakurt, Y. and Huber, D.J. (2004) Incidence of Water-Soaking and Phospholipid Catabolism in Ripe Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) Fruit: Induction by Ethylene and Prophylactic Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 33, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2003.12.007
[17] Ramos-Villarroel, A.Y., Aron-Mafteib, N., Martín-Bellosoc, O. and Soliva-Fortunyc, R. (2012) Influence of Spectral Distribution on Bacterial Inactivation and Quality Changes of Fresh-Cut Watermelon Treated with Intense Light Pulses. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 69, 32-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.postharvbio.2012.03.002
[18] Pardo, J.E., Gómez, R., Tardáguila, J., Amoz, M.R. and Váron, R. (1997) Quality Evaluation of Watermelon Varties (Citrullus vulgaris s.). Journal of Food Quality, 20, 547-557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.1997.tb00495.x
[19] Naidu, Y., Meon, S. and Siddiqui, Y. (2013) Foliar Application of Microbial-Enriched Compost Tea Enhances Growth, Yield and Quality of Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) Cultivated under Fertigation System. Science Horticolturae, 159, 33-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.04.024
[20] Rouphael, Y., Schwarz, D., Krumbein, A. and Colla, G. (2010) Impact of Grafting on Product Quality of Fruit Vegetables. Science Horticolturae, 127, 172-179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2010.09.001
[21] Xu, C.Q., Li, T.L. and Qi, H.Y. (2006) Effects of Grafting on Development, Carbohydrate Content, and Sucrose Metabolizing Enzymes Activities of Muskmelon Fruit. Acta Horticolturae Sinica, 33, 773-778.
[22] Taji, T., Ohsumi, C., Iuchi, S., Seki, M., Kasuga, M. and Kobayashi, M. (2002) Important Roles of Drought- and Cold-Inducible Genes for Galactinol Sythase in Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal, 29, 417-426.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0960-7412.2001.01227.x
[23] Li, T.L. (2000) Relation between the Vascular System and Photosynthate Translocation Pathways in Tomato Plants. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural, 69, 69-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.69.69
[24] Brian, G.A., Felix, K. and Robert, T. (2003) Symplastic Continuity between Companion Cells and the Translocation Stream: Long-Distance Transport Is Controlled by Retention and Retrieval Mechanisms in the Phloem. Journal of Plant Physiology, 13, 1518-1528.
[25] Dai, N., Petreikov, M., Portnoy, V., Katzir, N., Pharr, D.M. and Schaffer, A. (2006) Cloning and Expression Analysis of a UDP Galactose/Glucose Pyrophosphorylase from Melon Fruit Provides Evidence for the Major Metabolic Pathway of Galactose Metabolism in Raffinose Oligosaccharide Metabolizing Plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 142, 294-304.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.106.083634
[26] Lingle, S.E. and Dunlap, J.R. (1987) Sucrose Metabolism in Netted Muskmelon Fruit during Development. Journal of Plant Physiology, 84, 386-389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.84.2.386
[27] Zhang, M.F., Li, Z.L., Chen, K.S., Qian, Q.Q. and Zhang, S.L. (2003) The Relationship between Sugar Accumulation and Enzymes Related to Sucrose Metabolism in Developing Fruits of Muskmelon. Acta Physiologica Sinica, 29, 455-462.
[28] Gross, K.C. and Pharr, D.M. (1982) A Potential Pathway for Galactose Metabolism in Cucumis sativus L., A Stachyose Transporting Species. Journal of Plant Physiology, 69, 117-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.69.1.117
[29] Studer Feusi, M.E., Burton, J.D., Williamson, J.D. and Mason Pharr, D. (1999) Galactosyl-Sucrose Metabolism and UDP-Galactose Pyrophosphorylase from Cucumis melo L. Fruit. Physiologia Plantarum, 106, 9-16.http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-3054.1999.106102.x
[30] Leskovar, D.I., Bang, H.J., Crosby, K., Maness, N., Franco, J.A. and Perkins-Veazie, P. (2004) Lycopene, Carbohydrates, Ascorbic Acid, and Yield Components of Diploid and Triploid Watermelon Cultivars Are Affected by Deficit Irrigation. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 79, 75-81.
[31] Melo, E.A., Lima, V.L.A.G., Maciel, M.I.S., Caetano, A.C.S. and Leal, F.L.L. (2006) Polyphenol, Ascorbic Acid and Total Carotenoid Contents in Common Fruits and Vegetables. Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, 9, 89-94.
[32] Lester, G.E., Jifon, J.L. and Rogers, G. (2005) Supplemental Foliar Potassium Application during Muskmelon Fruit Development Can Improve Fruit Quality, Ascorbic Acid and Beta Carotene Contents. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 130, 649-653.
[33] Lu, W., Yang, X., Sibley, J.L., Caylor, A.W., Foshee, W.G., Zhang, Y., Bannon, J.S. and Gilliam, C.H. (2008) Mixed Municipal Solid Waste Compost as a Soil Amendment on Yield and Heavy Metal Accumulation in Okra and Watermelon. International Journal of Vegetable Science, 14, 369-379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19315260802307256
[34] Huel, N.V. and Mai, Y. (2002) Manganese Toxicity in Watermelon as Affected by Lime and Compost Amended to a Hawaiian Acid Oxisol. Hort Science, 37, 656-661.
[35] Hao, Z.P., Wang, Q., Christie, P. and Li, X.L. (2007) Allelopathic Potential of Watermelon Tissues and Root Exudates. Science Horticolturae, 112, 315-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2006.12.030
[36] de Albuquerque, M.B., dos Santos, R.C., Lima, L.M., Melo Filho, P.A., Nogueira, R.J.M.C., da Camara, C.A.G. and Ramos, A.R. (2011) Allelopathy, an Alternative Tool to Improve Cropping Systems. A Review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 31, 379-395.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/agro/2010031
[37] Hozores-Hampton, M., McSorley, R. and Stansly, P.A. (2012) Effects of Long-Term Organic Amendments and Soil Sanitation on Weed and Nematode Populations in Pepper and Watermelon Crops in Florida. Crop Protection, 41, 106-112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2012.03.017
[38] Thybo, A.K., Edelenbos, M., Christensen, L.P., Sorensen, J.N. and Thorup-Kristensen, K. (2006) Effect of Organic Growing Systems on Sensory Quality and Chemical Composition of Tomatoes. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 39, 835-843.
[39] Lombardo, S., Pandino, G. and Mauromicale, G. (2012) Nutritional and Sensory Characteristics of “Early” Potato Cultivars under Organic and Conventional Cultivation Systems. Food Chemistry, 133, 1249-1254.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.005
[40] Vogtmann, H., Matthies, K., Kehres, B. and Meier-Ploeger, A. (1993) Enhanced Food Quality: Effects of Composts on the Quality of Plant Foods. Compost Science and Utilization, 1, 82-100.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1065657X.1993.10771129
[41] Fayed, T.A. (2010) Effect of Compost Tea and Some Antioxidant Applications on Leaf Chemical Constituents, Yield and Fruit Quality of Pomegranate. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 6, 402-411.
[42] Stino, R.G., Fayed, T.A., Ali, M.M. and Alaa, S.A. (2010) Enhancing Fruit Quality of Florida Prince Peaches by Some Foliar Treatments. Journal of Horticolturae Science and Ornamental Plants, 2, 38-45.
[43] Radovich, T.J., Cavaletto, C.G. and Valenzuela, H.R. (2000) Effect of Compost and Mineral Fertilizer Applications on the Sensory Quality of Basil (Ocium basilicum L.). Hort Science, 35, 465-472.
[44] Genthner, E.R. (2010) Identification of Key Odorants in Fresh-Cut Watermelon Aroma and Structure-Odor Relationships of Cis,cis-3,6-nonadienal and Ester Analogs with Cis,cis-3,6-nonadiene, Cis-3-nonene and Cis-6-nonene Backbone Structures. Thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign.
[45] Pino, J., Marbot, R. and Aguero, J. (2003) Volatile Components of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. et Nakai) Fruit. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 15, 379-380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10412905.2003.9698616
[46] Siddiqui, Y., Islam, T.M., Naidu, Y. and Meon, S. (2011) The Conjunctive Use of Compost Tea and Inorganic Fertilizer on the Growth, Yield and Terpenoid Content of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban. Science Horticolturae, 130, 289-295.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2011.05.043                                                            eww150119lx
Advertisements

Evaluation of the Environmental, Social Effects for the Egyptian National Railways Restructuring

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53305#.VLygg8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

This paper presents the main findings of the environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA) for the Egyptian national railways restructuring. This paper consists of the two parts: 1) modernizing the signaling system on the Arab El Raml-Alexandria Line and creating a Central Traffic Management Center in Tanta; and 2) renewing 200 km of track in Lower and Upper Egypt. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify and examine the potential socio-cultural, economic, and physical impacts of the railway restructuring, and propose measures to mitigate its adverse impacts, and develop plans for managing and monitoring the environmental aspects of the railway restructuring. This paper describes outlines of the environmental and social sensitivities of the railway restructuring area, potentially significant impacts of the proposed project and plans for their mitigation. Detailed information on the environmental and socio economic settings of the railway restructuring, components and activities of the proposed project and the results of the environmental and social impact assessment studies are presented in the body of the paper.

Cite this paper

Ali, M. and Sayed, M. (2015) Evaluation of the Environmental, Social Effects for the Egyptian National Railways Restructuring. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 5, 24-36. doi: 10.4236/jtts.2015.51003.

References

[1] Egyptian Railways (2005) Diagnosis of the Present Situation and Restructuring Strategy (August 2005).
[2] El-Sayed Al-Tony, F. and Abdelkader Lashina (2000) Cost-Benefict Analysis of Railway. Electrification: Case Study for Cairo-Alexandria Railway Line. Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 18, 323-333.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3152/147154600781767312
[3] The World Bank (2005) Restructuring Egypt Railways, Egypt Public Expenditure, Policy Note 4, Review August 2005.
[4] Deborah Matherly: Egypt Railway Study (2009) Technical Assistance for Safety Improvements AND RAIL Traffic Management. Transportation research Board of the National Academies, Nr. 15, 13.
[5] Egypt State Information Service (2007) Year Book (2007).
[6] The World Bank (2009) Egyptian National Railways Restructuring Project Report, Report No: AB2433, February 26, 2009.
[7] (2008) Report of the Environmental Impact Assessment. May 2008.
[8] CAPMAS (2012) Central Agency for Population Mobilization and Statistics. Population Estimates by Sex & Generate 1/1/2012, Egypt in Figures 2012, March 2012.
[9] Description of Egypt in Numbers (2007) Publication of the Information and Decision Support Center, Cabinet of Ministers.
[10] Ali, S.A. (2004) Investigation of the Dose-Response Relationship for Road Traffic Noise. Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt Applied Acoustics, in press Egyptian Environmental Law No. 4. Egyptian Ministry of Environment, Cairo, Egypt, 1994.                 eww150119lx

Quality of Nursing Courses as Perceived by Students: Relationship with Their Academic Achievement in Palestine College of Nursing

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53264#.VLiDtMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to determine the Bachelor Science of Nursing (BSN), student’s perceptions of the quality of nursing courses taught at Palestine College of Nursing (PCN), which were fundamentals of nursing course, adult nursing course, pediatric nursing course, maternity nursing course, community nursing course, mental health and psychiatric nursing course and nursing management and leadership course, and its relationship with their academic achievement. The Palestine College of Nursing is governmental and Ministry of Health (MOH) affiliated. The sample included 467 nursing students registered in the college who studied the previously mentioned nursing courses. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the researcher, and guided by literature. That was to assess the included nine quality dimensions of the nursing courses as perceived by the students. Content validity and reliability tests were done for the tool. The study revealed that the total students’ perceptions of the quality of all nurses courses were within average quality level (80.42%). The nursing management course and community health nursing course were of the first two ranks of high quality level (84.54%, and 84.48%, respectively), where mental health and psychiatric nursing course, fundamentals of nursing course, adult health nursing course, pediatric nursing course and maternity health nursing course were the next ranks of average quality level. The study revealed that students’ perceptions of seven dimensions from nine were with average quality level (80.50%). The first rank was the “teacher/instructor characteristics and attributes”, dimension of high quality level (84.44%), while the last rank was “teaching methodology” dimension of average quality level (77.54%). There was a positive relationship between students’ achievement and the courses’ quality dimensions, pertaining objectives of the course, contents of the course, teacher/instructor competencies, teacher characteristics, teaching methodology, students/teacher interaction and course evaluation. The study recommended improving the quality of nursing courses for better level and to improve the quality of some dimensions like using different teaching strategies, the quality of clinical settings, and improve the quality of nursing instructors in some clinical areas. Finally the researcher recommend for further studies about concerning quality in nursing education.

Cite this paper

Awad, Y. (2015) Quality of Nursing Courses as Perceived by Students: Relationship with Their Academic Achievement in Palestine College of Nursing. Open Journal of Nursing, 5, 36-48. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2015.51005.

References

[1] WHO (2007) Quality Assurance and Accreditation of Nursing and Midwifery Educational Institutions. Report of Regional Workshop, Malé, Maldives, South East Asia, 9-11 July 2007.
[2] Iwasiw, C., Goldenberg, D. and Andrusyszyn, M. (2008) Curriculum Development in Nursing Education. 2nd Edition, Illustrated, Jones and Bartlett Publisher, Sudbury, MA.
[3] Bydam, J. (2004) Bachelor of Nursing Curriculum, Copenhagen County School of Nursing and Radiography. Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing, The CASN Accreditation Program, Ottawa.
[4] Salsali, M. (2005) Evaluating Teaching Effectiveness in Nursing Education. An Iranian Perspective. BMC Medical Education, 5, 29.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-5-29
[5] Granum, V. (2004) Nursing Students’ Perceptions of Nursing as a Subject and a Function. Journal of Nursing Education, 43, 297-304.
[6] Tang, F., Chou, S. and Chiang, H. (2005) Students’ Perceptions of Effective and Ineffective Clinical Instructors. Journal of Nursing Education, 44, 187-192.
[7] Ozdemir, A., Akansel, N. and Tunk, G.C. (2008) Gender and Career: Female and Male Nursing Students’ Perceptions of Mail Nursing Role in Turkey. Health Science Journal, 2, 153-161.
[8] Sieh, S. and Bell, S. (1994) Perceptions of Effective Clinical Teachers in Associate Degree Programs. Journal of Nursing Education, 33, 389-394.
[9] Berg, C.L. and Lindseth, G., (2004) Students’ Perspectives of Effective and Ineffective Nursing Instructors. Journal of Nursing Education, 43, 565-568.
[10] Wolf, A., Bender, P., Beitz, J., Wieland, D. and Vito, K. (2004) Strengths and Weaknesses of Faculty Teaching Performance Reported by Undergraduate and Graduate Nursing Students. Journal of Professional Nursing, 20, 118-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2004.03.003
[11] Carrick, J. (2010) The Effect of Classroom and Clinical Learning Approach on Academic Achievement Associated Degree Nursing Students. Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana.
[12] Dante, A., Valoppi, G., Saiani, L. and Palese, A. (2011) Factors Associated with Nursing Students’ Academic Success or Failure: A Retrospective Italian Multicenter Study. Nurse Education Today, 31, 59-64.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2010.03.016
[13] Nahas, V. and Yam, B. (2001) Hong Kong Nursing Students’ Perceptions of Effective Clinical Teachers. Journal of Nursing Education, 40, 233-237.
[14] Smith, H. and Nortvedt, M. (2008) Evaluation of Evidence-Based Methods Used to Teach Nursing Students to Critically Appraise Evidence. Journal of Nursing Education, 47, 372-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20080801-08
[15] Oermann, M., Saewert, K., Charasika, M. and Yarbrough, S. (2009) Assessment and Grading Practice in School of Nursing: National Survey Finding Part I. Nursing Education Perspective, 30, 274-278.
[16] Scanlan, J. and Care, W. (2004) Grade Inflation: Should We Be Concerned? Journal of Nursing Education, 43, 475-478.
[17] Marzano, R. (2000) Transforming Classroom Grading. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria.
[18] Reyes, H.L. (2007) The Relationship between University Nursing Students Classroom Management Activities and Academic Performance. Unpublished Thesis.                                                                           eww150116lx

Phosphorous and Foliar Applied Nitrogen Improved Productivity and Quality of Potato

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53245#.VLh5NMnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Growth, yield and quality of potato are greatly affected by its nutritional management. Foliar application of urea reduces nitrogen losses and increases plant nitrogen use efficiency. This study was therefore planned to evaluate the effect of soil applied phosphorus (DAP) and foliar application of nitrogenous fertilizer (urea) on growth, yield and quality of potato. Experiment was comprised of four different treatments of phosphorus (DAP, 46% P) and nitrogen (urea, 46% N) including a control. Treatments were T0 (DAP 160 + Urea 300 kg/acre), T1 (DAP 160 + Urea 5 kg/acre), T2 (DAP 100 + Urea 6 kg/acre) and T3 (DAP 120 + Urea 8 kg/acre). DAP fertilizer was given as basal dressing at the time of sowing. Foliar applications of nitrogenous fertilizer (urea) were given after 30 of sowing with one week interval in five split doses. Results indicated that T3 remained better regarding productivity and quality of potato. The overall fertilizer efficacy regarding yield and quality was: T3 > T2 > T1 > T0. However, Vitamin C was found maximum in T0.

Cite this paper

Qadri, R. , Khan, I. , Jahangir, M. , Ashraf, U. , Samin, G. , Anwer, A. , Adnan, M. and Bashir, M. (2015) Phosphorous and Foliar Applied Nitrogen Improved Productivity and Quality of Potato. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 144-149. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61016.

References

[1] Ewing, E.E. (1997) The Physiology of Vegetable Crops (Ed: H.C. Wein). CAB Intern. UK, 295-344.
[2] Rana, Z.H. and Rehman, R.S. (1993) Policy Imperatives: Stabilization of Production and Price Swings of Potato and Onion Crops in Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, 32, 737-749.
[3] Trade Development Authority of Pakistan (2010) Report on Potential Markets of Potato.
http://www.tdap.gov.pk/product_report_presentations.php
[4] Malik, M.N. (1994) Horticulture. National Book Foundation, Islamabad, 269-271.
[5] Malik, N.J. (1995) Potatoes in Pakistan. Pak. Swiss Potato Development Project, Pak. Agric. Res. Council, Islamabad, Pakistan, 80-85.
[6] Wakeel, A. (2014) Critical Review of Research on Soil K and Crops’ Response to K Fertilizers in Pakistan: Perspectives and Opportunities. International Potash Institute, 37, 16-21.
[7] Tran, S.T. and Giroux, M. (1991) Effects of N Rates and Harvest Dates on the Efficiency of N-Labelled Fertilizer on Early Harvested Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 71, 519-532. http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjss91-050
[8] Engelsjord, M.E., Fostad, O. and Singh, B.R. (1997) Effects of Temperature on Nutrient Release from Slow-Release Fertilizers. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 46, 179-187.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00420552
[9] Fageria, N.K., Filho, M.P.B., Moreira, A. and Guimar, C.M. (2009) Foliar Fertilization of Crop Plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 32, 1044-1064. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01904160902872826
[10] Eleiwa, M.E., Ibrahim, S.A. and Mohamed, M.F. (2012). Combined Effect of NPK Levels and Foliar Nutritional Compounds on Growth and Yield Parameters of Potato Plants (Solanum tuberosum L.). African Journal of Microbiology Reserach, 6, 5100-5109.
[11] Gooding, M.J. and Davies, W.P. (1992) Foliar Urea Fertilization of Cereals: A Review. Fertilizer Research, 32, 209-222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01048783
[12] Millard, P. and Robinson, D. (1990) Effect of the Timing and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilization on the Growth and Recovery of Fertilizer Nitrogen within the Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Crop. Fertilizer Research, 21, 133-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01087422
[13] Jenkins, P.D. and Ali, H. (1999) Growth of Potato Cultivars in Response to Application of Phosphate Fertilizer. Annals of Applied Biology, 135, 431-438.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1999.tb00871.x
[14] Sanderson, J.B., MacLeod, J.A., Douglas, B., Coffin, R. and Bruulsema, T. (2003) Phosphorus Research on Potato in PEI. Acta Horticulturae, 619, 409-417.
[15] Freeman, K.L., Franz, P.R. and de Jong, R.W. (1998) Effect of Phosphorus on the Yield, Quality, and Petiolar Phosphorus Concentrations of Potatoes (cv. Russet Burbank and Kennebec) Grown in the Krasnozem and Duplex Soils of Victoria. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 38, 83-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA96045
[16] Maier, N.A., McLaughlin, M.J., Heap, M., Butt, M. and Smart, M.K. (2002) Effect of Current-Season Application of Calcitic Lime and Phosphorus Fertilization on Soil pH, Potato Growth, Yield, Dry Matter Content, and Cadmium Concentration. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 33, 2145-2165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/CSS-120005754
[17] Chapman, D.H. and Parker, E.R. (1961) Determination of NPK Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant and Waters. Pub. Div. Agri. Univ. of California, USA, 150-179.
[18] Yoshida, S., Fonao, D.A., Cock, J.H. and Gomez, K.A. (1976) Laboratory Manual for Physiological Studies of Rice. 3rd Edition, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos.
[19] Ruck, J.A. (1961) Chemical Methods for Analysis of Fruits and Vegetables. No. 1154. Research Station Summerland, Research Branch Canada.
[20] Steel, R.G., Torrie, J.H. and Dickey, D.A. (1997) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.
[21] Rizk, F.A., Shaheen, A.M., Singer, S.M. and Sawan, O.A. (2013) The Productivity of Potato Plants Affected by Urea Fertilizer as Foliar Spraying and Humic Acid Added with Irrigation Water. Middle East Journal of Agricultural Research, 2, 76-83.
[22] Rosen, C.J. and Bierman, P.M. (2008) Potato Yield and Tuber Set as Affected by Phosphorus Fertilization. American Journal of Potato Research, 85, 110-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12230-008-9001-y
[23] Kolota, E. and Osinska, M. (1999) Efficiency of Foliar Nutrition of Field Vegetables Grown at Different Nitrogen Rates. Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Problems Associated with Nitrogen Fertilization of Field Grown Vegetable Crops, Potsdam, 30 August-1 September 1999, 87-91. eww150116lx
[24] Yildrim, E., Guvenc, I., Turans, M. and Karatas, A. (2007) Effect of Foliar Urea Application on Quality, Growth, Mineral Uptake and Yield of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L., var. Italica). Plant Soil and Environment, 3, 120-128.

Physico-Chemical, Organolyptical and Microbiological Characteristics of Substituted Cupcake by Potato Processing Residues

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53159#.VLXf1MnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Utilization of potato processing residues to produce a low caloric cupcake in present study was targeted. The functional properties of wheat flour (WF 72%) and dried potato peel varieties [Hermus (PPH) and Russet (PPR)] were carried out. Consequently, WF was partially substituted by both potato peels (PP) at 5% – 20% to prepare mixtures for cupcake making. Approximate chemical composition and physical characteristics were determined. Rheological parameters of prepared formulas were assayed using Mixolab. Moreover, total phenolic compounds (TPC) and relative antioxidant activity (AOA) were evaluated. Quality parameters such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA), staling and microbiological attributes during storage were determined. In addition, a sensory evaluation of different substituted cupcake was performed as well. Results indicated that PPR had the highest water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC) and swelling capacity (SC) followed by PPH then WF flours. Indeed, substituted WF with both PP at 5% and 10% didn’t influence the thermo-mechanical properties including dough time development, stability, viscosity, gluten and starch characteristics drastically. Likewise, this substitution levels didn’t affect the organoleptic properties which were confirmed by panelists, cupcake external and cross sections. Substituted WF by 5% – 10% PP recorded sensory scores aftermost WF. Mildly, WF cupcake was higher in protein and fat contents than WF-PP cupcakes while lower in crude fiber. The WF-PP cupcakes at different substituted levels recorded lower energy value than WF cupcakes. Arguably, increasing both PP levels increased the TPC and AOA especially for WF-PPR cupcakes. Afterwards, WF-PPR 15% and 20% recorded the highest TPC and AOA contents to be 2.32 mg GAE g-1 dw and 3.44 μmol TE g-1 dw, respectively. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between WF-PP at 5% and WF cupcakes in physical and staling properties. WF-PPR cupcakes at different concentrations were lower TBA than WF cupcakes and mostly stable during storage period. It was revealed that substitution levels of 5% and 10% with PPH and PPR produced acceptable cupcakes which did not significantly differ from WF cupcakes.

Cite this paper

Khalifa, I. , Barakat, H. , El-Mansy, H. and Soliman, S. (2015) Physico-Chemical, Organolyptical and Microbiological Characteristics of Substituted Cupcake by Potato Processing Residues. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 83-100. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.61010.

References

[1] Hafez, A.A. (2012) Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Cakes Supplemented with Different Concentration of Marjoram. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6, 463-470.
[2] Hussain, S. and Al-Oulabi, R. (2009) Studying the Possibility of Preparing an Egg-Free or Egg-Less Cake. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 1, 324-329.
http://dx.doi.org/10.7763/IJET.2009.V1.65
[3] Zhang, Y., Song, Y., Hu, X., Liao, X., Ni, Y. and Li, Q. (2012) Effects of Sugars in Batter Formula and Baking Conditions on 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural and Furfural Formation in Sponge Cake Models. Food Research International, 49, 439-445.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2012.07.012
[4] Ahmed, A.R. (2014) Influence of Chemical Properties of Wheat-Lupine Flour Blends on Cake Quality. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2, 67-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/ajfst-2-2-4
[5] Rodríguez, R., Jimenez, A., Fernández-Bolanos, J., Guillén, R. and Heredia, A. (2006) Dietary Fibre from Vegetable Products as Source of Functional Ingredients. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 17, 3-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2005.10.002
[6] Leo, L., Leone, A., Longo, C., Lombardi, D.A., Raimo, F. and Zacheo, G. (2008) Antioxidant Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in “Early Potatoes”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56, 4154-4163.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf073322w
[7] FAO (2013) Production of Potato.
http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QC/E
[8] Habeebullah, K., Nielsen, N. and Jacobsen, C. (2010) Antioxidant Activity of Potato Peel Extracts in a Fish-Rapeseed Oil Mixture and in Oil-in-Water Emulsions. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 87, 1319-1332.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-010-1611-0
[9] Amado, I.R., Franco, D., Sánchez, M., Zapata, C. and Vázquez, J.A. (2014) Optimization of Antioxidant Extraction from (Solanum tuberosum) Potato Peel Waste by Surface Response Methodology. Food Chemistry, 165, 290-299.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.103
[10] Al-Weshahy, A., El-Nokety, M., Bakhete, M. and Rao, V. (2013) Effect of Storage on Antioxidant Activity of FreezeDried Potato Peels. Food Research International, 50, 507-512.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2010.12.014
[11] Mohagheghi, S.A., Poorazarang, H., Hematyar, N. and Elhamirad, A. (2012) Phenolics in Potato Peels: Extraction and Utilization as Natural Antioxidants. World Applied Sciences Journal, 18, 191-195.
[12] Mohdaly, A.A.A., Sarhan, M.A., Smetanska, I. and Mahmoud, A. (2010) Antioxidant Properties of Various Solvent Extracts of Potato Peel, Sugar Beet Pulp and Sesame Cake. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 90, 218226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.3796
[13] Li, K.H., Eung-Jun, P., Hoi-Seon, L., Dong-Man, K., Stephen, L.L. and Hak-Tae, L. (2006) Evaluation of Potato Varieties with High Antioxidant Activities by Measuring Phenolic Acids in Different Tuber Parts. Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology, 47, 126-131.
[14] Al-Weshahy, A. and Venket Rao, A. (2009) Isolation and Characterization of Functional Components from Peel Samples of Six Potatoes Varieties Growing in Ontario. Food Research International, 42, 1062-1066.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2009.05.011
[15] Wu, Z., Xu, H., Ma, Q., Cao, Y., Ma, J. and Ma, C. (2012) Isolation, Identification and Quantification of Unsaturated Fatty Acids, Amides, Phenolic Compounds and Glycoalkaloids from Potato Peel. Food Chemistry, 135, 2425-2429.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.07.019
[16] Albishi, T., John, J.A., Al-Khalifa, A.S. and Shahidi, F. (2013) Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activities of Selected Potato Varieties and Their Processing By-Products. Journal of Functional Foods, 5, 590-600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2012.11.019
[17] Dhingra, D., Michael, M. and Rajput, H. (2012) Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Dietary Fibre from Potato Peel and Its Effect on Organoleptic Characteristics of Biscuits. Journal of Agricultural Engineering, 49, 25-32.
[18] Slavin, J.L. (2005) Dietary Fiber and Body Weight. Nutrition, 21, 411-418.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2004.08.018
[19] Nomura, A., Hankin, J., Henderson, B., Wilkens, L., Murphy, S., Pike, M., Le Marchand, L., Stram, D., Monroe, K. and Kolonel, L. (2007) Dietary Fiber and Colorectal Cancer Risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study. Cancer Causes & Control, 18, 753-764.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-007-9018-4
[20] Roth, J. and Mobarhan, S. (2001) Preventive Role of Dietary Fiber in Gastric Cardia Cancers. Nutrition Reviews, 59, 372-374.
[21] King, D.E. (2005) Dietary Fiber, Inflammation, and Cardiovascular Disease. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 49, 594-600.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200400112
[22] Gómez, M., Moraleja, A., Oliete, B., Ruiz, E. and Caballero, P.A. (2010) Effect of Fibre Size on the Quality of FibreEnriched Layer Cakes. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 43, 33-38.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2009.06.026
[23] Santos, A.C., Yassunaka, N.N., Ruiz, S.P., Schneider, V.V.A., Visentainer, J.V. and Madrona, G.S. (2014) Sensory and Physicochemical Study of Carrot Leaf Sponge Cake. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em Alimentos, 4, 41-46.
http://dx.doi.org/10.14685/rebrapa.v4i2.121
[24] Al-Sayed, H. and Ahmed, A.R. (2013) Utilization of Watermelon Rinds and Sharlyn Melon Peels as a Natural Source of Dietary Fiber and Antioxidants in Cake. Annals of Agricultural Sciences, 58, 83-95.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2013.01.012
[25] Kaack, K. and Pedersen, L. (2005) Low Energy Chocolate Cake with Potato Pulp and Yellow Pea Hulls. European Food Research and Technology, 221, 367-375.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-005-1181-9
[26] Moraes, é.A., Dantas, M., Morais, D., Silva, C., Castro, F., Martino, H. and Ribeiro, S. (2010) Sensory Evaluation and Nutritional Value of Cakes Prepared with Whole Flaxseed Flour. Food Science and Technology (Campinas), 30, 974979.
[27] Masoodi, F.A., Sharma, B. and Chauhan, G.S. (2002) Use of Apple Pomace as a Source of Dietary Fiber in Cakes. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 57, 121-128.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015264032164
[28] Sudha, M.L., Baskaran, V. and Leelavathi, K. (2007) Apple Pomace as a Source of Dietary Fiber and Polyphenols and Its Effect on the Rheological Characteristics and Cake Making. Food Chemistry, 104, 686-692.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.12.016
[29] AACC (2002) Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul.
[30] Heywood, A.A., Myers, D.J., Bailey, T.B. and Johnson, L.A. (2002) Functional Properties of Low-Fat Soy Flour Produced by an Extrusion-Expelling System. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 79, 1249-1253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-002-0635-y
[31] Kuniak, L. and Marchessault, R.H. (1972) Study of the Crosslinking Reaction between Epichlorohydrin and Starch. Starch-Starke, 24, 110-116.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/star.19720240404
[32] AACC (2000) Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul.
[33] FAO (2003) Food Energy—Methods of Analysis and Conversion Factors. Food and Nutrition Paper, Rome, 77.
[34] Lee, S.C., Kim, J.H., Jeong, S.M., Kim, D.R., Ha, J.U., Nam, K.C. and Ahn, D.U. (2003) Effect of Far-Infrared Radiation on the Antioxidant Activity of Rice Hulls. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51, 4400-4403.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0300285
[35] AOCS (2006) Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemist’s Society. Champaign.
[36] Dubat, A. (2010) A New AACC International Approved Method to Measure Rheological Properties of a Dough Sample. Cereal Foods World, 55, 150-153.
[37] Steel, R., Torrie, J. and Dickey, D. (1996) Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3 Sub Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
[38] Traynham, T.L., Myers, D.J., Carriquiry, A.L. and Johnson, L.A. (2007) Evaluation of Water-Holding Capacity for Wheat-Soy Flour Blends. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 84, 151-155.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1018-0
[39] El-Safy, F.S., Salem, R.H. and Abd El-Ghany, M. (2012) Chemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Different Seed Flours as Novel Sources of Protein. World Journal of Dairy & Food Sciences, 7, 59-65.
[40] Kahraman, K., Sakiyan, O., Ozturk, S., Koksel, H., Sumnu, G. and Dubat, A. (2008) Utilization of Mixolab® to Predict the Suitability of Flours in Terms of Cake Quality. European Food Research and Technology, 227, 565-570.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00217-007-0757-y
[41] Purwandari, U., Hidayati, D., Tamam, B. and Arifin, S. (2014) Gluten-Free Noodle Made from Gathotan (an Indonesian Fungal Fermented Cassava) Flour: Cooking Quality, Textural, and Sensory Properties. Food Research Journal, 21, 1951-1956.
[42] Torbica, A., Hadnadev, M. and Dapcevic, T. (2010) Rheological, Textural and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Bread Formulations Based on Rice and Buckwheat Flour. Food Hydrocolloids, 24, 626-632.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.03.004
[43] Cho, Y.J., Bae, I.Y., Inglett, G.E. and Lee, S. (2014) Utilization of Tartary Buckwheat Bran as a Source of Rutin and Its Effect on the Rheological and Antioxidant Properties of Wheat-Based Products. Industrial Crops and Products, 61, 211-216.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.07.003
[44] Kim, J.H., Lee, H.J., Lee, H., Lim, E., Imm, J.Y. and Suh, H.J. (2012) Physical and Sensory Characteristics of FibreEnriched Sponge Cakes Made with Opuntia humifusa. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 47, 478-484.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.02.011
[45] Gularte, M.A., de la Hera, E., Gómez, M. and Rosell, C.M. (2012) Effect of Different Fibers on Batter and Gluten-Free Layer Cake Properties. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 48, 209-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2012.03.015
[46] Lu, T., Lee, C.Y., Mau, J. and Lin, S. (2010) Quality and Antioxidant Property of Green Tea Sponge Cake. Food Chemistry, 119, 1090-1095.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.08.015
[47] Lebesi, D.M. and Tzia, C. (2012) Use of Endoxylanase Treated Cereal Brans for Development of Dietary Fiber Enriched Cakes. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 13, 207-214.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2011.08.001
[48] Sharif, K., Butt, M.S., Anjum, F.M. and Nasir, M. (2005) Improved Quality of Baked Products by Rice Bran Oil. Internet Journal of Food Safety, 5, 1-8.                                                                           eww150114lx

Influence of Water Stress on the Citric Acid Metabolism Related Gene Expression in the Ponkan Fruits

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52653#.VJzT7cCAM4

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

To explore the influence of water stress on fruit quality and gene expression related to citrate metabolism of ponkan. The test were conducted from May 15 to December 24 in 2013 using six-year-old ponkan (C. blanco cv. Ponkan) trees with 40% soil water conditions by taken regular watering as control. The content of acids in fruit were determined by HPLC, and relative expression of related genes of citric acid metabolic were determined by relative fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed that the content of citric acid, malic acid, quinic acid and total organic acids per gram sarcocarp were extremely increased by 285.2%, 320%, 480% and 299.1%, and the content of per-fruit organic acid were 77.39%, 89.64%, 117.24% and 75.9% respectively compared to those control in the fruit mature stage. Relative expression of CitCS1, CitCS2 were higher than control, and relative expression of CitAco1, CitAco2, CitAco3 had a certain increase in the late fruit development, were lower in mature stage. Three relative expression of CitIDH gene were higher than control in mature stage. Low CitGAD4 relative expression and undetectable in mature stage, the relative expression of CitGAD5 gene had a role in promoting under water stress. Furthermore, the relative expression of CitCS1, CitCS2, CitACO1, CitACO3, CitIDH1, CitIDH2, CitIDH3, CitGAD4 and CitGAD5 were influenced by water stress through the correlation analysis. Water stress caused the accumulation of citric acid, declined fruit quality, leaded to change of the genetic rela- tive expression about citric acid synthesis and degradation. The down-regulation of CitACO1, CitGAD4 and up-regulation of CitCS1, CitCS2 might be one of the reasons that promoted to the accumulation of citric acid.

Cite this paper

Zhang, G. and Xie, S. (2014) Influence of Water Stress on the Citric Acid Metabolism Related Gene Expression in the Ponkan Fruits. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1513-1521. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.514162.

References

[1] Zhou, J.Y. (2010) Molecule Physiological Basis on Genetic Differences of Carotenoid Accumulation and Ethylene Regulation in Citrus. Zhejiang University, Hangzhou.
[2] Deng, S.X. (2009) Physiological Resistance Analysis of Citrus Plants under Deficit Irrigation Conditions. Southwest University, Chongqing.
[3] Yamaki, Y.T. (1989) Organic Acid in the Juice of Citrus Fruits. Journal of Japan Horticultural Science Society, 58, 587-594. http://dx.doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.58.587
[4] Li, Y.Z. (1997) Research Progress on Citrus Fruit Acid Metabolism a Literature Review. Sichuan Fruits, 4, 17-19.
[5] Sun, X.H., Xiong, J.J., Zhu, A.D., Zhang, L., Ma, Q.L., Xu, J., Cheng, Y.J. and Deng, X.X. (2012) Sugars and Organic Acids Changes in Pericarp and Endocarp Tissues of Pumelo Fruit during Postharvest Storage. Scientia Horticulturae, 142, 112-117.
[6] Chen, M., Xie, X.L., Lin, Q., Chen, J.Y., Donald, G., Yin, X.R., Sun, C.D. and Chen, K.S. (2013) Differential Expression of Organic Acid Degradation-Related Genes during Fruit Development of Navel Oranges (Citrus sinensis) in Two Habitats. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter, 31, 1131-1140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11105-013-0583-2
[7] Tadeo, F.R., Cercós, M., Colmenero-Flores, J.M., Iglesias, D.J., Naranjo, M.A., Rios, G., Carrera, E., Ruiz-Rivero, O., Lliso, I., Morillon, R., Ollitrault, P. and Talon, M. (2008) Molecular Physiology of Development and Quality of Citrus. Advances in Botanical Research, 47, 147-223.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2296(08)00004-9
[8] Anyia, A.O. and Herzog, H. (2004) Water-Use Efficiency, Leaf Area and Leaf Gas Exchange of Cowpeas under Mid-Season Drought. European Journal of Agronomy, 20, 327-339.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00038-8
[9] Xie, S.X., Liu, Q., Xiong, X.Y., Zhang, Q.M. and Lovatt, C.J. (2011) Influences of Water Stress on Citrus Photosynthesis Characteristic and Cell Ultra-Structure. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis, 32, 234-238.
[10] Nie, Q., Lu, X.P., Zhao, X.-L. and Xie, S.X. (2013) ABA Production and Expression Analysis of Its Key Genes in Newhall Navel Orange and Satsuma Mandarin under Water Stress. Journal of Fruit Science, 30, 348-353.
[11] Zhao, X.L., Lu, X.P., Nie, Q., Huang, C.N., Xiao, Y.M. and Xie, S.X. (2013) Effect of Water Stress on Physiological Characteristics, JA Biosynthesis and Correlative Genes Expression in Citrus. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jiangxiensis, 35, 530-535.
[12] Wang, H.B., Li, L.G., Chen, X.S., Li, H.F., Yang, J.M., Liu, J.F. and Wang, C. (2010) Flavor Compounds and Flavor Quality of Fruits of Mid-Season Apple Cultivars. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 43, 2300-2306.
[13] Luo, A.C., Yang, X.H., Deng, Y.Y., Li, C.F., Xiang, K.S. and Li, D.G. (2003) Organic Acid Concentrations and the Relative Enzymatic Changes during the Development of Citrus Fruits. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 36, 941-944.
[14] Sadka, A., Artzi, B., Cohen, L., Dahan, E., Hasdai, D., Tagari, E. and Erner, Y. (2000) Arsenite Reduces Acid Content in Citrus Fruit, Inhibits Activity of Citrate Synthase but Induces Its Gene Expression. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 125, 288-293.
[15] Cercós, M., Soler, G., Iglesias, D.J., Gadea, J., Forment, J. and Talón, M. (2006) Global Analysis of Gene Expression during Development and Ripening of Citrus Fruit Flesh. A Proposed Mechanism for Citric Acid Utilization. Plant Molecular Biology, 62, 513-527.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11103-006-9037-7
[16] Wen, T., Xiong, Q.E., Zeng, W.G. and Liu, Y.P. (2001) Changes of Organic Acid Synthetase Activity during Fruit Development of Navel Orange (Citrus sinesis Osbeck). Acta Horticulturae Sinica, 28, 161-163.
[17] Canel, C., Bailey Serres, J.N. and Roose, M.L. (1996) Molecular Characterization of the Mitochondrial Citrate Synthase Gene of an Acidless Pummelo (Citrus maxima). Plant Molecular Biology, 31, 143-147.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00020613
[18] Kubo, T., Kihara, T. and Hirabayashi, T. (2002) The Effects of Spraying Lead Arsenate on Citrate Accumulation and the Related Enzyme Activities in the Juice Sacs of Citrus natsudaidai. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 71, 305-310. http://dx.doi.org/10.2503/jjshs.71.305
[19] Yu, K.Q., Xu, Q., Da, X.L., Guo, F., Ding, Y.D. and Deng, X.X. (2012) Transcriptome Changes during Fruit Development and Ripening of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis). BMC Genomics, 13, 10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-13-10
[20] Terol, J., Soler, G., Talon, M. and Cercos, M. (2010) The Aconitate Hydratase Family from Citrus. BMC Plant Biology, 10, 222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2229-10-222
[21] Aprile, A., Federici, C., Close, T.J., Bellis, L., Cattivelli, L. and Roose, M.L. (2011) Expression of the H+-ATPase AHA10 Proton Pump Is Associated with Citric Acid Accumulation in Lemon Juice Sac Cells. Functional & Integrative Genomics, 11, 551-563. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10142-011-0226-3        eww141226lx

Determinants of Patient Satisfaction at Tertiary Care Centers in Lebanon

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52129#.VIkKvMnQrzE\

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess patient satisfaction with services provided in inpatient health care settings in Lebanon. Methods: Our cross-sectional study enrolled patients who spent a minimum of one night in any ward at accredited hospitals in various regions of Lebanon. A structured questionnaire covering multiple domains was utilized to assess patient satisfaction as well as capture demographic data and visit characteristics. Results: From the pool of 1300 patients given questionnaires, a high response rate (92.8%; 1206) was achieved. Most (60.4%) respondents had the second class medical insurance coverage; only 99 (8.2%) had a first class coverage. Patient satisfaction was influenced by age, educational level, and medical insurance coverage class. Most respondents were pleased with overall nursing care (96.6%), and physician consultations (95.4%), P = 0.001. Conclusions: Patient satisfaction with hospital care is significantly influenced by patient’s provider interactions during the episodes of care. Furthermore, the surrounding physical environment also has an influence on patient satisfaction. Also, our results showed the acceptable level of satisfaction about the healthcare system delivered in Lebanon. This could be enhanced if appropriate management decisions will be implemented to overcome weakness and barriers.

Cite this paper

Ammo, M. , Abu-Shaheen, A. , Kobrosly, S. and Al-Tannir, M. (2014) Determinants of Patient Satisfaction at Tertiary Care Centers in Lebanon. Open Journal of Nursing, 4, 939-946. doi: 10.4236/ojn.2014.413100.

References

[1] Larrabee, J.H. and Bolden, L.V. (2001) Defining Patient-Perceived Quality of Nursing Care. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 16, 34-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001786-200110000-00005
[2] Bot, A.G., Bossen, J.K., Herndon, J.H., Ruchelsman, D.E., Ring, D. and Vranceanu, A.M. (2014) Informed Shared Decision-Making and Patient Satisfaction. Psychosomatics. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2013.12.013
[3] Guldvog, B. (1999) Can Patient Satisfaction Improve Health among Patients with Angina Pectoris? International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 11, 233-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/11.3.233
[4] Jenkinson, C., Coulter, A., Bruster, S., Richards, N. and Chandola, T. (2002) Patients’ Experiences and Satisfaction with Health Care, Results of a Questionnaire Study of Specific Aspects of Care. Quality & Safety in Health Care, 11, 335-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/qhc.11.4.335
[5] Naidu, A. (2009) Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction and Healthcare Quality. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 22, 366-381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09526860910964834
[6] Booth, A.J., Harrison, C.J., Gardener, G.J. and Gray, A.J. (1992) Waiting Times and Patient Satisfaction in the Accident and Emergency Department. Archives of Emergency Medicine, 9, 162-168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emj.9.2.162
[7] Bursch, B., Beezy, J. and Shaw, R. (1993) Emergency Department Satisfaction, What Matters Most? Annals of Emergency Medicine, 22, 586-591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644(05)81947-X
[8] Little, N.E. (1991) Image of the Emergency Physician. In: Henry, G.L., Ed., Emergency Medicine Risk Management, American College of Emergency Physicians, 11-16.
[9] Shrivastava, S.R., Shrivastava, P.S. and Ramasamy, J. (2014) Exploring the Dimensions of Doctor-Patient Relationship in Clinical Practice in Hospital Settings. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 2, 159-160.
http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/ijhpm.2014.40
[10] Thompson, D.A., Yarnold, P.R., Williams, D.R. and Adams, S.L. (1996) Effects of Actual Waiting Time, Perceived Waiting Time, Information Delivery, and Expressive Quality on Patient Satisfaction in the Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 28, 657-665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644(96)70090-2
[11] Yarnold, P.R., Michelson, E.A., Thompson, D.A. and Adams, S.L. (1998) Predicting Patient Satisfaction: A Study of Two Emergency Departments. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 545-563.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018796628917
[12] Kanousi, A. (2005) An Empirical Investigation of the Role of Culture on Service Recovery Expectations. Managing Service Quality, 15, 57-69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09604520510575263
[13] Malhotra, N.K., Ulgado, F.M., Agarwal, J., Shainesh, G. and Wu, L. (2005) Dimensions of Service Quality in Developed and Developing Countries: Multi-Country Cross-Cultural Comparisons. International Marketing Review, 22, 256-278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02651330510602204
[14] Kueh, K. and Ho Voon, B. (2007) Culture and Service Quality Expectations Evidence from Generation Yconsumers in Malaysia. Managing Service Quality, 17, 656-680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09604520710834993
[15] Tsoukatos, E. and Rand, G.K. (2007) Cultural Influences on Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction: Evidence from Greek Insurance. Managing Service Quality, 17, 467-485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09604520710760571
[16] Eiriz, V. and Figueiredo, J.A. (2005) Quality Evaluation in Health Care Services Based on Customer-Provider Relationships. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 18, 404-412.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09526860510619408
[17] Entwistle, V.A., Sheldon, T.A., Sowden, A.J. and Watt, I.S. (1996) Supporting Consumer Involvement in Decision Making: What Constitutes Quality in Consumer Health Information? International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 8, 425-437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1353-4505(96)00062-2
[18] Ware Jr., J.E. (2003) Conceptualization and Measurement of Health-Related Quality of Life: Comments on the Evolving Field. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 43-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/apmr.2003.50246
[19] Uzun, Ö. (2001) Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care at University Hospital in Turkey. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 16, 24-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001786-200110000-00004
[20] Davies, A.R. and Ware Jr., J.E. (1991) GHAA’s Consumer Satisfaction Survey and User’s Manual. 2nd Edition, Group Health Association of America, Washington DC.
[21] Arahoney, L. and Strasser, S. (1993) Patient Satisfaction: What We Know about and What We Still Need to Explore. Medical Care Research and Review, 50, 49-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002570879305000104
[22] Linder-Pelz, S. and Struening, E.L. (1985) The Multidimensionality of Patient Satisfaction with a Clinic Visit. Journal of Community Health, 10, 42-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01321358
[23] Wiggers, J.H., Donovan, K.O., Redman, S. and Sanson-Fisher, R.W. (1990) Cancer Patient Satisfaction with Care. Cancer, 66, 610-616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-0142(19900801)66:3<610::AID-CNCR2820660335>3.0.CO;2-T
[24] Baker, R. (1990) Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Patients’ Satisfaction with Consultations in General Practice. British Journal of General Practice, 40, 487-490.
[25] Zineldin, M. (2006) The Quality of Health Care and Patient Satisfaction: An Exploratory Investigation of the 5Q Model at Some Egyptian and Jordanian Medical Clinics. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 19, 60-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09526860610642609
[26] Yarnold, P.R., Michelson, E.A., Thompson, D.A. and Adams, S.L. (1998) Predicting Patient Satisfaction: A Study of Two Emergency Departments. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 21, 545-563.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018796628917
[27] Al-Mailam, F.F. (2005) The Effect of Nursing Care on Overall Patient Satisfaction and Its Predictive Value on Return-to-Provider Behavior: A Survey Study. Quality Management in Health Care, 14, 116-120.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00019514-200504000-00007
[28] Ware Jr., J.E., Snyder, M.K., Wright, W.R. and Davies, A.R. (1983) Defining and Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Medical Care. Evaluation and Program Planning, 6, 247-263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0149-7189(83)90005-8
[29] Veenstra, M. and Hofoss, D. (2003) Patient Experiences with Information in a Hospital Setting: A Multilevel Approach. Medical Care, 41, 490-499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.MLR.0000053229.70474.A3
[30] Hall, J.A. and Dornan, M.C. (1990) Patient Sociodemographic Characteristics as Predictors of Satisfaction with Medical Care: A Meta-Analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 30, 811-818. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(90)90205-7
[31] Quintana, J.M., González, N., Bilbao, A., Aizpuru, F., Escobar, A., Esteban, C., San-Sebastián, J.A., de-la-Sierra, E. and Thompson, A. (2006) Predictors of Patient Satisfaction with Hospital Health Care. BMC Health Services Research, 6, 102.
[32] Mummalaneni, V. and Gopalakrishna, P. (1995) Mediators versus Moderators of Patient Satisfaction. Journal of Health Care Marketing, 15, 16-26.                                                                                      eww141211lx