Analysis of Sustainable Energy Systems in Ecovillages: A Review of Progress in BedZED and Masdar City

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This paper explores sustainable energy systems in ecovillages based on the concept of the Zero Energy Building. The cases discussed in this paper include BedZED in the United Kingdom and Masdar City in the Middle East. These two communities contain features characterized by the sustainable principles of the ecovillage concept by using renewable energy and reclaimed materials to reach a low/zero energy system in buildings. The creation of more ecovillages and the growth of current ecovillages play an important role in positively solving environmental and social problems. The low energy buildings in the ecovillages also act as a model for communities wishing to implement sustainable development.

Cite this paper

Zhu, D. , Kung, M. and Zhou, L. (2015) Analysis of Sustainable Energy Systems in Ecovillages: A Review of Progress in BedZED and Masdar City. Low Carbon Economy, 6, 1-6. doi: 10.4236/lce.2015.61001.

References

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Determination of Aerodynamic Sound Sources on Periodicity Noise Generated from a Micro Wind Turbine

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ABSTRACT

To discuss the relationship between the periodicity noise and the aerodynamic noise source of a wind turbine, the characteristics of the actual wind turbine were measured by a wind tunnel; moreover, the flow around the impeller immersed in the uniform flow was solved by numerical simulation. In the observed wind turbine, when the mainstream velocity was 7.4 m/s or more, the power coefficient reached maximum at tip speed ratio 8. When the mainstream velocity increased in the driving condition of the maximum power point, the aerodynamic noise increased due to the periodicity noise in the vicinity of 1000 Hz and the broadband noise in the high-frequency domain. The noise sources were concentrated at the leading edge and trailing edge on the suction surface side. We experimentally indicated that the pressure fluctuation of the leading edge was the source of the periodicity noise.

Cite this paper

Sasaki, S. , Sakada, R. and Suzuki, K. (2014) Determination of Aerodynamic Sound Sources on Periodicity Noise Generated from a Micro Wind Turbine. Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics, 4, 440-446. doi: 10.4236/ojfd.2014.45034.

References

[1] Nii, Y., Gotanda, T., Matsumiya, H., Yamane, T. and Kawamura, S. (1992) Impulsive Low-Frequency Noise Generation by a 15 m Diameter Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Generator with Downwind Configuration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of Japan, 13, 259-265.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1250/ast.13.259
[2] Sasaki, S., Suzuki, K. and Sakada, R. (2014) Study of Output Characteristics and Broadband Noise of a Micro Propeller Wind Turbine. Reports of Graduate School of Engineering, Nagasaki University, 44, 1-6.
[3] Sasaki, S. and Sakada, R. (2014) Study of Aerodynamic Noise Source of Periodical Noise Generated from a Micro Wind Turbine. Reports of Graduate School of Engineering, Nagasaki University, 44, 1-6.
[4] Amiet, R.K. (1976) Noise Due to Turbulent Flow past a Trailing Edge. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 47, 387-393.
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[5] Howe, M.S. (1978) A Review of the Theory of Trailing-Edge Noise. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 61, 437-465.
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[6] Roger, M. and Moreau, S. (2005) Back-Scattering Correction and Further Extensions of Amiet’s Trailing Edge Noise Model. Part I: Theory, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 286, 477-506.
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[7] Moreau, S. and Roger, M. (2009) Back-Scattering Correction and Further Extensions of Amiet’s Trailing Edge Noise Model. Part II: Application, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 323, 397-425.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsv.2008.11.051                                                                     eww150105lx

An Opportunity to Switch Energy Sources in Institutions in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania and Benefit from Carbon Finance under the Sustainable Land Management Project

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ABSTRACT

The sustainable land management (SLM) project is seeking to engage with public institutions to explore the possibility of using the energy-switch principle presented by the carbon market to reduce emissions from inefficient use of biomass energy and discharge of human waste into the environment. Such a switch will be a triple-win situation that improves the natural environment, reduces deforestation, and provides avenues for revenue generation. As such, it commissioned a study of the pattern of energy consumption in the institutions and the type of cooking stoves they employ. Results show that firewood (51%) is the most widely used fuel because of availability, affordability, and reliability. The study also found that 56% of the institutions use energy-saving stoves, which is an opportunity that the project can seize to encourage use of alternatives sources of energy as opposed to biomass. In addition, 88% of the institutions expressed willingness to switch to biogas for cooking. This is yet another opportunity for scaling up the dissemination of renewable sources of energy in the region. Better adoption and wider use of renewable energy sources will take place when innovative financing mechanisms are devised to cover the high upfront cost of installing renewable energy systems. This has been one of the main barriers to scaling up the use of renewable in the region.

Cite this paper

Mutimba, S. , Mkanda, F. and Kibulo, R. (2014) An Opportunity to Switch Energy Sources in Institutions in the Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania and Benefit from Carbon Finance under the Sustainable Land Management Project. Open Journal of Soil Science, 4, 494-501. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2014.413047.

References

[1] Kilimanjaro Regional Secretariat (2011) Kilimanjaro Region Strategic Plan 2011/12-2015/16.
[2] United Republic of Tanzania Population and Housing Census (2013) Population Distribution by Administrative Areas. National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, Dar es Salaam, and Office of Chief Government Statistician, President’s Office, Finance, Economy and Development Planning, Zanzibar, 244 p.
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[4] Mutimba, S. (2014) Scaling up Fuel Efficient Technologies for Domestic, Institutions and Industrial Use with Carbon Benefits in the Kilimanjaro Region, Final Report. Consultancy Report, Sustainable Land Management Project. Regional Administrative Secretary-Kilimanjaro/United Nations Development Programme, Tanzania, 77 p.
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DFIG Voltage Control Based on Dynamically Adjusted Control Gains

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49269#.VJD-RMnQrzE

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

The increasing penetration of wind power presents many technical challenges to power system operations. An important challenge is the need of voltage control to maintain the terminal voltage of a wind plant to make it a PV bus like conventional generators with excitation control. In the previous work for controlling wind plant, especially the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, the proportional-integral (PI) controllers are popularly applied. These approaches usually need to tune the PI controllers to obtain control gains as a tradeoff or compromise among various operating conditions. In this paper, a new voltage control approach based on a different philosophy is presented. In the proposed approach, the PI control gains for the DFIG system are dynamically adjusted based on the dynamic, continuous sensitivity which essentially indicates the dynamic relationship between the change of control gains and the desired output voltage. Hence, this control approach does not require any good estimation of fixed control gains because it has the self-learning mechanism via the dynamic sensitivity. This also gives the plug-and-play feature of DFIG controllers to make it promising in utility practices. Simulation results verify that the proposed approach performs as expected under various operating conditions.

Cite this paper

Jin, Z. and Huang, C. (2014) DFIG Voltage Control Based on Dynamically Adjusted Control Gains. Journal of Power and Energy Engineering, 2, 45-58. doi: 10.4236/jpee.2014.28005.

References

[1] Manjure, D.P., Mishra, Y., Brahma, S. and Osborn, D. (2012) Impact of Wind Power Development on Transmission Planning at Midwest ISO. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 3, 845-852.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2012.2205024
[2] Mishra, Y., Mishra, S., Li, F. and Dong, Z.Y. (2009) Small-Signal Stability Analysis of a DFIG-Based Wind Power System under Different Modes of Operation. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 24, 972-982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2009.2031498
[3] Holdsworth, L, Wu, X.G., Ekanayake, J.B. and Jenkins, N. (2003) Comparison of Fixed Speed and Doubly-Fed Induction Wind Turbines during Power System Disturbances. IEE Proceedings—Generation, Transmission and Distribution, 150, 343-352.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ip-gtd:20030251
[4] Mei, F. and Pal, B.C. (2007) Modal Analysis of Grid Connected Doubly Fed Induction Generator. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 22, 728-736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2006.881080
[5] Lei, Y., Mullane, A., Lightbody, G. and Yacamini, Y. (2006) Modeling of the Wind Turbine with a Doubly Fed Induction Generator for Grid Integration Studies. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 21, 257-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2005.847958
[6] Wu, F., Zhang, X.P., Godfrey, K. and Ju, P. (2007) Small Signal Stability Analysis and Optimal Control of a Wind Turbine with Doubly Fed Induction Generator. IET Generation, Transmission, Distribution, 1, 751-769.
[7] Cardenas, R., Pena, R., Tobar, G., Wheeler, P. and Asher, G. (2009) Stability Analysis of a Wind Energy Conversion System Based on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Fed by a Matrix Converter. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 56, 4194-4206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2027923
[8] Qiao, W., Venayagamoorthy, G.K. and Harley, R.G. (2009) Design of Optimal PI Controllers for Doubly Fed Induction Generators Driven by Wind Turbines Using Particle Swarm Optimization. International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, Vancouver, 16-21 July 2009, 1982-1987.
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[10] Banakar, H., Luo, C. and Ooi, B.T. (2006) Steady-State Stability Analysis of Doubly-Fed Induction Generators under Decoupled P-Q Control. IEE Proceedings on Electric Power Applications, 153, 300-306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/ip-epa:20050388
[11] Mwinyiwiwa, B., Zhang, Y.Z., Shen, B. and Ooi. B.T. (2009) Rotor Position Phase-Locked Loop for Decoupled P-Q Control of DFIG for Wind Power Generation. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 24, 758-765. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2009.2025328
[12] Miao, Z., Fan, L., Osborn, D. and Yuvarajan, S. (2008) Control of DFIG Based Wind Generation to Improve Inter-Area Oscillation Damping. IEEE PES General Meeting, Pittsburgh, 20-24 July 2008, 1-7.
[13] Fan, L., Miao, Z. and Osborn, D. (2008) Impact of Doubly Fed Wind Turbine Generation on Inter-Area Oscillation Damping. IEEE PES General Meeting, Pittsburgh, 20-24 July 2008, 1-8.
[14] Hughes, F.M., Lara, O.A., Jenkins, N. and Ancell, G. (2006) A Power System Stabilizer for DFIG-Based Wind Generation. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 21, 763-772.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2006.873037
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[16] Brekken, T.K.A. and Mohan, N. (2007) Control of a Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generator under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 22, 129-135.
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[17] Santos-Martin, D., Rodriguez-Amenedo, J.L. and Arnalte, S. (2008) Direct Power Control Applied to Doubly Fed Induction Generator under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 23, 2328-2336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2008.2001907
[18] Hu, J. and He, Y. (2009) Reinforced Control and Operation of DFIG-Based Wind Power Generation System under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, 24, 905-915.http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TEC.2008.2001434
[19] Li, H.J., Li, F.X., Xu, Y., Rizy, D.T. and Kueck, J.D. (2010) Adaptive Voltage Control with Distributed Energy Resources: Algorithm, Theoretical Analysis, Simulation, and Field Test Verification. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 25, 1638-1647. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2010.2041015
[20] The Math Works (2012) SimPowerSystems for Use with Simulink, User’s Guide Version 4.            eww141217lx

An Efficient Electric Charge Transfer Device for Intelligent Storage Units

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49892#.VB-1mVfHRK1

An Efficient Electric Charge Transfer Device for Intelligent Storage Units.

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with a dynamic analysis of an optimal technique used for direct electrical energy storage, where a concept of charge transfer between different electric storage units is used. This analysis is developed to seek for efficient and real time conditions to maintain optimal behavior for charge recovery from intermittent power sources in the field of renewable energies like solar and wind. The proposed analysis leads to elaborating a set of interesting states and conditions that allows the user to choose effective configuration parameters that lead to an optimal or near optimal charge transfer device. The proposed device is designed to ensure an optimal transfer of electric charges. It must be self-configured to retrieve and transfer the maximum energy from the sources to the storage units (Super-capacitors, batteries…). Some interesting results, by simulating the proposed device, are presented to show how this optimization problem can be viewed as a combinatorial one, where the optimization algorithm is asked to find the suitable switching combination to configure the device to be closest to the optimal charge recovery.

Cite this paper

Rebbani, A. , Bouattane, O. , Bahatti, L. and Zazoui, M. (2014) An Efficient Electric Charge Transfer Device for Intelligent Storage Units. Open Journal of Energy Efficiency, 3, 50-63. doi: 10.4236/ojee.2014.33006.
References

 

[1] Raihani, A., et al. (2011) An Optimal Management System of a Wind Energy Supplier. Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 2, 349-358. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sgre.2011.24040
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[6] Kotz, R. and Carlen, M. (2000) Principles and Applications of Electrochemical Capacitors. Electrochimica Acta, 45, 2483-2498 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0013-4686(00)00354-6
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[14] Van Voorden, A., Ramirez-Elizondo, L., Paap, G., Verboomen, J. and van der Sluis, L. (2007) The Application of Super Capacitors to Relieve Battery Storage Systems in Autonomous Renewable Energy Systems. Proceedings of the IEEE Power Tech Conference, Lausanne, 1-5 July 2007, 479-484.
[15] Kuperman, A. and Aharon, I. (2011) Battery-Ultracapacitor Hybrids for Pulsed Current Loads: A Review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 981-992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.010
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Pumped-Storage Solution towards Energy Efficiency and Sustainability: Portugal Contribution and Real Case Studies

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=49847#.VBumUVfHRK0

Pumped-Storage Solution towards Energy Efficiency and Sustainability: Portugal Contribution and Real Case Studies.

ABSTRACT

This paper aims at presenting different pumped-storage solutions for improving the energy efficiency and economic sustainability of water systems. The assessment of pumped-storage solutions, either using fresh water or sea-water, is seen as a viable option to solve problems of energy production, as well as in the integration of intermittent renewable energies, providing system flexibility due to energy loads’ fluctuation, as long as the storage of energy from intermittent sources. Pumped-storage is one of the best and most efficient options in terms of renewable resources as an integrated solution allowing the improvement of the energy system elasticity and the global system efficiency. Two real case studies are presented: a fresh water system installed in a river dams—the Alqueva system, in Portugal—and a sea-water system in an arid region of the Cape Verde Islands in Africa. These cases demonstrate the benefits associated to pumped-storage solutions, depending on the storage volume capacity, operational rules and energy tariffs.

Cite this paper

Ramos, H. , Amaral, M. and Covas, D. (2014) Pumped-Storage Solution towards Energy Efficiency and Sustainability: Portugal Contribution and Real Case Studies. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 6, 1099-1111. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.612103.
References

 

[1] Ramos, J.S. and Ramos, H.M. (2009) Sustainable Application of Renewable Sources in Water Pumping Systems: Optimized Energy System Configuration. Energy Policy, 37, 633-643.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.10.006 .
[2] Ramos, J.S. and Ramos, H.M. (2010) Multi-Criterion Optimization of Energy Management in Drinking Systems. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply—WSTWS, 10, 129-144.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/ws.2010.011
[3] Ramos, H.M., Vieira, F. and Covas, D. (2010) Energy Efficiency in a Water Supply System. Water Science and Engineering, 3, 331-340.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2010.03.009
[4] Goncalves, F.V., Costa, L.H. and Ramos, H.M. (2011) Best Economical Hybrid Energy Solution: Model Development and Case Study of a WDS in Portugal. Energy Policy, 39, 3361-3369.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.03.031
[5] Ramos, H.M., Kenov, K.N. and Vieira, F. (2011) Environmentally Friendly Hybrid Solutions to Improve the Energy and Hydraulic Efficiency in Water Supply Systems. Energy for Sustainable Development, 15, 436-442.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2011.07.009
[6] Goncalves, F.V. and Ramos, H.M. (2011) ANN for Hybrid Energy System Evaluation: Methodology and WSS Case Study. Water Resources and Management (WARM), 25, 2295-2317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11269-011-9809-y
[7] Wood, L. (2011) Manage Renewable Risk: Assessing Offshore Margins. Renewable Energy World Magazine.
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6-PP-124-Y-ND-2011.pdf
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[10] Vieira, F. and Ramos, H.M. (2009) Optimization of Operational Planning for Wind/Hydro Hybrid Water Supply Systems. Renewable Energy, 34, 928-936.
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[11] Vieira, F. and Ramos, H.M. (2009) Optimization of the Energy Management in Water Supply Systems. Water Science & Technology: Water Supply—WSTWS, 9, 59-65.
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[12] Vieira, F. and Ramos, H.M. (2008) Hybrid Solution and Pump-Storage Optimization in Water Supply System Efficiency: A Case Study. Energy Policy, 36, 4142-4148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.07.040
[13] E-VALUE (2011) Energy and CO2 Emissions—Technical Report (in Portuguese).
[14] Goncalves, F.V., Costa, L.H. and Ramos, H.M. (2011) Best Economical Hybrid Energy Solution: Model Development and Case Study of a WDS in Portugal. Energy Policy, 39, 3361-3369.
[15] Ramos, H.M., Kenov, K.N. and Vieira, F. (2011) Environmentally Friendly Hybrid Solutions to Improve the Energy and Hydraulic Efficiency in Water Supply Systems. Energy for Sustainable Development, Elsevier, 15, 436-442.
[16] Ramos, H.M. (2012) Pumped-Storage and Hybrid Energy Solutions towards the Improvement of Energy Efficiency in Water Systems. INTECH.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/50024
[17] Wood, L. (2011) Manage Renewable Risk: Assessing Offshore Margins. Renewable Energy World Magazine.
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