Etiology, Outcome and Mortality Risk Factors in Children Burn

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Mortality rate of burn patients can serve as an objective criterion for quality control and as a measure for research and preventive programs. A prospective study of burn victims, from data of burn registry program, was conducted to determine the etiology, risk factors of mortality and outcome of pediatric burns. We had 514 patients below 15 years old. Burns caused by scalding were the most frequent (55.4%) followed by flames (35.8%). Mean (SD) of age was 3.72 (3.19) years. Male to female ratio was 1.62:1. Mean hospital stay was 14.17 days (range 0 – 46 days). The mean TBSA (SD) was 15.22% (14.31%). Fifty three patients had inhalation injury (11.25%). Inhalation injury increases the risk of death (Odds Ratio: 8.75, p = 0.009). Length of stay increased in accordance with burn area (p < 0.002). Burn wound infection was present in (35.4%) of our patients. The univariate statistics analysis and a pooled, cross-sectional, multivariate logistic regression weredone. The major risk factors were: Inhalation injury (OR = 8.75, p = 0.009) and lack of intra-venousfluid resuscitation before reaching the hospital (OR = 40.5%, p = 0.001), cause of burn (flame and chemical) and referral cases from other centers (OR = 3.66, p < 0.0001). The minor risk factor was age. About 83% of our patients discharged with partial recovery, 10% with complete recovery, 0.1% referred to other hospitals and 1.36% died.

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Karimi, H. , Motevalian, S. , Momeni, M. , Safari, R. and Ghadarjani, M. (2015) Etiology, Outcome and Mortality Risk Factors in Children Burn. Surgical Science, 6, 42-49. doi: 10.4236/ss.2015.62007.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0b013e3181c453b3                          eww150211lx

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer of Different Age Groups: Moroccan Data?

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ABSTRACT

Background: Several epidemiological studies have been carried to identify the risk factors for developing breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors associated with breast cancer in different age groups in the Moroccan women and to determine susceptible and protective factors. Methods: This was a case control study including 400 women with breast cancer and 400 controls of the National Institute of Oncology Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdallah, Rabat, Morocco from 2008 to 2010. These women were interviewed for epidemiological information and risk factor for breast cancer. Results: Early age at menarche, late menopause, oral contraceptive and family history with first degree were positively associated with breast cancer in all the series and in the age group between 22 and 34 years. In the age group between 44 and 34 years, a risk of breast cancer was associated only with a family history of breast cancer. In the age group of 45 years or older, the factors which seem to influence a breast cancer are: late menopause, oral contraceptive and family history in the first degree. In contrast, early childbearing, multiparity and lactation were negatively associated with breast cancer. Conclusion: This study is rather in favour of positive association between hormonal factors and breast cancer, and confirms the protective role of multiparity and lactation.

Cite this paper

Laamiri, F. , Bouayad, A. , Hasswane, N. , Ahid, S. , Mrabet, M. and Amina, B. (2015) Risk Factors for Breast Cancer of Different Age Groups: Moroccan Data?. Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5, 79-87. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2015.52011.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06524-2                                              eww150202lx

Characteristics and Risk Factors Attributed to Coronary Artery Disease in Women Attended Health Services in Gaza-Palestine Observational Study

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Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in both sexes worldwide, and becomes number one killer in women due to many factors including increase in traditional risk factors, delays in apparition of symptoms, under estimation of diagnosis test and treatment. Our study aims to identify risk factors for coronary artery disease among women with chest pain underwent coronary angiography during years (2010-2013) in cardiology center. The study design is an observational among 688 women-aged 32 – 96 years; the mean age of our study population is 61 years. Risk factors are abstracted from patients’ files. Women with documented coronaries disease tend to be older, have higher, systolic blood pressure, serum level of triglyceride, and impaired clearance creatinine. 59.4% of them are menopause with higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes (58.6% and 63.6%). Significant positive association is found in women with myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stable angina and presence of obstructive coronary artery disease respectively (89.6%, 82.3%, 59.1%) in opposite women presented with atypical chest pain have high prevalence of normal coronaries (95.7%). About 57.6% have more than three risk factors, and 55.3% are obese or overweight. In addition, 42.1% of them have impaired systolic function. We conclude that cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among Palestinians women in Gaza and the combination of risk factors is common. Interventions to minimize CAD in our population are needed.

Cite this paper

Abed, Y. and Jamee, A. (2015) Characteristics and Risk Factors Attributed to Coronary Artery Disease in Women Attended Health Services in Gaza-Palestine Observational Study. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 5, 9-18. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2015.51002.

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Optimal Adiposity Measurement and Risk Stratification in Established Ischaemic Stroke

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52767#.VKNXlcnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Background: Prevention strategies post-stroke should target risk factor reduction which includes consideration of weight, diet and lipoprotein profiles. Limited data informs the optimal adiposity measurement post-stroke to target those at highest recurrent risk. This study aims to identify adiposity measurement/s post-stroke that best predict cardiovascular and co-morbid risk. Subjects and Methods: 142 stroke patients (100 males, 42 females; mean age 63 years) participated. Adiposity and metabolic profiles included BMI, waist circumference, waist to height ratio (WHR), triglyceride levels and hypertriglyceridemic waist. The predictive ability of these measures with indices of cardiovascular risk (Cardiovascular Risk Score) and co-morbidity (Charlson’s co-morbidity index) were examined. Results: In hierarchical multiple regression models, age and gender controlled, waist (p = 0.002), triglyceride levels (p = 0.006), BMI and WHR (p = 0.014), uniquely and significantly contributed to the variance in cardiovascular risk, in their models. Only one combination of measures (waist and triglyceride levels) improved the predictive ability of waist in cardiovascular risk stratification (p = 0.001). In men, waist (p = 0.013) and in women triglyceride levels (p = 0.012) performed as the best predictors of cardiovascular risk respectively. No combination of measures was superior to triglyceride levels in women or waist circumference measures in men in predicting cardiovascular risk. With Charlson’s co-morbidity index as the dependent variable, triglyceride levels significantly contributed to variance of the model with age and gender influences controlled (p = 0.047). No combination of measures improved the predictive ability of triglyceride levels for co-morbidity. Conclusion: Waist circumference and triglyceride levels should form a minimum dataset for adiposity when considering cardiovascular and comorbid risk post-stroke.

Cite this paper

Lennon, O. and Blake, C. (2014) Optimal Adiposity Measurement and Risk Stratification in Established Ischaemic Stroke. World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases, 4, 655-665. doi: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.413077.

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Women and Cardiovascular Disease: Gender-Based Issues Regarding Detection and Primary Prevention

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52231#.VIpBvsnQrzE

ABSTRACT

Society has come a long way over the past several decades from the old fashion belief that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a man’s disease. Throughout the years, gender-based studies have provided compelling evidence to uncover several unique features in disease presentation, pathology and primary prevention in women. Studies reviewing differences among men and women have placed specific emphasis on cardiovascular risk factors, symptoms and vascular pathology as potential etiologies for the higher cardiovascular mortality and disability among women. In addition, although weight loss and exercise have been shown to promote cardiovascular health in men, more recently findings have presented data to support the importance of these interventions among women. Although tremendous strides have been made throughout the years in the gender-based cardiovascular research, more questions than answers remain and additional research efforts are still needed to better understand the disease process in women. The objectives of this review are two-fold: First, to present a comparative analysis focusing on evidence-based similarities and differences among males and females in cardiovascular disease presentation, detection and clinical pathology; Second, to offer insights highlighting recent findings regarding primary prevention and treatment protocols in women. Based on our current knowledge, continued efforts geared toward optimal diagnostic testing and screening protocols for primary disease detection and risk factor modification programs are recommended. This would include further investigations of the potential role that genetics and/or environment play/plays in the natural progression of the disease process. Additionally, comprehensive lifestyle interventions aimed at reducing cardiovascular disability and mortality in women is also recommended.

Cite this paper

Chesler, R. , Ho, D. and Ramkissoon, K. (2014) Women and Cardiovascular Disease: Gender-Based Issues Regarding Detection and Primary Prevention. Health, 6, 2790-2801. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.620318.

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Life before Myocardial Infarction —A Qualitative Study of Middle-Aged Women

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52224#.VIo_LcnQrzE

ABSTRACT

The health burden of myocardial infarction is rising for middle-aged women and they are underrepresented in research of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how life had been for middle-aged women before they suffered a myocardial infarction (MI). Through a health care register, we identified all women (n = 46) under 65 years of age in a defined region in southeast Sweden who had suffered an MI the past 2 years and a strategic selection of n = 16 women from these was made. These selected women were interviewed and their narratives were interpreted by qualitative content analysis. The qualitative interviews generated five general themes: “Serious life events”, “Negative affectivity”, “Loneliness”, “Being a good girl” and “Lack of control”. The interviews revealed that many of these women had been exposed to extreme and repeated traumatic life events in their lives. Many had a cynical attitude towards others, felt lonely and experienced a lack of social support. Many of these women endeavored to “be a good girl”, which was a special psychosocial phenomenon found. This study uncovered that these women before they suffered an MI were affected by a variety of psychosocial factors. The study stresses the importance of psychosocial risk factors in the assessment of middle-aged women’s risk profile for MI. A general conclusion for clinical practice is that in the assessment of the individual risk for myocardial infarction for middle-aged women, potential psychosocial factors might also be considered.

Cite this paper

Wennerholm, C. , Jern, M. , Honkasalo, M. and Faresjö, T. (2014) Life before Myocardial Infarction
—A Qualitative Study of Middle-Aged Women. Health, 6, 2765-2774. doi: 10.4236/health.2014.620316.

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Risk Factors for Hemoptysis in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients from Southern China: A Retrospective Study

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52104#.VIT_gmfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Clinical characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients from southern China with pulmonary tuberculosis hemoptysis (PTH) were analyzed retrospectively in order to improve the diagnosis of TB, reduce mortality and prevent the transmission of TB. A total of 1227 cases of pulmonary TB patients hospitalized in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Guangzhou Chest Hospital from January to December of 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. 1) The male/female ratio of the 1227 tuberculosis cases was 2.15:1. There were 403 cases (32.8%) of PTH with a male/ female ratio of 3.03:1. 2) The ratio of patients with PTH to those with TB was designated as Rh. The Rh in the male group (36.2%, 303 cases) was higher than that in the female group (25.6%, 100 cases, risk ratio (RR) = 1.41, P ≤ 0.001). 3) The Rh in the elderly group (≥60 years old, 20.3%, 56 cases) was lower than that in the younger patients group (20 – 39 years old, 45.4%, 189 cases, RR = 2.51, P ≤ 0.001). 4) The Rh in initial treatment group (29.6%, 296 cases) was lower than that in the retreatment group (46.9%, 107 cases, RR = 1.58, P ≤ 0.001). 5) The Rh in sputum-positive TB patients (44.5%, 297 cases) was significantly higher than that in the smear-negative TB patients (18.9%, 106 cases, RR = 2.35, P ≤ 0.001). 6) The Rh of patients with lung lesions range < 3 lung fields (31.7%, 105 cases) was not significantly different with that of patients with lung lesions range ≥ 3 lung fields (33.3%, 298 cases, RR = 1.05, P = 0.96 > 0.05). 7) The Rh of patients with cavities (51.8%, 309 cases) was higher than that of patients without cavities (14.9%, 94 cases, RR = 3.48, P ≤ 0.001). Male, young, retreated, sputum-positive TB patients and those with cavitary TB were more predisposed to PTH in southern China. TB patients with such characteristics should be sensitized and accorded good care.

Cite this paper

Tan, S. , Sun, D. , Zhang, T. , Li, Y. , Cao, Y. , Njire, M. , Wang, C. and Zhang, T. (2014) Risk Factors for Hemoptysis in Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients from Southern China: A Retrospective Study. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 2, 173-180. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2014.24022.

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