Simulation Studies of Nodular Iron’s Bull’s Eye Effect on Stress Concentration under Plane Stress Conditons

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A simulation study on the effect of the “bull’s eye” in ductile iron on stress concentrations was done in this work. Using the model of graphite nodules in a cavity, a two dimensional plate strip was subjected to plane stress conditions. The results were compared to the traditional theory of modeling the graphite as holes (cavity) in the iron matrix. In plane stress conditions, while the graphite in the hole model showed the hole as areas of stress concentration and therefore very critical as regards fracture, the hole model showed stress concentrated away from the holes making the holes not very critical factor as regards fracture. It was observed that areas of stress application were more critical than the voids when using the hole model. Also the graphite in the hole model was able to predict the good damping behaviour of ductile iron and the increasing elongation with decreasing nodule count.

Cite this paper

O. Oluwole and O. Olorunniwo, “Simulation Studies of Nodular Iron’s Bull’s Eye Effect on Stress Concentration under Plane Stress Conditons,” Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2007, pp. 79-101.

References

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[7] Bailey.E (1997) “Transgranular Fracture Surface in Ductile Iron” (sv.vt.edu/classes/…/97ClassProj/exper/bailey/www/bailey.html)                                             eww150204lx

Simulation of Game Model for Supply Chain Finance Credit Risk Based on Multi-Agent

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53110#.VLXH98nQrzE

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Supply chain finance is an efficient method to solve SME’s financing problem. A core issue is to simulate the supply chain finance system’s real operations. To solve the problem, this paper designs a simulation model for supply chain finance based on Simon’s bounded rationality with multiagent simulation technique instead of absolute rationality. The influences of the behaviors of bank, SME and warehousing company on credit risk of the supply chain finance are simulated and managerial insights are given. The research can help to reduce credit risk of bank loan while increasing the supply chain system’s benefit.

Cite this paper

Su, Y. and Lu, N. (2015) Simulation of Game Model for Supply Chain Finance Credit Risk Based on Multi-Agent. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 31-36. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.31004.

References

[1] Berger, A.N. and Asli, D.K. (2004) Bank Concentration and Conference: An Evolution in the Making a Conference Sponsored by the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. Journal of Money, 6, 433-451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mcb.2004.0040
[2] Busch, L. (2008) Supply Chain Finance: Flexibility and Ease of Implementation. Institutional Investor-International Edition, 1, 18-19.
[3] Kerr, J. (2006) Streamlining the Cash Flow. Supply Chain Management Review, 10, 25-31.
[4] Camerinelli, E. (2009) Supply Chain Finance. Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems, 3, 114-128.
[5] Buzacott, J.A. and Zhang, R.Q. (2004) Inventory Management with Asset-Based. Financing Management Science, 50, 1274-1292.
[6] Ma, J. (2008) Financing Model Analysis and Risk Control of Supply Chain Finance. Ph.D. Economics Thesis, Tianjin University, Tianjin.
[7] He, Y.Q. and Guo, T.T. (2010) Game Model Analysis of SMEs Financing Behavior Based on Supply Chain Financing Modes. Journal of Nanchang University (Engineering& Technology), 6, 183-187.
[8] Wan, H.D. (2008) Supply Chain Finance Risk Model Analysis Study. On Economic Problems, 11, 109-111.
[9] Axelrod, R. (2007) The Evolution of Cooperation. Revised Edition, Wu J. Z. Shanghai People’s Publishing House, Shanghai.
[10] Zhang, T., Sun, L.Y. and Fang, C. (2002) A Study of Simulation in Repeated Game Based on the Evaluation of the Cu- mulative Aspiration Tense. Systems Engineering, 3, 87-91.
[11] Liu, J.J. and Wang, J.Y. (2007) Research of Simulation in Evolutionary Game Based on Multi-Agents. Computer & Digital Engineering, 4, 1-3.
[12] Friedman, D. (1991) Evolutionary Games in Economics. Econometrics, 5, 637-666.               eww150114lx

JIT Mixed-Model Sequencing Rules: Is There a Best One?

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ABSTRACT

This research effort compares four sequencing rules intended to smooth production scheduling for mixed-model production systems in a Just-in-Time/Lean manufacturing environment (“JIT” hereafter). Each rule intends to schedule mixed-model production in such a way that manufacturing flexibility is optimized in terms of system utilization, units completed, average in-process inventory, average queue length, and average waiting time. A simulation experiment, where the various sequencing rules are tested against each other in terms of the above production measures, shows that three of the sequencing rules essentially offer the same performance, whereas one of them shows more variation.

Cite this paper

McMullen, P. (2015) JIT Mixed-Model Sequencing Rules: Is There a Best One?. American Journal of Operations Research, 5, 5-29. doi: 10.4236/ajor.2015.51002.

References

[1] Goldratt, E.M. and Cox, J. (1992) The Goal: A Process of Ongoing Improvement. North River Press, North Barrington.
[2] McMullen, P.R. (1998) JIT Sequencing for Mixed-Model Assembly Lines with Setups Using Tabu Search. Production Planning & Control, 9, 504-510.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095372898233984
[3] Kanet, J.J. (1981) Minimizing the Average Deviation of Job Completion Times About a Common Due Date. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 28, 643-651.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nav.3800280411
[4] Garcia-Villoria, A. and Pastor, R. (2013) Minimising Maximum Response Time. Computers & Operations Research, 40, 2314-2321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2013.03.014
[5] Salhi, S. and Garcia-Villoria, A. (2012) An Adaptive Search for the Response Time Variability Problem. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 63, 597-605.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/jors.2011.46
[6] Hermann, J.W. (2007) Generating Cyclic Fair Sequences Using Aggregation and Stride. The Institute for Systems Research, ISR Technical Report 2007-12.
[7] Miltenburg, J. (1989) Level Schedules for Mixed-Model Assembly Lines in Just-in-Time Production Systems. Management Science, 35, 192-207.
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[8] Kelton, D.W., Sadowski, R.P. and Sturrock, D.T. (2004) Simulation with Arena. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Boston.                                                                                                       eww150107lx

Assessment of Cervical Screw Trajectory Using 3-Dimensional Software Planning

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52727#.VKICkcCAM4

ABSTRACT

Objective: It is important and helpful for surgeons to understand the correlation between spinal anatomy and screw trajectory before surgery. We aimed to assess a simple technique using 3D imaging software available on the hospital intranet for visual and quantitative feedback to prepare surgeons for an appropriate entry point and safe trajectory when placing cervical screws. Methods: A total of 59 cervical screws were inserted from C1 to T1 in 12 consecutive patients using this technique. First, a single CT optimal slice was selected from 3D CT images of the cervical spine to determine the intervals of bilateral entry points and lateral angle. Next, this 3D image was rotated to the lateral angle. Finally, bone was cut out on the entry point using subtractive manipulation, which removed the core of the pedicle or lateral mass. Screw trajectory was indicated, and surgeons could assess the correlation between surface landmarks, spinal anatomy, and screw trajectory. Posterior cervical fusion was performed using fluoroscopy. Postoperative outcomes and incidence of complications were retrospectively assessed. Results: One perforation (1.4%) was identified on postoperative CT images. No vascular injuries occurred. Differences in the intended entry point location and lateral angle of the screw from actual postoperative values were 1.49 ± 1.23 mm and 5.46 ± 4.46, respectively. Conclusions: A novel 3D CT imaging assessment underwent in cervical screw fixation. This technique is easily accessible on the hospital intranet and provides training in cervical screw placement for fellows. Surgeons can simulate screw placement and share surgical strategy.

Cite this paper

Ohnishi, Y. , Iwatsuki, K. and Yoshimine, T. (2015) Assessment of Cervical Screw Trajectory Using 3-Dimensional Software Planning. Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery, 5, 6-11. doi: 10.4236/ojmn.2015.51002.

References

[1] Karaikovic, E.E., Daubs, M.D., Madsen, R.W. and Gaines Jr., R.W. (1997) Morphologic Characteristics of Human Cervical Pedicles. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 22, 493-500.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199703010-00005
[2] Ludwig, S.C., Kramer, D.L., Balderston, R.A., Vaccaro, A.R., Foley, K.F. and Albert, T.J. (2000) Placement of Pedicle Screws in the Human Cadaveric Cervical Spine: Comparative Accuracy of Three Techniques. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 25, 1655-1667.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200007010-00009
[3] Panjabi, M.M., Duranceau, J., Goel, V., Oxland, T. and Takata, K. (1991) Cervical Human Vertebrae. Quantitative Three-Dimensional Anatomy of the Middle and Lower Regions. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 16, 861-869.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199108000-00001
[4] Jones, E.L., Heller, J.G., Silcox, D.H. and Hutton, W.C. (1997) Cervical Pedicle Screws versus Lateral Mass Screws. Anatomic Feasibility and Biomechanical Comparison. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 22, 977-982.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199705010-00009
[5] Kotani, Y., Cunningham, B.W., Abumi, K. and McAfee, P.C. (1994) Biomechanical Analysis of Cervical Stabilization Systems. An Assessment of Transpedicular Screw Fixation in the Cervical Spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 19, 2529- 2539.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199411001-00007
[6] Yoshihara, H., Passias, P.G. and Errico, T.J. (2013) Screw-Related Complications in the Subaxial Cervical Spine with the Use of Lateral Mass versus Cervical Pedicle Screws: A Systematic Review. Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine, 19, 614-623.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2013.8.SPINE13136
[7] Kast, E., Mohr, K., Richter, H.P. and Borm, W. (2006) Complications of Transpedicular Screw Fixation in the Cervical Spine. European Spine Journal, 15, 327-334.
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[8] Neo, M., Fujibayashi, S., Miyata, M., Takemoto, M. and Nakamura, T. (2008) Vertebral Artery Injury during Cervical Spine Surgery: A Survey of More than 5600 Operations. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 33, 779-785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0b013e31816957a7
[9] Neo, M., Sakamoto, T., Fujibayashi, S. and Nakamura, T. (2005) The Clinical Risk of Vertebral Artery Injury from Cervical Pedicle Screws Inserted in Degenerative Vertebrae. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 30, 2800-2805.
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[10] Abumi, K. and Kaneda, K. (1997) Pedicle Screw Fixation for Nontraumatic Lesions of the Cervical Spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 22, 1853-1863.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200004150-00011
[12] Ito, Y., Sugimoto, Y., Tomioka, M., Hasegawa, Y., Nakago, K. and Yagata, Y. (2008) Clinical Accuracy of 3D Fluoroscopy-Assisted Cervical Pedicle Screw Insertion. Journal of Neurosurgery-Spine, 9, 450-453.
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[13] Kotani, Y., Abumi, K., Ito, M. and Minami, A. (2003) Improved Accuracy of Computer-Assisted Cervical Pedicle Screw Insertion. Journal of Neurosurgery, 99, 257-263.
[14] Lee, G.Y., Massicotte, E.M. and Rampersaud, Y.R. (2007) Clinical Accuracy of Cervicothoracic Pedicle Screw Placement: A Comparison of the “Open” Lamino-Foraminotomy and Computer-Assisted Techniques. Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques, 20, 25-32.
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[15] Richter, M., Cakir, B. and Schmidt, R. (2005) Cervical Pedicle Screws: Conventional versus Computer-Assisted Placement of Cannulated Screws. Spine (Phila Pa 1976), 30, 2280-2287.
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[16] Klein, S., Whyne, C.M., Rush, R. and Ginsberg, H.J. (2009) CT-Based Patient-Specific Simulation Software for Pedicle Screw Insertion. Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques, 22, 502-506.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0b013e31819877fd
[17] Luciano, C.J., Banerjee, P.P., Bellotte, B., Oh, G.M., Lemole Jr., M., Charbel, F.T., et al. (2011) Learning Retention of Thoracic Pedicle Screw Placement Using a High-Resolution Augmented Reality Simulator with Haptic Feedback. Neurosurgery, 69, 14-19.
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[18] Podolsky, D.J., Martin, A.R., Whyne, C.M., Massicotte, E.M., Hardisty, M.R. and Ginsberg, H.J. (2010) Exploring the Role of 3-Dimensional Simulation in Surgical Training: Feedback from a Pilot Study. Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques, 23, e70-e74.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0b013e3181d345cb                                                                      eww141230lx

Friction Material Temperature Distribution and Thermal and Mechanical Contact Stress Analysis

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52690#.VKDC5cCAM4

ABSTRACT

In brake systems, where the components are exposed to mechanical and thermal loads, the numerical analysis is very helpful. The main function of the brake system is to control or reduce vehicle’s speed by transformation of kinetic and potential energy in thermal energy. Using finite element method and Abaqus application, the present work proposed a model to study the impact of these loads on the performance of a pneumatic S cam drum brake’s friction material. The model included the effects of the rivet process; brake torque and warming in one of the 17 t bus front brake lining. Areas where the stresses vary with considerable amplitudes during temperature increase and brake application were identified. Also, it was possible to compare results of the numerical model to vehicle’s experimental measurements and understand its proximity to real braking events. By the application of the methodology and using the numerical model, proposed in this work, it will be possible to contribute considerably for a more accurate design of the friction material, besides undertake a better selection of the sub-compounds which it is made of.

Cite this paper

Travaglia, C. and Lopes, L. (2014) Friction Material Temperature Distribution and Thermal and Mechanical Contact Stress Analysis. Engineering, 6, 1017-1036. doi: 10.4236/eng.2014.613092.

References

[1] SAE International (2004) Bosch Automotive Handbook. 6th Edition, Warrendale, 800-801.
[2] Limpert, R. (1999) Brake Design and Safety. 2nd Edition, SAE International, Warrendale.
[3] Travaglia, C.A.P. (2014) Analise das Tensoes Termicas e Mecanicas no Material de Atrito de Veiculos Comerciais Equipados com Tambores de Freio Atraves do Metodo de Elementos Finitos. Mastering Thesis, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0045-7949(99)00007-3
[5] Amorim, G.B., Lopes, L.C.R., de Gouvêa, J.P., de Castro, J.A. and Tepedino, J.O.A. (2005) Determinação de Fadiga Termica em Tambores de Freio Atraves de Simulação Computacional. Proceedings of the 60th Annual ABM International Congress, Belo Horizonte, 25-28 July 2005, 1-10.
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[8] Talati, F. and Jalalifar, S. (2009) Analysis of Heat Conduction in a Disk Brake System. Heat and Mass Transfer, 45, 1047-1059.
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[9] Shahril, K., Nordin, M. and Sulaiman, A.S. (2012) Temperature Analysis of Automotive Modeling Parts. Proceedings of the International Conference of Metallurgical, Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Dubai, 26-27 December 2012, 285-288.
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[11] Ramesha, D.K., Kumar, B.M.S., Madhusudan, M. and Shekar, H.R.B. (2012) Temperature Distribution Analysis of Aluminum Composite and Cast Iron Brake Drum Using ANSYS. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development, 3, 281-292.
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[13] Shigley, J.E., Mischke, C.R. and Budynas, R.G. (2004) Mechanical Engineering. 8th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 812-820.
[14] Takadoum, J. (2008) Materials and Surface Engineering in Tribology. ISTE Ltd. and John Wiley & Sons, Inc., London and Hoboken, 66-71.
[15] Briscoe, B.J. and Stolarski, T.A. (1992) Characterization of Tribological Materials. In: Glaser, W.A., Ed., Friction, Butterworth Publishers, London, 30-64.
[16] Travaglia, C.A.P., Araujo, J., Bochi, M., Yoneda, A., Costa, A., Souza, A., Cunha, R. and Beninca, E. (2013) Analysis of Drum Brake System with Computational Methods. SAE 11th Brake Colloquium, 2013.
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The Influence of Control Design on Energetic Cost during FES Induced Sit-to-Stand

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52596#.VJunHcCAM4

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

This paper highlights the benefits of using intelligent model based controllers to produce FES induced sit-to-stand movement (FES-STS), in terms of reducing energy cost and producing more natural responses in comparison with conventional controllers. A muscle energy expenditure model for the quadriceps is implemented in the control design of FES-STS, then simulation is run for three different control designs: an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system controller (ANFIS), a conventional PID controller, and a hybrid ANFIS-PID controller. The PID control strategy results in negative energy expenditure of the quadriceps at the end of the STS initiation phase, this negative energy is caused by the high lengthening speeds at the muscle fiber level, which may lead to muscle fatigue or damage. Contrary to PID controller, model based controllers show positive energy expenditure, lower energy costs, and more natural curves of energy expenditure and knee torques.

Cite this paper

Massoud, R. (2014) The Influence of Control Design on Energetic Cost during FES Induced Sit-to-Stand. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 7, 1096-1104. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2014.714108.

References

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Discovered Solar Positronium

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52233#.VIpFIcnQrzE

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

I describe a method for the observation of Positronium (Ps) involvement in the solar radiation spectrum. In this method, Rydberg-Ritz’s principle and Planck’s radiation formula are used to acquire information of the atomic transitions of Ps alike Hydrogen and Helium. In order to perform this experiment, an advanced solar spectrum monitor is constructed by utilizing light emitting diodes (LED) of various colors. A detailed study on this method provides qualitative agreement with experimental data, giving insight to the physical process involved in the solar radiation spectrum and confirming the existence of solar Ps.

Cite this paper

Mondal, N. (2014) Discovered Solar Positronium. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 4, 620-627. doi: 10.4236/ijaa.2014.44057.

References

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