Using Neural Networks for Simulating and Predicting Core-End Temperatures in Electrical Generators: Power Uprate Application

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53751#.VNHLrCzQrzE

Power uprates pose a threat to electrical generators due to possible parasite effects that can develop potential failure sources with catastrophic consequences in most cases. In that sense, it is important to pay close attention to overheating, which results from excessive system losses and cooling system inefficiency. The end region of a stator is the most sensitive part to overheating. The calculation of magnetic fields, the evaluation of eddy-current losses and the determination of loss-derived temperature increases, are challenging problems requiring the use of simulation methods. The most usual methodology is the finite element method, or linear regression. In order to address this methodology, a calculation method was developed to determine temperature increases in the last stator package. The mathematical model developed was based on an artificial intelligence technique, more specifically neural networks. The model was successfully applied to estimate temperatures associated to 108% power and used to extrapolate temperature values for a power uprate to 113.48%. This last scenario was also useful to test extrapolation accuracy. The method is applied to determine core-end temperature when power is uprated to 117.78%. At that point, the temperature value will be compared to with the values obtained using finite elements method and multivariate regression.

Cite this paper

Moreno, C. (2015) Using Neural Networks for Simulating and Predicting Core-End Temperatures in Electrical Generators: Power Uprate Application. World Journal of Engineering and Technology, 3, 1-14. doi: 10.4236/wjet.2015.31001.

References

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Computer Modelling Average Annual Temperature in the Ground Layer of Air for the South of Western Siberia (Russia)

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52364#.VJN8UcCAM4

Author(s)

  1. A. Shergunova, S. V. Solovev, K. S. Baikov, Yu. V. Chernenko, Ya. G. Poshivailo

Affiliation(s)

Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemisry, Novosibirsk, Russia.

ABSTRACT

Computer modelling the map of average annual temperature in the ground layer of air is performed for the southern part of Western Siberia (Russia). Four methods for data interpolation were used in ArcMap 9. Procedure of creation of digital model is described in detail. An original mathematic way for ranking of methods is proposed. According to results, Ordinary Kriging method gives the best approximation to the initial data.

KEYWORDS

Computer Modelling, Temperature, Interpolation, Western Siberia

Cite this paper

Shergunova, N. , Solovev, S. , Baikov, K. , Chernenko, Y. and Poshivailo, Y. (2014) Computer Modelling Average Annual Temperature in the Ground Layer of Air for the South of Western Siberia (Russia). Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 2, 8-12. doi: 10.4236/gep.2014.25002.

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Future Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52152#.VIZK52fHRK0

ABSTRACT

In this study, we document the air temperature and precipitation changes between present-day conditions and those projected for the period 2041-2070 in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) by means of Eta driven by HadCM3 climate model output, considering the variation among its four ensemble members. The main purpose is to support studies of vulnerability and adaptation policy to climate change. In relation to future projections of temperature extremes, the model indicates an increase in average minimum (maximum) temperature of between +1.1°C and +1.4°C (+1.0°C and +1.5°C) in the state by 2070, and it could reach maximum values of between +2.0°C and +3.5°C (+2.5°C and +4.5°C). The model projections also indicate that cold nights and days will be much less frequent in Rio de Janeiro by 2070, while there will be significant increases in warm nights and days. With respect to annual total rainfall, the Northern Region of Rio de Janeiro displays the greatest variation among members, indicating changes ranging from a decrease of -350 mm to an increase of +300 mm during the 21st century. The southern portion of the state has the largest increase in annual total rainfall occurring due to heavy rains, ranging from +50 to +300 mm in the period 2041-2070. Consecutive dry days will increase, which indicates poorly time distributed rainfall, with increased rainfall concentrated over shorter time periods.

Cite this paper

Silva, W. , Dereczynski, C. , Chan, C. and Cavalcanti, I. (2014) Future Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). American Journal of Climate Change, 3, 353-365. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2014.34031.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajcc.2013.21003                                                                            eww141209lx

Farming Families and Climate Change Issues in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Extent of Impact and Adaptation Strategies

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51000#.VFGYzlfHRK0

ABSTRACT

The study focused on the impacts of climate change on the farmer and the farming families in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The study specifically evaluated the perceived resultant situations attributed to climate change to determine the extent of impacts of climate change on the farmer and the farming families and also explored adoptable strategies for coping with the situations. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The population for the study was 246,909 respondents made up of farmers and extension workers who are registered with the State Ministries of Agriculture. Out of the nine Niger Delta states, Bayelsa and Delta states were randomly chosen for the study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 5,038 respondents. Structured questionnaire and interview were used to collect data. The instruments were validated by three experts. Cronbach Alpha method was used to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaire items which yielded a coefficient of 0.81. The Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS v 20.0) was employed for data analysis. The statistical tools used for data analysis were weighted mean to answer research questions and standard deviation to validate the closeness of the respondents from the mean and from each other in their responses while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that the extent of impacts of climate change on farmers and the farming families in Niger Delta region of Nigeria are moderate. Findings further revealed that climate change has led to increased poverty level and raised cost of production (input and labour cost) as indicated by the farmers. The study recommends that farmers in the region should be encouraged by providing incentives and subsidizing inputs for them by Federal and State governments as well as other non-governmental organizations, as this will go a long way in improving production especially as most farmers agree to continue cultivation even with the observed impacts.

Cite this paper

Ikehi, M. , Onu, F. , Ifeanyieze, F. and Paradang, P. (2014) Farming Families and Climate Change Issues in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria: Extent of Impact and Adaptation Strategies. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1140-1151. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.512124.

References

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[8] Abisola, A. (2013) Where Cultivation Meets Conflict: Farming in the Niger Delta. Nourishing the Planet.
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[9] Uyigue, E. and Agho, M. (2007) Coping with Climate Change and Environmental Degradation in the Niger Delta of Southern Nigeria. Community Research and Development Centre (CREDC), Benin, Nigeria. CREDC Press, Benin.
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[29] Miguel, A.A. and Koohafkan, P. (2010) Impacts of Climate Change on Traditional Family Farming Communities. Oxford University Press, New York.                                                                                            eww141030lx

Effect of Curing Treatments on Seven Key Farmers’ Yams (Dioscorea spp.) in Ghana

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50995#.VFGWaVfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Curing of freshly harvested yams (Dioscorea spp.) is a process for wounded yams during harvest to heal. In this work the effectiveness of straw, polypropylene and jute sack on curing of seven key farmers’ yam varieties over a duration of 7, 14 and 21 days was studied. Seven key farmers’ yam varieties identified as Pona, Lariboko, Dente, Mutwumudoo, Serwah belonging to D. rotundata, Matches and Akaba belonging to D. alata were studied under different curing treatments. The percentage weight loss of yam tubers varied among the treatments over curing period. Curing under jute sack showed all yam varieties had weight losses less than 2.0%, within 7 days of curing. Five different varieties had weight loss less than 2.0% except Dente under the straw treatment. Mutwumudoo variety showed the highest water loss (8.4%) for polypropylene sheet and 6.9% for Lariboko in the control treatment. During 7 days curing the control and polypropylene treatment did not support yam curing. After 14 days of curing of tubers, similar tends were observed as in 7 days curing. After 14 days of curing under jute sack, percentage weight loss of the tubers ranges from 2.0% – 3.7%. In the straw treatment, the percentage weight loss ranges between 1.0% – 4.7% in all other varieties except Dente (D. rotundata) (8.2%). Polypropylene sheet treatment showed the highest percentage weight loss in Mutwumudoo variety (18.4%). A similar trend was observed for the yam tubers cured for 21days as percentage weight loss of tubers under jute sacks was 2.5 – 9.8%. Curing temperature and humidity ranged between 27°C – 40°C and 87% – 100% rh for yam tubers under the three different treatments of polypropylene, jute and straw. However, the control treatment recorded lower humidity of 60% – 80% rh. Curing material, duration, climatic conditions and yam varieties influenced curing and Serwah variety, which is a D. rotundata is the best bet yam variety to cure under jute sack for 7, 14 and 21 days of curing.

Cite this paper

Tortoe, C. , Dowuona, S. , Dziedzoave, N. and Rees, D. (2014) Effect of Curing Treatments on Seven Key Farmers’ Yams (Dioscorea spp.) in Ghana. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 1119-1128. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.512122.

References

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The Impact of Water Level Decline on Water Quality in the Epilimnion of Lake Kinneret (Israel): Perennial Perspectives

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50924#.VFBO4VfHRK0

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Long term record (1933-2014) of Water Level (WL), nutrient concentrations, plankton densities, and temperatures in the epilimnion of Lake Kinneret was analyzed. The aim is to identify if water quality is deteriorated when the WL is low. It was found that water temperature increased and the composition and biomass of plankton communities were modified. Nitrogen and TDP decreased but TP slightly increased in the epilimnion during low WL conditions. The quality of epilimnetic water was not deteriorated and followed by a slight oligotrophism trend.

Cite this paper

Gophen, M. (2014) The Impact of Water Level Decline on Water Quality in the Epilimnion of Lake Kinneret (Israel): Perennial Perspectives. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 892-906. doi: 10.4236/oje.2014.414075.

References

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[2] Gophen, M. (2004) Chapter: Hydrology and Management of Lake Kinneret Aimed at Water Quality Protection. Chapter: Water Utilization in Semi-Arid Zone, The Hula Valley (Israel): Pollutant Removal, Agriculture and Ecotourism Management. In: Water in the Middle East and in North Africa: Resources, Protection, and Management. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-10866-6_18
[3] Gophen, M. (2004) Ecohydrological Management of Lake Kinneret: A Case Study. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology, 4, 397-408.
[4] Gophen, M. (2008) Long Term (1970-2001) Eco-Hydrological Processes in Lake Kinneret and Its Watershed. In: Zereini, H., Ed., Climatic Changes and Water Resources in the Middle East and in North Africa, Springer, Berlin, 373-402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-85047-2_24
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A Study of Human Thermal Comfort, Ozone and Respiratory Diseases in Children

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50584#.VEWtXlfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the impact of air pollution and ozone on morbidity due to respiratory diseases among children from <span “=””>2005 to 2008.<span “=””> <span “=””>Methods:<span “=””> <span “=””>The database was composed by daily reports on visits by children with respiratory diseases in health units of the Unified Health System (SUS) in the municipality of Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, by daily levels of ozone concentration measured by the Department of Physics, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, and by daily measurements of temperature and relative humidity provided by the Agricultural Research Corporation-EMBRAPA Gado de Corte-MS. The relationship between respiratory diseases and ozone concentration was investigated through Generalized Linear Models (GLM) using the multiple Poisson regression model. The significance level α = 5% was adopted for all tests.<span “=””> <span “=””>Results:<span “=””> <span “=””>It was observed that the association between ozone (lagged by three time-steps) and attendance for respiratory diseases in children was statistically significant. The bio-meteorological variable Wind-adjusted Effective Temperature (lagged by four time-steps) was also significantly associated with diseases. Conclusions:<span “=””> <span “=””>The results suggest that the surface ozone concentration promotes adverse effects on children’s health even when pollutant levels are below the amounts permitted by law.

Cite this paper

Souza, A. , Aristone, F. and Fernandes, L. (2014) A Study of Human Thermal Comfort, Ozone and Respiratory Diseases in Children. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, 4, 672-678. doi: 10.4236/acs.2014.44060.

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