The Prevalence of Blindness, Visual Impairment and Cataract Surgery in Tuoketuo and Shangdu Counties, Inner Mongolia, China

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Aim: A population-based survey was conducted in Tuoketuo and Shangdu Counties in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, in the Autumn of 2010, to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment of people aged 50 years and over. Methods: Random cluster sampling was used to select 82 clusters of 50 residents in the 2 counties. Each survey team included an ophthalmologist, a nurse and a coordinator, who went to door to door in each cluster to identify eligible people. A torch, direct ophthalmoscope and portable slit lamp were used for eye examination. Visual acuity (VA) was tested for each eye of every subject. Those with VA below 6/18 in either eye were examined and causes identified. Results: The survey identified a prevalence of blindness in people aged 50+ in Tuoketuo of 1.2% (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7% – 1.7%) and in Shangdu of 1.4% (95% CI: 1.0% – 1.9%). Cataract was identified as the leading cause of blindness (BL) and severe visual impairment (SVI), and uncorrected refractive errors were the major causes of moderate visual impairment (MVI) in both counties. Over two thirds of blindness, SVI and MVI were identified as avoidable. Conclusions: The prevalence of blindness in people aged 50+ in Tuoketuo and Shangdu was low compared to other studies conducted in China [1] [2]. The prevalence of blindness of people aged 50 years and over could be reduced by up to two thirds through better eye services in the two study areas.

Cite this paper

Xiao, B. , Yi, J. , Limburg, H. , Zhang, G. , Mesurier, R. , Müller, A. , Congdon, N. and Iezzi, B. (2015) The Prevalence of Blindness, Visual Impairment and Cataract Surgery in Tuoketuo and Shangdu Counties, Inner Mongolia, China. Open Journal of Ophthalmology, 5, 23-30. doi: 10.4236/ojoph.2015.51005.

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Credibility and Signaling as Strategic Drivers in China’s African Security Engagement

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The aim of this paper is to show that strategic interaction provides a fruitful way to understand China’s decision-making behavior. States are actors in global politics and frequently have to make choices that are strategic. Credibility and uncertainty are central issues in this environment of incomplete information. This raises the question how China signals its motivations along this strategic chessboard. Strategic interaction assumes purposeful behavior from China in the African security environment. Signaling allows China to consider the problem of unknown motivations, making choices based in part, on what other actors are likely to do in the future. Knowing the choices of other African actors can help China judge what likely responses are.

Cite this paper

Herman, F. (2015) Credibility and Signaling as Strategic Drivers in China’s African Security Engagement. Chinese Studies, 4, 25-31. doi: 10.4236/chnstd.2015.41005.

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China’s Public Diplomacy: Main Vectors

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Author(s)

ABSTRACT

This paper examines China’s public diplomacy components and content in general, discussing some of the main vectors of China’s public diplomacy, cultural and political influence by the way of “soft power”. The paper does not review PRC’s public diplomacy politics toward specific countries or regions. In the 60-plus years since the birth of the Peoples Republic of China in 1949, and in the last 3 decades in particular, China’s national strength has grown constantly and its role on the world stage has become more important. In this term, brilliant achievements in the field of diplomacy have been made. But still China faces new tasks and challenges. Because of its development and influence in the world, it is a necessary step for China to take to strengthen its PD (public diplomacy) in both domestic and foreign context.

Cite this paper

Sargsyan, G. (2015) China’s Public Diplomacy: Main Vectors. Chinese Studies, 4, 10-14. doi: 10.4236/chnstd.2015.41002.

References

[1] Jeffers, M. (2012). New Wine in Old Bottles: Relationships in Public Diplomacy.
http://takefiveblog.org/2012/10/12/new-wine-in-old-bottles-relationships-in-public-diplomacy/
[2] Lai Hongyi (2006). China’s Cultural Diplomacy: Going for Soft Power. EAI Background Brief No. 308, p. 7.
[3] Lejli, H. A. (2011). Public Diplomacy of People’s Republic of China. Sarajevo School of Science and Technology, Sarajevo.
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A New Species of Ehretia, Ehretia retroserrata in Nujiang County, Yunnan Province, China

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ABSTRACT

On the investigation of the biodiverisities of plant resources of Nujiang River Valley in Nujiang Autonomous Prefacure, Yunnan Province, China, a new species of Ehretia has been described and illustrated as Ehretia retroserrata in the arid valley of Nujiang according to the new living state of erect shrub and the characteristics of serrate leave margin, retrose, apiculate, endocarp divided at maturity into 4 1-seeded pyrene and serrate leaves margins by comparison with other species of the genus Ehretia.

Cite this paper

Yang, S. , Du, F. , Zhou, D. and Hou, Z. (2015) A New Species of Ehretia, Ehretia retroserrata in Nujiang County, Yunnan Province, China. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 260-263. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.61029.

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[1] Agenda Academiae Sinicae Edita (1989) Delectis Florae Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae, Agenda Academiae Sinicae Edita, Tomus 64(2), Science Press, Beijing, 11-19.
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Mapping and Evaluating Regional University-Industry Knowledge Flow through Patent Licensing

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53107#.VLXH0snQrzE

ABSTRACT

Different regions had various kinds of academic resources and industries competitors. The knowledge and innovation output generated by researchers in academy had been transferred into industries through patent licensing. Using the patent licensing document analyzing method and the mapping technique, the academic-industry knowledge flowing patterns of different regions in China had been discovered and visualized in maps. The regional performance of academic-industry knowledge transfer was rather mixed and unbalanced. Based on the licensing performance data, this paper had also generated a 4 × 4 block matrix as evaluation tool and ranked 28 Chinese regions into 8 levels according to their academic licensing performance. Further suggestions and advice had been given for regions in different levels.

Cite this paper

Gao, X. , Chen, Y. , Song, W. , Peng, X. and Song, X. (2015) Mapping and Evaluating Regional University-Industry Knowledge Flow through Patent Licensing. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 3, 1-12. doi: 10.4236/jss.2015.31001.

References

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A Compact Wideband Dual-Polarized Printed Antenna with Coaxial Feeds for TD-SCDMA Application

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ABSTRACT

In this article, a low-profile wideband dual-polarized planar printed dipole antenna, fed by coaxial lines, is investigated for the TD-SCDMA operation. The antenna is composed of two printed dipoles, two pairs of feeding coaxial lines and a ground. The single-polarized planar printed rectangular dipole and petal dipole, with the similar configuration, are first studied, exhibiting the potential wideband operation. Two petal dipoles are then cross-arranged to design a dual-polarized planar printed antenna, giving a lower profile and a better bandwidth covering the Chinese TD-SCDMA band (1880-2400 MHz). The dual-polarized antenna is simply excited by two pairs of coaxial feeds. Simulated and measured results show that the antenna achieves a common impedance bandwidth of 42% at both ports, good isolation of more than 25 dB, stable radiation patterns and the gain of about 7 dBi over the operating bandwidth.

Cite this paper

Liu, Y. , Tang, W. , Ge, Y. and Li, G. (2015) A Compact Wideband Dual-Polarized Printed Antenna with Coaxial Feeds for TD-SCDMA Application. Wireless Engineering and Technology, 6, 1-8. doi: 10.4236/wet.2015.61001.

References

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Technology Transferring Performance of Chinese Universities: Insights from Patent Licensing Data

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52511#.VJor8cCAM4

ABSTRACT

This paper had collected the patent licensing documents of all Chinese universities and made a comprehensive study on licensing performance. With a whole set of data from SIPO, the exact licensing frequency number and licensing propensity number of Chinese universities had been obtained for the first time. On average, 16.03 patents (6%) per university had been licensed out to the industry, which is much lower than expectations. The frequency of licensing, propensity of licensing, number of partners (licensees), number of patent stocks, local-transfer ratio and the distribution of licensing frequency in terms of university-firm distance had been obtained in details. Five hypotheses had been made to discover the variances in university licensing performance. With the ANOVA technique, five hypotheses had been confirmed within the dataset, which had revealed a significant effect of patent stocks, local economic performance, central government support, existence of TTO and local government administration on university licensing performance.

Cite this paper

Gao, X. , Song, W. , Peng, X. and Song, X. (2014) Technology Transferring Performance of Chinese Universities: Insights from Patent Licensing Data. Advances in Applied Sociology, 4, 289-300. doi: 10.4236/aasoci.2014.412032.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10961-011-9233-8                                                                          eww141224lx