Morphology and Morphometry of the Lingual Nerve in Relation to the Mandibular Third Molar

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ABSTRACT

The position and branching of the lingual nerve (LN) in the mandibular third molar region were documented in 30 head hemi-sections (16: right and 14: left). In all the dissections, the LN was found below the level of the posterior alveolar crest (PAC). Branching was observed in 26 (86.7%) of the 30 specimen in which one branch was most frequently given per hemi-section. All branches were located superior to the main trunk of the LN. The mean vertical distance of the LN from the PAC was 10.3 ± 5.2 mm (range: 2.8 – 19.9 mm) whereas the mean antero-posterior distance was 7.1 ± 2.8 mm (range: 1.3 – 15.6 mm). The mean mandibular height from the PAC was 28.7 ± 4.0 mm (range: 23.3 – 40.7 mm). The vertical distance and mandibular height correlated positively giving a ratio of 1:2.7 between the two parameters. There was no significant difference between the two sides of the head. Position of the LN differed from previous studies suggesting that ethnicity may have a role in morphometry of the nerve. Use of different methodology may also contribute to this. Branches of the LN being closer to the PAC may be more prone to injury than the main trunk during surgical treatment.

Cite this paper

Bokindo, I. , Butt, F. and Hassanali, J. (2015) Morphology and Morphometry of the Lingual Nerve in Relation to the Mandibular Third Molar. Open Journal of Stomatology, 5, 6-11. doi: 10.4236/ojst.2015.51002.

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Morphometric Relationships among the Clariid Fishes of the Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52910#.VKyX0snQrzE

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

Six hundred and fifty-eight specimens of the Clariidae were collected from seven localities in the Lake Victoria basin and the Malagarasi wetland, Tanzania. A total of three hundred unadjusted morphometric measurements and meristic counts were analysed with the aim of assessing the adequacy of morphometric technique to delineate the clariid species occurring in theLake Victoriabasin. Results showed that morphometrics augmented by multivariate analysis (PCA, DCA and cluster analysis) amalgamated the clariid fishes into three groups, the Clarias alluaudi/C. werneri, C. gariepinus/C. liocephalus andClariallabes petricola. Although other workers have used this technique, the present study concluded that, standing alone morphometrics is not a substitute for external morphology in the identification of clariid fish species, as it failed to separate the clariids into their respective taxonomic species. The technique, however, insinuates the regressional morphological relationships among the clariids occurring in the Lake Victoria basin.

Cite this paper

Mwita, C. (2015) Morphometric Relationships among the Clariid Fishes of the Lake Victoria Basin, Tanzania. Open Journal of Marine Science, 5, 26-32. doi: 10.4236/ojms.2015.51003.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2001)001%5B0548:GEFMOT%5D2.0.CO;2                               eww150107lx

Could an Interactive-Balanced Environment for Reading Acquisition Overcome the Triad Risk Factors: Low Socioeconomic Status, Low Literacy Skills and Language Properties?

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52828#.VKn7EsnQrzE

Author(s)

ABSTRACT

A large number of the scientific efforts that have investigated the issue of Arabic language acquisition have mainly focused on the implication of its Diglossic nature and orthographic complexity in reading acquisition. However, the interplay of the two factors and low-socio economic background was not addressed sufficiently. The current study follows the progress in literacy skills among atlinguistic risk Arabic native speaking kindergarten children throughout 2nd grade, and assesses its impact on reading and writing acquisition in a Diglossic context. Twenty-five at literacy risk children and 181 heterogeneous children (resembling the heterogeneity of Socioeconomic Status (SES) and literacy background in regular classes) took part in the study. The effects of an interactive-balanced reading and writing learning program were evaluated. Children were assessed both at the end of kindergarten and at the beginning of 2nd grade in the following domains: discourse, listening comprehension, phonology, morphology, syntax and vocabulary. In the post-test, reading measures were included. The results of the study indicate that the learning program succeeded in bridging the gaps in literacy skills between the at-risk children and their heterogeneous peers. However, lower performance was observed in reading measures among the former.

Cite this paper

Makhoul, B. & Ibrahim, R. (2014). Could an Interactive-Balanced Environment for Reading Acquisition Overcome the Triad Risk Factors: Low Socioeconomic Status, Low Literacy Skills and Language Properties?. Psychology, 5, 2200-2217. doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.519222.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stueduc.2011.02.004                                                               eww150105lx

Chemical and Morphological Study of PM10 Analysed by SEM-EDS

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52213#.VIj2csnQrzE

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>Single particle characterization can provide information on the evolution of size distribution and chemical composition of pollution aerosol. The work described the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray Dispersive Energy Spectrometry (EDS) to characterize inorganic atmospheric particles samples collected on PM10 filters from January 2013 to October 2013 from three zones within the city of Hermosillo, Sonora. Specimens were initially processed by separating the collected particles from the filters by means of submersing a 2 cm2 section of each filter into isopropilic alcohol within a test tube for 5 minutes. Then, an aliquot of the suspension was placed over a sample holder and into the SEM. The different elements found amongst individual particles were Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Si, Ti and U. The predominant elements are Al (17.10 At%), Si (10.17 At%), Ba (5.90 At%), Fe (5.45 At%) and U (2.32 At%). The particles were classified into groups based on morphology and elemental composition: particles of aluminosilicate, salts of sodium chloride, sulfates, metal particles, barium and uranium. These particles morphology and chemical composition, illustrate an abundance of natural elements within the zone. However, some of the elements presented are directly related with human activities, and are of much interest from the public health and environmental perspectives.

Cite this paper

Ramirez-Leal, R. , Valle-Martinez, M. and Cruz-Campas, M. (2014) Chemical and Morphological Study of PM10 Analysed by SEM-EDS. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 3, 121-129. doi: 10.4236/ojap.2014.34012.

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Comparative Analysis of Rigid PVC Foam Reinforced with Class C and Class F Fly Ash

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51164#.VFgkamfHRK0

ABSTRACT

Fly ash particles are usually spherical and based on their chemical composition; they are categorized into two classes: C and F. This study compares the microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of extruded rigid PVC foam composites reinforced with class C and class F fly ash. The mechanical properties: such as tensile and flexural strength of composites containing class C fly ash were superior to the composites containing class F fly ash particles. Composites containing 6 phr class C fly ash showed a 24% improvement in the tensile strength in comparison to a mere 0.5% increase in composites reinforced with class F fly ash. Similarly, the addition of 6 phr of class F fly ash to the PVC foam matrix resulted in a 5.74% decrease in the flexural strength, while incorporating the same amount of class C fly ash led to a 95% increase in flexural strength. The impact strength of the composites decreased as the amount of either type of fly ash increased in the composites indicating that fly ash particles improve the rigidity of the PVC foam composites. No significant changes were observed in the thermal properties of the composites containing either type of fly ash particles. However, the thermo-mechanical properties measured by DMA indicated a steep increase in the viscoelastic properties of composites reinforced with class C flyash. The microstructural properties studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) confirmed that fly ash particles were mechanically interlocked in the PVC matrix with good interfacial interaction with the matrix. However, particle agglomeration and debonding was observed in composites reinforced with higher amounts of fly ash.

Cite this paper

Khoshnoud, P. , Gunashekar, S. , Jamel, M. and Abu-Zahra, N. (2014) Comparative Analysis of Rigid PVC Foam Reinforced with Class C and Class F Fly Ash. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 2, 554-565. doi: 10.4236/jmmce.2014.26057.

References

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Preparation and Characterization of Near Nano Copper Powder by Electrolytic Route

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=51134#.VFbY6GfHRK0

ABSTRACT

<span “=””>For the preparation of copper nanoparticles several methods, i.e., thermal reduction, mechanical attrition, chemical reduction metal vapour synthesis, radiation methods, laser ablation and micro emulsion techniques were developed in the past. Electrolytic deposition is one of the most suitable, simplest and low cost methods which are used for wide range of materials. In the present investigations, efforts were put to produce copper nano powder using electrolytic technique. It could be possible to obtain near nano copper powder of 258 nm size using high cathode current density of 1100 A/m2 in sulphate bath. The specific surface area and shape of the particles were found to be 23.2 m2/g and irregular, respectively.<span “=””>

Cite this paper

Sengar, A. and Soni, P. (2014) Preparation and Characterization of Near Nano Copper Powder by Electrolytic Route. International Journal of Nonferrous Metallurgy, 3, 35-41. doi: 10.4236/ijnm.2014.34005.

References

[1] Chatopadhyay, K.K. and Banerjee, A.N. (2009) Introduction to Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. PHI Learning, New Delhi, 1-5.
[2] Gordillo, G. and Hailey, X. (2004) Nanopowder Production: A Comparison of Several Methods. NSF-REU Summer, Chicago, 1-19.
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[4] Theivasanthi, T. and Alagar, M. (2010) X-Ray Diffraction Studies of Copper Nanopowder. Archive of Physics Research, 1, 112-117.
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[7] Levi, C., Romalo, J.B. and Shaw, J.K. (1970) Copper Electroplating in Citric Acid Bath. US Patent No. 3684666A.

eww141103lx

Malpighian Tubules in Larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera; Crambidae): A Morphological Comparison between Non-Parasitized and Parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera; Braconidae)

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50859#.VE7kDVfHRK0

ABSTRACT

In Diatraea saccharalis larvae, the Malpighian tubules are found along the digestive tube, extending from the middle mesenteric region to the end of the posterior intestine, where they come in contact with the rectum to form the cryptonephridium. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of non-parasitized and parasitized larvae by Cotesia flavipes have indicated that the tubules consist of secretory and reabsorption cells. In parasitized larvae, the occurrence of hemocytes and teratocytes around the tubules is indicative of their role in immunological defense; however, they were not observed in non-parasitized larvae. At day 9 of parasitism, the mitochondria-containing vacuoles and myelin-like figures show signs of degeneration. The results of this study have confirmed that C. flavipes manipulates the physiology and biochemistry of D. saccharalis because the Malpighian tubules of the parasitized larvae remain active until the parasitoid completes its pupal stage and is released from the host organism.

Cite this paper

Rigoni, G. and Conte, H. (2014) Malpighian Tubules in Larvae of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera; Crambidae): A Morphological Comparison between Non-Parasitized and Parasitized by Cotesia flavipes (Hymenoptera; Braconidae). Advances in Entomology, 2, 202-210. doi: 10.4236/ae.2014.24029.

References

[1] Wigglesworth, V.B. (1974) The Principles of Insect Physiology. 7th Edition, Chapman and Hall, London, 827 p.
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