Genetically Targeted Fractionated Chemotherapy

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Complex and late stage cancer patients are in need of novel methods of selecting and administering chemotherapy particularly for those patients who are refractory to current treatment methods. The use of biomarkers to enhance decision making with regard to the molecular profile of a person’s cancer is becoming more important in the practice of oncology. The standard for the last several decades is to elect chemotherapeutic agents based on staging and histological identification of the primary cancer site alone versus utilizing the genetic and molecular profile information along with histological primary cancer site and staging to select chemotherapy regimens. Cancers are caused by mutations that occur within cells and therefore selecting treatment based on mutations and not primary cancer site alone can provide advantages that may have gone overlooked. As time progresses, more biomarkers continue to be discovered which can lead to more targets for drugs either currently on the market or clinical trials. In addition to advancements made in the progression of cancer treatment with utilizing molecular profiles effectively, there are other therapeutic strategies that have been postulated as advanced effective ways to administer chemotherapy. These strategies provide chemotherapy to patients while fasting, giving insulin or other biological response modifiers adjunctively prior to chemotherapy for enhanced targeting, and giving chemotherapy in micro-doses to allow for increased frequency of administration and the utilization of multiple targeted chemotherapeutic agents concurrently. In this paper we will discuss these topics and explain their benefits in addition to the evidence that supports these treatments. A review on biomarkers and cancer cell metabolism is discussed as it relates to providing a framework for what constitutes a biomarker in addition to what metabolic processes are related to fasting and administering insulin with chemotherapy. The information provided in this document is designed to illuminate and provide evidence for various methodologies that are underserved in the treatment of cancer.

Cite this paper

Smith, A. , Oertle, J. and Prato, D. (2015) Genetically Targeted Fractionated Chemotherapy. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 6, 182-198. doi: 10.4236/jct.2015.62021.

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Two Grams BID Is an Oral Dosage of Vitamin C to Reduce the Risk of Recurrence of Superficial Bladder Carcinoma

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Background: Continuous exposure to millimolar (mM) Vitamin C (AA) in vitro kills cancer cells. For superficial bladder carcinoma (SBC), standard chemotherapy is instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. The recurrence rate with this therapy is 91%. But high dosage vitamins including AA reduced the recurrence to 41%. Aim: To determine the oral dosage of AA that causes the highest concentration of AA [AA] in the bladder. Method: We conducted a clinical trial of 14 people who took various dosages of AA, and analyzed the [AA] in their urine. Results: AA above 2 g twice a day was not absorbed. But that intake produced a bladder [AA] above 1 mM in all participants. Conclusion: Taking 2 g of AA BID will increase [AA] in the bladder to a level likely to kill cancer cells that cause SBC. Taking that dosage 2 consecutive days a week is likely to reduce the recurrence rate of SBC substantially.

KEYWORDS

Cancer, Vitamin C, LUTS, Superficial Bladder Carcinoma

Cite this paper

Folk, E. , Downs, T. and Ordman, A. (2015) Two Grams BID Is an Oral Dosage of Vitamin C to Reduce the Risk of Recurrence of Superficial Bladder Carcinoma. Journal of Cancer Therapy, 6, 169-176. doi: 10.4236/jct.2015.62019.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.SMJ.0000063467.75456.7A                      eww150210lx

Cancer, Malnutrition and Cachexia: We Must Break the Triad

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Many factors can modify nutritional status in cancer patients, including cachexia, nausea and vomiting, decreased caloric intake or oncologic treatments causing malabsorption. The cachexia-anorexia syndrome is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with cancer and some other palliative conditions characterized by involuntary weight loss involving fat and muscle, anorexia, early satiety, fatigue and weakness due to shifts in metabolism caused by tumour by-products and cytokines. Cachexia is a distressing and debilitating condition, affecting significant numbers of patients with advanced disease and is the primary cause of death in about 20% of all patients with cancer. Though cachexia is most commonly associated with particular tumours, such as head and neck, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, central nervous system and lung, it may affect any patient with any tumour at any site; no patient and no tumour are excluded. Current treatment for principally depends on its prevention rather than reversing the present disease state, and the clinical results are far from being satisfactory. A careful decision based on good clinical judgement is necessary before deciding to start either enteral or parenteral nutrition, to avoid a useless, costly and difficult treatment. Treatment should be directed toward improvement in the quality of life of the patient and should often include nutritional counseling. It should take into consideration both disease and treatment related factors as well as the cachexia syndrome itself.

Cite this paper

Suhag, V. , Sunita, B. , Sarin, A. and Singh, A. (2015) Cancer, Malnutrition and Cachexia: We Must Break the Triad. International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology, 4, 64-70. doi: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2015.41009.

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[18] Bozzetti, F., Arends, J., Lundholm, K., Micklewright, A., Zurcher, G. and Muscaritoli, M. (2009) ESPEN Guidelines on Parenteral Nutrition: Non-Surgical Oncology. Clinical Nutrition, 28, 445-454.
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[19] Bozzetti, F. (2011) Nutritional Support in Oncologic Patients: Where We Are and Where We Are Going. Clinical Nutrition, 30, 714-747. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2011.06.011
[20] Penna, F., Minero, V.G., Costamagna, D., Bonelli, G., Baccino, F.M. and Costelli, P. (2010) Anti-Cytokine Strategies for the Treatment of Cancer-Related Anorexia and Cachexia. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy, 10, 1241-1250.
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[21] Mariani, L., Lo Vullo, S. and Bozzetti, F., on behalf of the SCRINIO Working Group (2011) Weight Loss in Cancer Patients: A Plea for a Better Awareness of the Issue. Supportive Care in Cancer, 20, 301-309.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-010-1075-7
[22] Pascual López, A., Roqué i Figuls, M., Urrútia Cuchi, G., Berenstein, E.G., Almenar Pasies, B., Balcells Alegre, M., et al. (2004) Systematic Review of Megestrol Acetate in the Treatment of Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 27, 360-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2003.09.007
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[25] Yennurajalingam, S. and Bruera, E. (2014) Role of Corticosteroids for Fatigue in Advanced Incurable Cancer: Is It a “Wonder Drug” or “Deal with the Devil”. Current Opinion in Supportive & Palliative Care, 8, 346-351.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SPC.0000000000000093
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjcn.2009.14.10.44494                                          eww150205lx

The Association of Night Shift Work with the Development of Breast Cancer in Women

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53385#.VMBtkyzQrzE

ABSTRACT

Breast cancer is a serious public health concern in South Africa and globally. It is estimated that one in seven South Africans will develop cancer in their lifetime. According to a case-controlled study, 80% of cancer cases are thought to be due to external, non-inherited factors, which could potentially have been prevented. The objectives of the current case-control study were: 1) to determine the relationship between night shift work and the development of breast cancer; 2) to explore the relationship between night shift work and other types of cancer; 3) to explore any difference between night shift work and breast cancer, and night shift work and other types of cancer. A total of 106 research participants were selected using non-probability, convenience sampling methods and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Seventy-two (68%) of the women who were interviewed were black, while 32% (n = 35) were white. Of the 106 research participants, 82% (n = 87) had a history of being employed, while 18% (n = 19) had never been employed. Analysed data showed that 29% (n = 31) of the women had a history of working night shift. Of the 31 research participants who reported having worked night shift, 90% (n = 28) had actually done rotating shift work, rather than regular night shift work. The odds ratio of working night shift was found to be 1.24 (OR = 1.24, p = 0.615) higher in breast cancer research participants compared to research participants diagnosed with other types of cancer—odds ratio of 0.80 (p = 0.610). For rotational work, the OR was 1.445, indicating a higher risk than for shift work. It is recommended that the relationship between working night shift and breast cancer risk be explored further through cross-sectional and cohort studies.

Cite this paper

Moukangoe, P. and Jansen van Rensburg, M. (2015) The Association of Night Shift Work with the Development of Breast Cancer in Women. Open Journal of Epidemiology, 5, 14-21. doi: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.51003.

References

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[17] Pesch, B., Harth, V., Rabstein, S., Baish, C., Schiffermann, M., Bonberg, N., Heinze, E., Spickenheuer, A., Justenhoven, C., Brauch, H., Hamann, U., Ko, Y., Straif, K. and Bruning, T. (2010) Night Work and Breast Cancer—Results from the German GENICA Study. Scandanavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 36, 134-141.
[18] Anjoeka, P., Bu-Tian, J., Xiao-Ou, S., Shouzheng, X., Gong, Y., Hong-Lan, L., Nathaniel, R., Yu-Tang, G., Wei, Z. and Wong-Ho, Chow. (2010) Night Shift Work and Breast Cancer Risk in a Cohort of Chinese Women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 171, 953-959.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwq029
[19] Groot, M.T., Baltussen, R., Uyl-de Groot, C.A., Anderson, B.O. and Hortobagyi, G.N. (2005) Costs and Health Effects of Breast Cancer Interventions in Epidemiologically Different Regions of Africa, North America, and Asia. 2nd Biennial Global Summit Consensus Conference on International Breast Health Care, Bethesda, 12-15 January 2005, 581-590.                                                                                         eww150122lx

Challenges in Cancer Care of Elderly

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53346#.VL3NKSzQrzE

ABSTRACT

As a result of vast global improvement of health care and living conditions, the world population is aging. In developed countries, more than half of the cancers occur in patients aged 70 and older. In booming Asian nations, such as India, the aging trend is particularly striking, and therefore geriatric oncology is rapidly coming at the foreground of oncology practice. As these patients have special needs and a different approach to treatment, there is a strong need for the emergence of geriatric oncology as a sub specialty in oncology. Scientific data show that a geriatric assessment identifies many problems in older people with cancer, adds prognostic information, and might improve the outcomes of these patients. There is a genuine unmet requirement to design and implement the following: development of individually tailored geriatric assessment tools for different oncology centers; cooperation of aging and cancer research in the understanding of cancer biology, aging and physiology; improved clinical study designs; development of geriatric oncology programs; and screening tools for geriatric patients made accessible to family physicians.

Cite this paper

Suhag, V. , Sunita, B. , Sarin, A. and Singh, A. (2015) Challenges in Cancer Care of Elderly. International Journal of Medical Physics, Clinical Engineering and Radiation Oncology, 4, 25-31. doi: 10.4236/ijmpcero.2015.41004.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdt386                                                                     eww150120lx

The Role of Soluble, Insoluble Fibers and Their Bioactive Compounds in Cancer: A Mini Review

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53072#.VLSWf8nQrzE

ABSTRACT

The cancer incidence has risen dramatically over the last decades. About 8 million people died globally according to latest reports, which represented almost 40% more than it was 20 years ago. Risk factors for the development of cancer have been found to include smoking, alcohol, drugs, obesity and diet. Fiber intake has shown to exhibit chemoprotective effects on cancer proliferation and metastasis that may seem to be very promising. This article will review the role of different types of fiber such as, cellulose, lignin, pectin and inulin in development and prevention of different types of cancers. This article would also discuss the effectiveness of both types of fiber in cancer prevention.

Cite this paper

Papandreou, D. , Noor, Z. and Rashed, M. (2015) The Role of Soluble, Insoluble Fibers and Their Bioactive Compounds in Cancer: A Mini Review. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 6, 1-11. doi: 10.4236/fns.2015.61001.

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Chlorambucil Encapsulation into PLGA Nanoparticles and Cytotoxic Effects in Breast Cancer Cell

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53000#.VK9BqsnQrzE

ABSTRACT

The present work aimed to develop and evaluate a colloidal system composed of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) associated with chlorambucil (CHB) and its effects on cancer cells. The nanoparticles showed %EE (>92%), a mean particle size in the range of 240 to 334 nm and zeta potential of -16.7 to -26.0 mV. In vitro release profile showed a biphasic pattern, with an initial burst for all formulations. The scanning electron microscopy of CHB-nanoparticles showed regular spherical shapes, smooth surface without aggregations. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms, UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed showing the entrapment of the antitumoral in drug delivery system. CHB encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles decrease the survival rates of the breast cancer cells: 68.9% reduction of cell viability on MCF-7 cell line and 59.7% on NIH3T3. Our results indicated that polymeric nanoparticles produced by classical methods are efficient drug delivery systems for CHB.

Cite this paper

Dias, D. , Joanitti, G. , Azevedo, R. , Silva, L. , Lunardi, C. and Gomes, A. (2015) Chlorambucil Encapsulation into PLGA Nanoparticles and Cytotoxic Effects in Breast Cancer Cell. Journal of Biophysical Chemistry, 6, 1-13. doi: 10.4236/jbpc.2015.61001.

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