Evaluation of Laboratory Performance with Quality Indicators in Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

Read  full  paper  at:http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53963#.VN2nfyzQrzE

Background: In January 2010, the implementation of quality management systems toward WHO-AFRO laboratory accreditation commenced in the Antiretroviral Treatment Laboratory of the Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Quality improvement projects were instituted in 2011 in line with ISO 15189 requirements for accreditation of medical laboratory. In this study we evaluated the performance of the laboratory through some set of quality indicators (QI). Methodology: This was a retrospective study to evaluate laboratory QIs monitored from January 2011 to December 2013. The QIs were specimen rejection rate (SSR), turnaround time (TAT), proficiency testing performance (PTP) and client satisfaction survey (CSS). Data was collected into an excel file for analysis and percentage performance compared among years. SSR & TAT were evaluated with the Sigma scale. Results: A total of 7920 (2194 in 2011, 2715 in 2012, 3011 in 2013) specimens were received for testing. 22 (0.28%) specimens were rejected and 81 (1.02%) specimens’ results were reported after the acceptable TAT, giving a Sigma level of 4.27 and 3.82 for SSR and TAT respectively. There was steady improvement in PTP: CD4+ from 67% in 2011 to 90% in 2013, hematology from 81% in 2012 to 83% in 2013, blood film reading 79% in 2011 to 83% in 2013 and chemistry from 90% in 2011 to 93% in 2013. HIV serology recorded 100% throughout. CSS increased from 59% in 2012 to 78% in 2013. However, there was no statistically significance difference reported for PTP and CSS over the years (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The study highlights the need to continuously evaluate QIs and calls for more effort to improve on PTP and focuses on understanding and improving on clients concerns.

Cite this paper

Jegede, F. , Mbah, H. , Aminu, M. , Yakubu, T. and Torpey, K. (2015) Evaluation of Laboratory Performance with Quality Indicators in Infectious Disease Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, 5, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/ojcd.2015.51001.

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Time Management Practices, Character Development and Academic Performance among University Undergraduates: Covenant University Experience

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53508#.VMcmbizQrzE

ABSTRACT

Background: University undergraduates are representative of the Nigerian youth population; and sustainable development in any nation depends on the resourcefulness of her youth. This necessitates the need to drive excellence among Nigerian undergraduates through quality education and advice. Quality education is demonstrated in character and in learning; and characters of discipline, responsibility and diligence serve as the hallmark of excellence among university undergraduates. It is hypothesized that time management practices will be positively related to character development and academic performance among university undergraduates. Method: The case study and ex-post facto research designs were adopted in this study. Questionnaire was administered to 120 Diploma and Certificate students of Leadership Development Programme in Covenant University. Results: The findings revealed a positive relationship between character development and time management practices (r = .44, p < .01) and between character development and academic performance(r = .23, p < .05). The result further revealed that time management practices predicted character development (R2 = .241, F (3,116) = 12.383, p < .01) and character development predicted academic performance (R2 = .241, F (3,116) = 5.412, p < .01). However, no significant relationship was found between time management practice and academic performance (r = .18, p > .05). Conclusion: It was concluded that in the quest for academic excellence, building performance characters such as discipline, responsibility and diligence among university undergraduates was as important as improving the quality and standard of learning. This study therefore recommended that time management training be incorporated into academic advising and tutoring programs in the Nigerian academia.

Cite this paper

Olowookere, E. , Alao, A. , Odukoya, J. , Adekeye, O. and Agbude, G. (2015) Time Management Practices, Character Development and Academic Performance among University Undergraduates: Covenant University Experience. Creative Education, 6, 79-86. doi: 10.4236/ce.2015.61007.

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Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine and Specific Determinants of Vaccine Hesitancy

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53352#.VL71MizQrzE

ABSTRACT

Background: Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine is imminent and may encounter the challenges that face new vaccines especially vaccine hesitancy. The study evaluated factors that may contribute to hesitancy towards IPV. Methods: Questionnaire adapted from the model developed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) was used to assess the factors among 408 parents. The evaluation was under the 3 Cs: Confidence, Complacency and Convenience. Questions were scored on Likert 4-unit-scale system. The data were analyzed using SPSS and, multivariate analysis was used to further test individual significant variables. Results: Overall, Complacency (2.29) and Convenience (2.11) domains were more pro-vaccine hesitant, than Confidence (1.83) domain. However, none was significantly associated with likelihood of a parent’s hesitancy towards IPV vaccination. But certain individual questions: competence of vaccinators (p = 0.04), confidence that their child will not to be infected with poliomyelitis even when not vaccinated (p = 0.03) and, willingness to vaccinate with IPV when OPV is still in use (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: None of the factors can individually influence acceptance of IPV. However, competence of vaccinators, parental belief and availability of close alternative influenced parental decision to vaccinate.

Cite this paper

Ughasoro, M. , Tagbo, B. and Esangbedo, D. (2015) Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine and Specific Determinants of Vaccine Hesitancy. World Journal of Vaccines, 5, 8-18. doi: 10.4236/wjv.2015.51002.

References

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Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine and Specific Determinants of Vaccine Hesitancy

Read  full  paper  at:

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53352#.VL3NMizQrzE

ABSTRACT

Background: Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine is imminent and may encounter the challenges that face new vaccines especially vaccine hesitancy. The study evaluated factors that may contribute to hesitancy towards IPV. Methods: Questionnaire adapted from the model developed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) was used to assess the factors among 408 parents. The evaluation was under the 3 Cs: Confidence, Complacency and Convenience. Questions were scored on Likert 4-unit-scale system. The data were analyzed using SPSS and, multivariate analysis was used to further test individual significant variables. Results: Overall, Complacency (2.29) and Convenience (2.11) domains were more pro-vaccine hesitant, than Confidence (1.83) domain. However, none was significantly associated with likelihood of a parent’s hesitancy towards IPV vaccination. But certain individual questions: competence of vaccinators (p = 0.04), confidence that their child will not to be infected with poliomyelitis even when not vaccinated (p = 0.03) and, willingness to vaccinate with IPV when OPV is still in use (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy. Conclusions: None of the factors can individually influence acceptance of IPV. However, competence of vaccinators, parental belief and availability of close alternative influenced parental decision to vaccinate.

Cite this paper

Ughasoro, M. , Tagbo, B. and Esangbedo, D. (2015) Introduction of Inactivated Polio Vaccine and Specific Determinants of Vaccine Hesitancy. World Journal of Vaccines, 5, 8-18. doi: 10.4236/wjv.2015.51002.

References

[1] Hajjeh, R.A., Privor-Dumm, L., Edmond, K., O’Loughlin, R.O., Shetty, S., Griffiths, U.K., Bear, A.P., Cohen, A.L., Chandran, A., Schuchat, A., Mulholland, E.K. and Santosham, M. (2010) Supporting New Vaccine Introduction Decisions: Lessons Learned from the Hib Initiative Experience. Vaccine, 28, 7123-7129.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.07.028
[2] Haemophilus Influenza Type b Vaccine Support. Gavi the Vaccine Alliance. http://www.gavi.org/support/nvs/hib/
[3] Abdulkarim, A.A., Ibrahim, R.M., Fawi, A.O., Adebayo, O.A. and Johnson, A.W.B.R. (2011) Vacines and Immunization: The Past, Present and Future in Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics, 38, 186-194.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/njp.v38i4.72382
[4] PAN Advisory Committee on Immunization (2012) Paediatric Association of Nigria (PAN) Recommendation Routine Immunization Schedule for Nigeria Children. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics, 39, 152-158.
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[26] Lagarde, F. (2005) Summary of Public Opinion on Immunization in Canada. Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, 19.                                                                                                 eww150120lx

Diversity and Distribution of Spiders in Southwestern Nigeria

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52643#.VJzImcCAM4

ABSTRACT

The study of diversity and distribution of spiders was carried out at Obafemi Awolowo University, Southwestern Nigeria, in wet and dry seasons between October 2012 and April 2014. Spiders were collected from five different sampling sites in the study area: cultivated land, open field, hill area, house dwelling and aquatic habitat. We found 1824 individuals belonging to 19 different spider families in the study area. 9 families of spiders were present in the hill habitat; 12 families of spiders were present in the open field habitat; 6 families of spiders were present in house habitat; 9 families of spider were present in aquatic habitat. All the 19 families of spiders were present in cultivated habitat. Therefore, cultivated habitat hosted the largest number of spider families in the area of study while house dwellers hosted the least number of spider families. Spiders are evenly distributed among the five habitats in this study and the fifth habitat, teaching and research farm representing cultivated area has the highest distribution of spider species. All the species recorded in Southwestern Nigeria were found in this habitat. In conclusion, 19 different spider families are recorded in Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, during this study. These have enriched the collection of spider in Natural History Museum, Obafemi Awolowo University, Southwestern Nigeria.

Cite this paper

Oyewole, O. and Oyelade, O. (2014) Diversity and Distribution of Spiders in Southwestern Nigeria. Natural Resources, 5, 926-935. doi: 10.4236/nr.2014.515079.

References

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/02-5341                                                                                          eww141226lx

Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of Tuberculosis (TB) Patients in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52612#.VJy8BcCAM4

ABSTRACT

Background: Efforts to combat tuberculosis in Nigeria focus on evaluation of strategies for treatment and prevention, with little attention paid to the impact of the burden of illness and its therapy on the HRQoL of TB patients. This study evaluated the quality of life (QoL) of TB patients in relation to their financial, psychological and social well-being. Method: In 2011, following an active case finding for TB in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria, a structured questionnaire for evaluating HRQoL was distributed to TB patients who had been on treatment in four DOTs centres of the state for at least three months. The questions were to elicit responses that conveyed the respondents’ perspective of the disease. One hundred and eight TB patients (54 males and 54 females) aged 15 – 80 years were studied. Results: Negative emotions including fear, frustration and worry characterized the reactions of all subjects following news of their diagnosis with TB. However, following treatment, 62% of subjects expressed high expectation of being cured. Inability to continue functioning in their roles at home or as heads of households was recorded in 48.1% (52/108) and 59% (23/39) of respondents respectively and contributed to the negative emotions expressed above. Lack of basic supplies such as food and finances to meet personal and family needs constituted the most important socio-economic challenges. Socio-economic status of respondents revealed that 61% had no regular means of income with at least 94% earning less than $50 (8000 naira) a month. Subsistent farmers and petty traders constituted more than 66% of the respondents: 98% obtained less than or equivalent of high school education. Socially, all health workers and 87% of family members were sympathetic and supportive compared to friends, with 42% exhibiting stigmatization. The most frequent forms of support from family members were financial (25%) and provision of food (37%). Up to 28% were regularly prompted by family to take their medication. Conclusion: In the midst of obvious socio-economic challenges confronting TB patients in this study, the initial negative emotions declined following the supportive roles of mainly health care workers and family members. Patients were optimistic of achieving cure at the end of the treatment.

Cite this paper

Asuquo, A. , Pokam, B. , Adindu, A. , Ibeneme, E. and Obot, V. (2014) Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of Tuberculosis (TB) Patients in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Journal of Tuberculosis Research, 2, 199-206. doi: 10.4236/jtr.2014.24024.

References

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[2] Aggarwal, A.N. (2010) Health Related Quality of Life: A Neglected Aspect of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Lung India, 27, 1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-2113.59259
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v3n1p203
[7] Awan, M.S., Waqas, M., Aslam, M.A. and Abbas, F. (2011) Health Related Quality of Life Assessment in Patients with Hepatitis: A Case of Pakistan. Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 1, 1259-1268.
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[9] Brazier, J.E. and Roberts, J.R. (2004) The Estimation of a Preference-Based Index from the SF-12. Medical Care, 42, 851-859. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.mlr.0000135827.18610.0d
[10] Dhingra, V.K. and Rajpal, S. (2003) Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) Scoring in Tuberculosis. Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, 50, 99-104.
[11] Hansel, N.N., Wu, A.W., Chang, B. and Diette, G.B. (2004) Quality of Life in Tuberculosis: Patient and Provider Perspectives. Quality of Life Research, 13, 639-652.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:QURE.0000021317.12945.f0
[12] Chamla, D. (2004) The Assessment of Patients’ Health-Related Quality of Life during Tuberculosis Treatment in Wuhan, China. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 8, 1100-1106.
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[14] Duyan, V., Kurt, B., Aktas, Z., Duyan, G.C. and Kulkul, D.O. (2005) Relationship between Quality of Life and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalised with Tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 9, 1361-1366.
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[16] Rajeswari, R., Balasubramanian, R., Muniyandi, M., Geetharamani, S., Thresa, X. and Venkatesan, P. (1999) Socio- Economic Impact of Tuberculosis on Patients and Family in India. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, 3, 869-877.
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[28] Dion, M.J., Tousignant, P., Bourbeau, J., Menzies, D. and Schwartzman, K. (2004) Feasibility and Reliability of Health-Related Quality of Life Measurements among Tuberculosis Patients. Quality of Life Research, 13, 653-665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:QURE.0000021320.89524.64
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Foliar Epidermal and Pollen Characters of Some Species in the Genus Microcos Linn. in Nigeria

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http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=52549#.VJtpIcCAM4

ABSTRACT

Microcos Linn. (Malvaceae s.l) is a genus made up of about 60 spp. distributed in Asia and Tropical Africa. In West Africa, 8 species have been recorded of which six species have been documented for Nigeria to occur in lowland rainforest. This study is designed to carry out preliminary foliar epidermal and pollen morphological studies with a view to advance the understanding of the taxonomic relationship between and among species in the genus using the Nigerian taxa. The foliar epidermal and pollen characters were investigated by light microscopy. The epidermises are composed of isodiametric, polygonal or irregular cells. Anticlinal walls are straight, curved or un-dulate. All taxa are hypostomatic with anisocytic, paracytic and staurocytic stomata types. The mean stomatal size varies from 13.8 × 13.5 μm in M. barombiensis to 16.0 × 18.0 μm in M. coriacea. The dense distribution of stellate trichomes on the abaxial surface of M. malacocarpa and the absence of crystals in M. oligoneura are diagnostic for these taxa. The pollen grains are small in size (10-25 μm), tricolporate with short colpi, subprolate or prolate. Mean colpi length varies from 15.7 μm in M. iodocarpa to 17.5 μm in M. malacocarpa. The ora size varies from 5.4 μm in M. barombiensis to 12.5 μm in M. malacocarpa. The ambient and ora size are significant in the delimitation of the studied taxa. The two groups obtained from epidermal and pollen characters correlate with those earlier obtained from morphological data.

Cite this paper

Shokefun, E. , Orijemie, E. and Ayodele, A. (2014) Foliar Epidermal and Pollen Characters of Some Species in the Genus Microcos Linn. in Nigeria. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3904-3913. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526409.

References

[1] Chung, R.C.K. (2003) New Taxa and New Combinations of Microcos (Tiliaceae) from Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. Kew Bulletin, 58, 329-349. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4120619
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3767/000651911X619704
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